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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Þorfdr 10II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Þorfinnsdrápa 10’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 241-2.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonÞorfinnsdrápa
91011

Hjalta ‘of Shetlanders’

Hjaltr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar): Shetlander

kennings

Dróttinn Hjalta
‘The lord of Shetlanders ’
   = Þorfinnr

The lord of Shetlanders → Þorfinnr

notes

[1] dróttinn Hjalta ‘the lord of Shetlanders [= Þorfinnr]’: Here Þorfinnr, as also harri Hjaltlands ‘Shetland’s lord’ in st. 12; but in st. 22 dróttinn Hjalta ‘the lord of Shetlanders’ appears to refer to Rǫgnvaldr Brúsason.

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dróttinn ‘The lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

Dróttinn Hjalta
‘The lord of Shetlanders ’
   = Þorfinnr

The lord of Shetlanders → Þorfinnr

notes

[1] dróttinn Hjalta ‘the lord of Shetlanders [= Þorfinnr]’: Here Þorfinnr, as also harri Hjaltlands ‘Shetland’s lord’ in st. 12; but in st. 22 dróttinn Hjalta ‘the lord of Shetlanders’ appears to refer to Rǫgnvaldr Brúsason.

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geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

jalmi geira;
‘the tumult of spears; ’
   = BATTLE

the tumult of spears; → BATTLE
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jalmi ‘the tumult’

jalmr (noun m.): screech, noise

[2] jalmi: salmi Flat, jalmi 48ˣmarg

kennings

jalmi geira;
‘the tumult of spears; ’
   = BATTLE

the tumult of spears; → BATTLE
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ógn ‘of battle-dread’

ógn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): terror, battle < ógnstœrir (noun m.): sweller of battle-dread

kennings

ógnstœrir
‘the sweller of battle-dread ’
   = WARRIOR

the sweller of battle-dread → WARRIOR
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stœrir ‘the sweller’

stœrir (noun m.): increaser < ógnstœrir (noun m.): sweller of battle-dread

kennings

ógnstœrir
‘the sweller of battle-dread ’
   = WARRIOR

the sweller of battle-dread → WARRIOR
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rauð ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

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Írum ‘on Irishmen’

írar (noun m.): Irishmen

notes

[3] Írum ‘on Irishmen’: Orkn ch. 20, perhaps extrapolating from this st., states that Karl’s ranks included supporters from Ireland.

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naut ‘made use’

nýta (verb): enjoy, use

[5] naut: hlaut Flat, naut 48ˣmarg

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und ‘beneath’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

notes

[6] und brezkum skildi ‘beneath a British shield’: Perhaps the shield was a war-trophy captured in a raid on the Bretar or perhaps ‘British’ shields were prized as being particularly fine. On the meaning of brezkr, see Note to st. 14/3.

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brezkum ‘a British’

brezkr (adj.): British

notes

[6] und brezkum skildi ‘beneath a British shield’: Perhaps the shield was a war-trophy captured in a raid on the Bretar or perhaps ‘British’ shields were prized as being particularly fine. On the meaning of brezkr, see Note to st. 14/3.

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skildi ‘shield’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield

notes

[6] und brezkum skildi ‘beneath a British shield’: Perhaps the shield was a war-trophy captured in a raid on the Bretar or perhaps ‘British’ shields were prized as being particularly fine. On the meaning of brezkr, see Note to st. 14/3.

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Hlǫðvis ‘Hlǫðvir’s’

Hlǫðvir (noun m.): Hlǫðvir

[7] Hlǫðvis: ‘hloðvers’ Flat, R702ˣ, Hlǫðvis 48ˣmarg

kennings

frændi Hlǫðvis
‘Hlǫðvir’s kinsman ’
   = Þorfinnr

Hlǫðvir’s kinsman → Þorfinnr

notes

[7] frændi Hlǫðvis ‘Hlǫðvir’s kinsman [= Þorfinnr]’: Hlǫðvir Þorfinnsson was paternal grandfather of Þorfinnr. There were few traditions about his career, to judge from Orkn (ÍF 34, 24).

