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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 9VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 9’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 14-15.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
8910

Yfirmanni ‘the superior’

yfirmaðr (noun m.): superior

kennings

yfirmanni allrar alþýðu lærðra —
‘the superior of the whole multitude of learned men — ’
   = BISHOP

the whole multitude of learned men — → CLERICS
the superior of CLERICS → BISHOP
Close

unnin ‘the finished’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

Close

kalla ‘call’

kalla (verb): call

Close

lærðra ‘of learned men’

2. læra (verb): learned

[2] lærðra: lærðrar Bb

kennings

yfirmanni allrar alþýðu lærðra —
‘the superior of the whole multitude of learned men — ’
   = BISHOP

the whole multitude of learned men — → CLERICS
the superior of CLERICS → BISHOP
Close

lærðra ‘of learned men’

2. læra (verb): learned

[2] lærðra: lærðrar Bb

kennings

yfirmanni allrar alþýðu lærðra —
‘the superior of the whole multitude of learned men — ’
   = BISHOP

the whole multitude of learned men — → CLERICS
the superior of CLERICS → BISHOP
Close

Jóan ‘Jón’

Jón (noun m.): John, Jón

notes

[3] svá kǫllum Jóan ‘thus we [I] call Jón’: The svá refers back to the elaborate kenning for bishop in ll. 1, 2, 3, 4, a compliment to the listening and recently consecrated first archbishop of Trondheim, Jón Birgisson.

Close

kǫllum ‘we [I] call’

kalla (verb): call

[3] kǫllum: kalla Bb

notes

[3] svá kǫllum Jóan ‘thus we [I] call Jón’: The svá refers back to the elaborate kenning for bishop in ll. 1, 2, 3, 4, a compliment to the listening and recently consecrated first archbishop of Trondheim, Jón Birgisson.

Close

svá ‘thus’

svá (adv.): so, thus

[3] svá: ek Bb

notes

[3] svá kǫllum Jóan ‘thus we [I] call Jón’: The svá refers back to the elaborate kenning for bishop in ll. 1, 2, 3, 4, a compliment to the listening and recently consecrated first archbishop of Trondheim, Jón Birgisson.

Close

allrar ‘of the whole’

allr (adj.): all

kennings

yfirmanni allrar alþýðu lærðra —
‘the superior of the whole multitude of learned men — ’
   = BISHOP

the whole multitude of learned men — → CLERICS
the superior of CLERICS → BISHOP
Close

allrar ‘of the whole’

allr (adj.): all

kennings

yfirmanni allrar alþýðu lærðra —
‘the superior of the whole multitude of learned men — ’
   = BISHOP

the whole multitude of learned men — → CLERICS
the superior of CLERICS → BISHOP
Close

alþýðu ‘multitude’

1. alþýða (noun f.; °-u): all the people

kennings

yfirmanni allrar alþýðu lærðra —
‘the superior of the whole multitude of learned men — ’
   = BISHOP

the whole multitude of learned men — → CLERICS
the superior of CLERICS → BISHOP
Close

alþýðu ‘multitude’

1. alþýða (noun f.; °-u): all the people

kennings

yfirmanni allrar alþýðu lærðra —
‘the superior of the whole multitude of learned men — ’
   = BISHOP

the whole multitude of learned men — → CLERICS
the superior of CLERICS → BISHOP
Close

Hefjum ‘We lift up’

hefja (verb): lift, start

[5] Hefjum: hófum Bb

notes

[5] hefjum hendr ‘we lift up hands’: The gesture was associated with prayer and would have been familiar from Scripture (Ps. XXVII.2, LXII.5, CXXXIII.3; Lam. III.41; 1 Tim. II.8). The psalmist’s formula appears in a l. from the widely-used matins hymn Rerum creator optime (AH 51, 28; Ordo Nidr., 185, 195, 198): Mentes manusque tollimus ‘We lift up our minds and our hands’. Liturgical books commonly use the rubric manus elevans. The Bb reading hróðr is adopted in Skj B and Skald, hence hefjum hróðr ... fagran ‘I begin my fine poem’ (ll. 5, 8)

Close

hendr ‘hands’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

[5] hendr: hróðr Bb

notes

[5] hefjum hendr ‘we lift up hands’: The gesture was associated with prayer and would have been familiar from Scripture (Ps. XXVII.2, LXII.5, CXXXIII.3; Lam. III.41; 1 Tim. II.8). The psalmist’s formula appears in a l. from the widely-used matins hymn Rerum creator optime (AH 51, 28; Ordo Nidr., 185, 195, 198): Mentes manusque tollimus ‘We lift up our minds and our hands’. Liturgical books commonly use the rubric manus elevans. The Bb reading hróðr is adopted in Skj B and Skald, hence hefjum hróðr ... fagran ‘I begin my fine poem’ (ll. 5, 8)

Close

vin ‘friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

kennings

fagran vin tyggja rǫðuls;
‘the beautiful friend of the king of the sun; ’
   = Óláfr

the king of the sun; → God
the beautiful friend of GOD → Óláfr

notes

[6] vin tyggja rǫðuls ‘friend of the king of the sun [= God > = Óláfr]’: The kenning for Óláfr has associations with both the skaldic and Lat. traditions. The Scriptural amicus Dei ‘friend of God’ (Judith VIII.22; Wisd. VII.27; Jas. II.23), translated as guðs vinr ‘God’s friend’ in ON, became a commonplace in hagiography. In skaldic poetry it was customary to praise a jarl or lesser chieftain by calling him the close friend or confidant of a more powerful man (see Meissner, 362); here Einarr emphasises Óláfr’s closeness to God. Cf. spjalli lausnara ‘confidant of the Saviour’ (30/2) and vinr lausnara ‘friend of the Saviour’ (62/5, 7). The God-kenning tyggi rǫðuls ‘king of the sun’ echoes the sun-imagery of the preceding sts.

