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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gsind Hákdr 8I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 168.

Guthormr sindriHákonardrápa
78

Hræddr ‘in dread’

1. hræddr (adj.): afraid

Close

hjǫrva ‘of swords’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

[1] hjǫrva: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, Flat, hjarta Kˣ, F, ‘[...]arta’ 39

kennings

raddar hjǫrva
‘of the voice of swords ’
   = BATTLE

the voice of swords → BATTLE

notes

[1] raddar hjǫrva ‘of the voice of swords [BATTLE]’: This gen.-case phrase can be construed in various ways, each with merits and demerits. (a) In this edn it is treated as governed by hræddr, hence ‘afraid of battle’. Although hræddr is not normally followed by a gen. phrase, cf. gen. constructions meaning ‘brave in battle’ (Anon Óldr 1/1-2 and Note) and other adj. + gen. constructions in NS §§136-7; this is an appropriate description for Hákon’s opponents. (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 92-3; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; followed in Hkr 1991) reads the phrase as part of a kenning þverrir malma raddar hjǫrva ‘diminisher of metals of the voice of swords [BATTLE > WEAPONS > WARRIOR]’. Finnur (1884, 93) notes that while malma can stand alone with an agentive noun such overladen kennings appear to be within Guthormr’s style. (c) Kock (NN §252, followed by ÍF 26) links the phrase to herr ‘army’, thus ‘army of battle’, citing analogues in OE poetry. Such a locution would be uncharacteristic of skaldic style, though the possibility of OE influence cannot be excluded (see Note to l. 8), and comparable circumlocutions are attested in later skaldic poetry, e.g. Mark Eirdr 19/1II heiðinn herr hǫmlu vígs ‘heathen host of the staff of battle [SPEAR]’, and cf. Introduction to Sturl HrafnII.

Close

raddar ‘of the voice’

rǫdd (noun f.; °raddar, dat. -/u; raddir): voice

[1] raddar: ‘[...]ddar’ 325IX 1 a

kennings

raddar hjǫrva
‘of the voice of swords ’
   = BATTLE

the voice of swords → BATTLE

notes

[1] raddar hjǫrva ‘of the voice of swords [BATTLE]’: This gen.-case phrase can be construed in various ways, each with merits and demerits. (a) In this edn it is treated as governed by hræddr, hence ‘afraid of battle’. Although hræddr is not normally followed by a gen. phrase, cf. gen. constructions meaning ‘brave in battle’ (Anon Óldr 1/1-2 and Note) and other adj. + gen. constructions in NS §§136-7; this is an appropriate description for Hákon’s opponents. (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 92-3; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; followed in Hkr 1991) reads the phrase as part of a kenning þverrir malma raddar hjǫrva ‘diminisher of metals of the voice of swords [BATTLE > WEAPONS > WARRIOR]’. Finnur (1884, 93) notes that while malma can stand alone with an agentive noun such overladen kennings appear to be within Guthormr’s style. (c) Kock (NN §252, followed by ÍF 26) links the phrase to herr ‘army’, thus ‘army of battle’, citing analogues in OE poetry. Such a locution would be uncharacteristic of skaldic style, though the possibility of OE influence cannot be excluded (see Note to l. 8), and comparable circumlocutions are attested in later skaldic poetry, e.g. Mark Eirdr 19/1II heiðinn herr hǫmlu vígs ‘heathen host of the staff of battle [SPEAR]’, and cf. Introduction to Sturl HrafnII.

Close

malma ‘of metal weapons’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal

kennings

þverri malma;
‘the diminisher of metal weapons; ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the diminisher of metal weapons; → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

þverri ‘the diminisher’

þverrir (noun m.): dminisher

[2] þverri: þverrði 53, ‘[...]’ 325IX 1 a

kennings

þverri malma;
‘the diminisher of metal weapons; ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the diminisher of metal weapons; → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

róg ‘of the strife’

róg (noun n.; °-s): strife, slander < rógeisa (noun f.)

[3] róg‑: ‘[...]g‑’ 325IX 1 a

kennings

ræsir rógeisu
‘the impeller of the strife-fire ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the strife-fire → SWORD
the impeller of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

róg ‘of the strife’

róg (noun n.; °-s): strife, slander < rógeisa (noun f.)

[3] róg‑: ‘[...]g‑’ 325IX 1 a

kennings

ræsir rógeisu
‘the impeller of the strife-fire ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the strife-fire → SWORD
the impeller of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

eisu ‘fire’

1. eisa (noun f.; °; -ur): flame, ember < rógeisa (noun f.)

[3] ‑eisu: ‘[...]isa’ 39

kennings

ræsir rógeisu
‘the impeller of the strife-fire ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the strife-fire → SWORD
the impeller of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

eisu ‘fire’

1. eisa (noun f.; °; -ur): flame, ember < rógeisa (noun f.)