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frændi ‘kinsman’

frændi (noun m.): kinsman, male relative

kennings

frændi Hlǫðvis
‘Hlǫðvir’s kinsman ’
   = Þorfinnr

Hlǫðvir’s kinsman → Þorfinnr

notes

[7] frændi Hlǫðvis ‘Hlǫðvir’s kinsman [= Þorfinnr]’: Hlǫðvir Þorfinnsson was paternal grandfather of Þorfinnr. There were few traditions about his career, to judge from Orkn (ÍF 34, 24).

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[8] ok: enn Flat, R702ˣ

notes

[8] ok tók brenna ‘and began burning’: (a) The cl. follows frændi Hlǫðvis hendi hermenn ‘Hlǫðvir’s kinsman captured warriors’ so that hermenn may be the understood object of brenna inf. ‘burning’, hence ‘Þorfinnr captured [the surviving] warriors and burned [the slain]’, although burning seems usually to be reserved for evil-doers, heathens and insurrectionists (cf. the reference to the burning of the Wendish dead in Arn Magndr 8, also Fidjestøl 1982, 206). Brenna could alternatively refer to the burning of dwellings, and hence anticipate st. 11. (b) The variant enn tóksk senna (R702ˣ) could mean ‘yet again battle began’ (cf. tóksk morð af því ‘killing started up from that’ in Sigv Tryggfl 1/2I), since senna ‘verbal contest’ can stand alone to mean ‘battle’ (see LP). However, a statement that battle began would be inappropriate here.

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tók ‘began’

2. taka (verb): take

[8] tók brenna: tóksk senna R702ˣ

notes

[8] ok tók brenna ‘and began burning’: (a) The cl. follows frændi Hlǫðvis hendi hermenn ‘Hlǫðvir’s kinsman captured warriors’ so that hermenn may be the understood object of brenna inf. ‘burning’, hence ‘Þorfinnr captured [the surviving] warriors and burned [the slain]’, although burning seems usually to be reserved for evil-doers, heathens and insurrectionists (cf. the reference to the burning of the Wendish dead in Arn Magndr 8, also Fidjestøl 1982, 206). Brenna could alternatively refer to the burning of dwellings, and hence anticipate st. 11. (b) The variant enn tóksk senna (R702ˣ) could mean ‘yet again battle began’ (cf. tóksk morð af því ‘killing started up from that’ in Sigv Tryggfl 1/2I), since senna ‘verbal contest’ can stand alone to mean ‘battle’ (see LP). However, a statement that battle began would be inappropriate here.

Close

brenna ‘burning’

2. brenna (verb; °brennr/brenn; brann, brunnu; brunninn): (strong, intransitive)

[8] tók brenna: tóksk senna R702ˣ

notes

[8] ok tók brenna ‘and began burning’: (a) The cl. follows frændi Hlǫðvis hendi hermenn ‘Hlǫðvir’s kinsman captured warriors’ so that hermenn may be the understood object of brenna inf. ‘burning’, hence ‘Þorfinnr captured [the surviving] warriors and burned [the slain]’, although burning seems usually to be reserved for evil-doers, heathens and insurrectionists (cf. the reference to the burning of the Wendish dead in Arn Magndr 8, also Fidjestøl 1982, 206). Brenna could alternatively refer to the burning of dwellings, and hence anticipate st. 11. (b) The variant enn tóksk senna (R702ˣ) could mean ‘yet again battle began’ (cf. tóksk morð af því ‘killing started up from that’ in Sigv Tryggfl 1/2I), since senna ‘verbal contest’ can stand alone to mean ‘battle’ (see LP). However, a statement that battle began would be inappropriate here.

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Exactly as for st. 9, which st. 10 follows directly.

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