Close

rǫðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

fagran vin tyggja rǫðuls;
‘the beautiful friend of the king of the sun; ’
   = Óláfr

the king of the sun; → God
the beautiful friend of GOD → Óláfr

notes

[6] vin tyggja rǫðuls ‘friend of the king of the sun [= God > = Óláfr]’: The kenning for Óláfr has associations with both the skaldic and Lat. traditions. The Scriptural amicus Dei ‘friend of God’ (Judith VIII.22; Wisd. VII.27; Jas. II.23), translated as guðs vinr ‘God’s friend’ in ON, became a commonplace in hagiography. In skaldic poetry it was customary to praise a jarl or lesser chieftain by calling him the close friend or confidant of a more powerful man (see Meissner, 362); here Einarr emphasises Óláfr’s closeness to God. Cf. spjalli lausnara ‘confidant of the Saviour’ (30/2) and vinr lausnara ‘friend of the Saviour’ (62/5, 7). The God-kenning tyggi rǫðuls ‘king of the sun’ echoes the sun-imagery of the preceding sts.

Close

rǫðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

fagran vin tyggja rǫðuls;
‘the beautiful friend of the king of the sun; ’
   = Óláfr

the king of the sun; → God
the beautiful friend of GOD → Óláfr

notes

[6] vin tyggja rǫðuls ‘friend of the king of the sun [= God > = Óláfr]’: The kenning for Óláfr has associations with both the skaldic and Lat. traditions. The Scriptural amicus Dei ‘friend of God’ (Judith VIII.22; Wisd. VII.27; Jas. II.23), translated as guðs vinr ‘God’s friend’ in ON, became a commonplace in hagiography. In skaldic poetry it was customary to praise a jarl or lesser chieftain by calling him the close friend or confidant of a more powerful man (see Meissner, 362); here Einarr emphasises Óláfr’s closeness to God. Cf. spjalli lausnara ‘confidant of the Saviour’ (30/2) and vinr lausnara ‘friend of the Saviour’ (62/5, 7). The God-kenning tyggi rǫðuls ‘king of the sun’ echoes the sun-imagery of the preceding sts.

Close

tyggja ‘of the king’

tyggi (noun m.): prince, sovereign

kennings

fagran vin tyggja rǫðuls;
‘the beautiful friend of the king of the sun; ’
   = Óláfr

the king of the sun; → God
the beautiful friend of GOD → Óláfr

notes

[6] vin tyggja rǫðuls ‘friend of the king of the sun [= God > = Óláfr]’: The kenning for Óláfr has associations with both the skaldic and Lat. traditions. The Scriptural amicus Dei ‘friend of God’ (Judith VIII.22; Wisd. VII.27; Jas. II.23), translated as guðs vinr ‘God’s friend’ in ON, became a commonplace in hagiography. In skaldic poetry it was customary to praise a jarl or lesser chieftain by calling him the close friend or confidant of a more powerful man (see Meissner, 362); here Einarr emphasises Óláfr’s closeness to God. Cf. spjalli lausnara ‘confidant of the Saviour’ (30/2) and vinr lausnara ‘friend of the Saviour’ (62/5, 7). The God-kenning tyggi rǫðuls ‘king of the sun’ echoes the sun-imagery of the preceding sts.

Close

tyggja ‘of the king’

tyggi (noun m.): prince, sovereign

kennings

fagran vin tyggja rǫðuls;
‘the beautiful friend of the king of the sun; ’
   = Óláfr

the king of the sun; → God
the beautiful friend of GOD → Óláfr

notes

[6] vin tyggja rǫðuls ‘friend of the king of the sun [= God > = Óláfr]’: The kenning for Óláfr has associations with both the skaldic and Lat. traditions. The Scriptural amicus Dei ‘friend of God’ (Judith VIII.22; Wisd. VII.27; Jas. II.23), translated as guðs vinr ‘God’s friend’ in ON, became a commonplace in hagiography. In skaldic poetry it was customary to praise a jarl or lesser chieftain by calling him the close friend or confidant of a more powerful man (see Meissner, 362); here Einarr emphasises Óláfr’s closeness to God. Cf. spjalli lausnara ‘confidant of the Saviour’ (30/2) and vinr lausnara ‘friend of the Saviour’ (62/5, 7). The God-kenning tyggi rǫðuls ‘king of the sun’ echoes the sun-imagery of the preceding sts.

Close

vex ‘increases’

vaxa (verb): grow, increase

[7] vex: vegs Bb

Close

þars ‘where’

þar (adv.): there

Close

hvílir ‘rests’

2. hvíla (verb): rest

Close

heilagr ‘the holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

[8] heilagr: corrected from ‘heilag’ Flat

Close

fagran ‘the beautiful’

fagr (adj.; °fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr): fair, beautiful

kennings

fagran vin tyggja rǫðuls;
‘the beautiful friend of the king of the sun; ’
   = Óláfr

the king of the sun; → God
the beautiful friend of GOD → Óláfr
Close

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