[3] ‑eisu: ‘[...]isa’ 39

kennings

ræsir rógeisu
‘the impeller of the strife-fire ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the strife-fire → SWORD
the impeller of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

gekk ‘advanced’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[3] gekk: om. 325IX 1 a

Close

ræsir ‘the impeller’

ræsir (noun m.): ruler

kennings

ræsir rógeisu
‘the impeller of the strife-fire ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the strife-fire → SWORD
the impeller of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

merkjum ‘of the standards’

1. merki (noun n.; °-s: -): banner, sign

[4] merkjum: merkin 325IX 1 a

Close

geira ‘’

Close

Gerra ‘does not’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[5] Gerra: geira 53, Bb, ‘gei[...]’ 325IX 1 a, ‘geyrra’ Flat

notes

[5, 6] gerra hlífa sér ‘does not protect himself’: The pres. tense here most probably has habitual or frequentative aspect, referring to Hákon’s ongoing fearlessness (and indicating that Hákdr was composed during the king’s lifetime: see Introduction). Lines such as these, as also ll. 7-8, could have made up whole or part of a stef ‘refrain’ for the drápa. Less likely, though not excluded, is a pres. historic tense, referring to the king’s courage in these specific raids.

Close

gramr ‘The king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Gramr jǫfra
‘The king of princes ’
   = Hákon

The king of princes → Hákon

notes

[5, 7] gramr jǫfra ‘the king of princes [= Hákon]’: Cf. Arn Þorfdr 15/2II konungr jarla ‘king among jarls’, and Note. The placing of jǫfra ‘of princes’ produces a complicated word order, and an awkward caesura in the Type B-line (l. 7). Jǫfra is taken instead with hinns, hence hinn jǫfra, es ‘the one among princes, who’, in Skj B and ÍF 26, but this is no less problematic.

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[5] í: ‘[...]’ 325IX 1 a

Close

snerru ‘the onslaught’

1. snerra (noun f.; °-u): onslaught

[5] snerru: ‘[...]erru’ 325IX 1 a, snæru Bb

kennings

snerru geirvífa,
‘the onslaught of spear-women, ’
   = BATTLE

spear-women, → VALKYRIES
the onslaught of VALKYRIES → BATTLE
Close

geir ‘of spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirvíf (noun n.)geirr (noun m.): spear < geirfífa (noun f.)geirr (noun m.): spear < geiríma (noun f.)

kennings

snerru geirvífa,
‘the onslaught of spear-women, ’
   = BATTLE

spear-women, → VALKYRIES
the onslaught of VALKYRIES → BATTLE
Close

geir ‘of spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirvíf (noun n.)geirr (noun m.): spear < geirfífa (noun f.)geirr (noun m.): spear < geiríma (noun f.)

kennings

snerru geirvífa,
‘the onslaught of spear-women, ’
   = BATTLE

spear-women, → VALKYRIES
the onslaught of VALKYRIES → BATTLE
Close

vífa ‘women’

víf (noun n.): woman, wife < geirvíf (noun n.)

[6] ‑vífa: ‑fífa J1ˣ, ‑íma Flat

kennings

snerru geirvífa,
‘the onslaught of spear-women, ’
   = BATTLE

spear-women, → VALKYRIES
the onslaught of VALKYRIES → BATTLE
Close

vífa ‘women’

víf (noun n.): woman, wife < geirvíf (noun n.)

[6] ‑vífa: ‑fífa J1ˣ, ‑íma Flat

kennings

snerru geirvífa,
‘the onslaught of spear-women, ’
   = BATTLE

spear-women, → VALKYRIES
the onslaught of VALKYRIES → BATTLE
Close

sér ‘himself’

sik (pron.; °gen. sín, dat. sér): (refl. pron.)

notes

[5, 6] gerra hlífa sér ‘does not protect himself’: The pres. tense here most probably has habitual or frequentative aspect, referring to Hákon’s ongoing fearlessness (and indicating that Hákdr was composed during the king’s lifetime: see Introduction). Lines such as these, as also ll. 7-8, could have made up whole or part of a stef ‘refrain’ for the drápa. Less likely, though not excluded, is a pres. historic tense, referring to the king’s courage in these specific raids.

Close

hlífa ‘protect’

hlífa (verb): protect

[6] hlífa: ‘[...]ifa’ 39

notes

[5, 6] gerra hlífa sér ‘does not protect himself’: The pres. tense here most probably has habitual or frequentative aspect, referring to Hákon’s ongoing fearlessness (and indicating that Hákdr was composed during the king’s lifetime: see Introduction). Lines such as these, as also ll. 7-8, could have made up whole or part of a stef ‘refrain’ for the drápa. Less likely, though not excluded, is a pres. historic tense, referring to the king’s courage in these specific raids.

Close

ófirrinn ‘’

Close

yfrinn ‘an outstanding’

yfrinn (adj.): outstanding

[7] yfrinn: ‘vfirrinn’ 39, yfir Flat

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND
Close

jǫfra ‘of princes’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

kennings

Gramr jǫfra
‘The king of princes ’
   = Hákon

The king of princes → Hákon

notes

[5, 7] gramr jǫfra ‘the king of princes [= Hákon]’: Cf. Arn Þorfdr 15/2II konungr jarla ‘king among jarls’, and Note. The placing of jǫfra ‘of princes’ produces a complicated word order, and an awkward caesura in the Type B-line (l. 7). Jǫfra is taken instead with hinns, hence hinn jǫfra, es ‘the one among princes, who’, in Skj B and ÍF 26, but this is no less problematic.

Close

óskvænan ‘’

(unknown)

Close

óls ‘of the affliction’

2. ól (noun n.): ?troll-woman, affliction

[8] óls kvánar: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, oskvánar Kˣ, ‘os kvanar’ 39, ósk kvánar F, óðs kvánar 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, óskvænan Flat

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

Close

óls ‘of the affliction’

2. ól (noun n.): ?troll-woman, affliction

[8] óls kvánar: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, oskvánar Kˣ, ‘os kvanar’ 39, ósk kvánar F, óðs kvánar 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, óskvænan Flat

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

Close

óls ‘of the affliction’

2. ól (noun n.): ?troll-woman, affliction

[8] óls kvánar: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, oskvánar Kˣ, ‘os kvanar’ 39, ósk kvánar F, óðs kvánar 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, óskvænan Flat

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

Close

kvánar ‘of the wife’

kván (noun f.; °-ar): wife

[8] óls kvánar: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, oskvánar Kˣ, ‘os kvanar’ 39, ósk kvánar F, óðs kvánar 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, óskvænan Flat

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

Close

kvánar ‘of the wife’

kván (noun f.; °-ar): wife

[8] óls kvánar: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, oskvánar Kˣ, ‘os kvanar’ 39, ósk kvánar F, óðs kvánar 61, 53, 325IX 1 a, Bb, óskvænan Flat

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

Close

byr ‘fair wind’

byrr (noun m.; °-jar/-s; -ir, acc. -i/-u(SigrVal 188¹³)): favourable wind

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

Close

mána ‘of the moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

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mána ‘of the moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

Close

mána ‘of the moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon

kennings

yfrinn byr kvánar óls mána.
‘an outstanding fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon.’
   = MIND

the affliction of the moon. → GIANT
the wife of the GIANT → GIANTESS
an outstanding fair wind of GIANTESS → MIND

notes

[8] byr kvánar óls mána ‘fair wind of the wife of the affliction of the moon [GIANT > GIANTESS > MIND]’: This kenning is clearly of the well-known type ‘wind of the giantess [MIND/THOUGHT]’, but it has caused difficulty because of the significant variance in ms. readings. (a) The explanation adopted in this edn is due to Björn Magnússon Ólsen (1886, 195-203, followed by ÍF 26). The reading óls (found only in J1ˣ, J2ˣ) is adopted. This is gen. sg. of the rare ól n., whose etymological sense is ‘pestilence, affliction’ (see AEW: ól 2 and Note to ÞSkall Valfl 1/8II, where it appears to have the meaning ‘troll-woman’). The kenning apparently alludes to the Mánagarmr ‘hound of the moon’, a giant in the likeness of a wolf who will swallow the sun (and/or moon) according to Gylf (SnE 2005, 14; cf. ÍF 26), although the evidence for this figure prior to SnE is equivocal (SnE 2005, 172). (b) Finnur Jónsson (1884, 93; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: óskkvôn, máni; Skj B, followed by Skald; Hkr 1991) instead selects ósk ‘wish’, the reading of F, and reads byr óskkvánar mána ‘fair wind of the desired/desiring woman of Máni/the moon [GIANTESS > MIND]’, but corruption of this easily interpreted reading to óls or óðs would be unlikely, and there is no direct evidence that Máni ‘moon’ had giant status (SnE 2005, 13; Björn Magnússon Ólsen 1886, 196-200; ÍF 26). See Egill St 13/2V (Eg 84) for a similar, also problematic, context containing the words byr and mána .

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Hákon engages forces led by Gamli and the other surviving sons of Eiríkr in a land-battle at Rastarkálfr on the island of Fræði (Frei, Møre og Romsdal), and has the victory.

For the battle of Rastarkálfr (c. 955), see also Eyv Lv 6 and ÞSjár Þórdr 2 .

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