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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 22I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 22’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 922.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
212223

Rand ‘of the shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim < randsík (noun n.)

[1] Rand‑: rann Bb(112ra), Bb(101vb), Rán 61, 54, rans Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] randsíks ‘of the shield-whitefish [SWORD]’: (a) This edn follows Kock (Skald) in emending to rand ‘shield’. Síkr is houting, a type of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus; CVC: síkr; Þul Fiska 2/3III), and together the two elements produce a standard sword-kenning (cf. Meissner 154). Like other analyses this results in the finite verb bað ‘ordered’ in l. 2 being preceded by both its subject and its object, a word order that is abnormal in standard dróttkvætt but not in Rst; see Note to st. 7/1-4. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends instead to Ránsóks ‘Rán-fire’, i.e. ‘sea-fire [GOLD]’. (c) Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) assumes that síkr means fire, but this does not seem to be the case. — [1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

Rand ‘of the shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim < randsík (noun n.)

[1] Rand‑: rann Bb(112ra), Bb(101vb), Rán 61, 54, rans Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] randsíks ‘of the shield-whitefish [SWORD]’: (a) This edn follows Kock (Skald) in emending to rand ‘shield’. Síkr is houting, a type of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus; CVC: síkr; Þul Fiska 2/3III), and together the two elements produce a standard sword-kenning (cf. Meissner 154). Like other analyses this results in the finite verb bað ‘ordered’ in l. 2 being preceded by both its subject and its object, a word order that is abnormal in standard dróttkvætt but not in Rst; see Note to st. 7/1-4. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends instead to Ránsóks ‘Rán-fire’, i.e. ‘sea-fire [GOLD]’. (c) Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) assumes that síkr means fire, but this does not seem to be the case. — [1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

Rand ‘of the shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim < randsík (noun n.)

[1] Rand‑: rann Bb(112ra), Bb(101vb), Rán 61, 54, rans Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] randsíks ‘of the shield-whitefish [SWORD]’: (a) This edn follows Kock (Skald) in emending to rand ‘shield’. Síkr is houting, a type of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus; CVC: síkr; Þul Fiska 2/3III), and together the two elements produce a standard sword-kenning (cf. Meissner 154). Like other analyses this results in the finite verb bað ‘ordered’ in l. 2 being preceded by both its subject and its object, a word order that is abnormal in standard dróttkvætt but not in Rst; see Note to st. 7/1-4. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends instead to Ránsóks ‘Rán-fire’, i.e. ‘sea-fire [GOLD]’. (c) Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) assumes that síkr means fire, but this does not seem to be the case. — [1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

Rand ‘of the shield’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim < randsík (noun n.)

[1] Rand‑: rann Bb(112ra), Bb(101vb), Rán 61, 54, rans Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] randsíks ‘of the shield-whitefish [SWORD]’: (a) This edn follows Kock (Skald) in emending to rand ‘shield’. Síkr is houting, a type of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus; CVC: síkr; Þul Fiska 2/3III), and together the two elements produce a standard sword-kenning (cf. Meissner 154). Like other analyses this results in the finite verb bað ‘ordered’ in l. 2 being preceded by both its subject and its object, a word order that is abnormal in standard dróttkvætt but not in Rst; see Note to st. 7/1-4. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends instead to Ránsóks ‘Rán-fire’, i.e. ‘sea-fire [GOLD]’. (c) Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) assumes that síkr means fire, but this does not seem to be the case. — [1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

síks ‘whitefish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < randsík (noun n.)

[1] ‑síks remmi‑: so 61, harri reins Bb(112ra), 54, harri róins or harri reins Bb(101vb), ríki remmi Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] randsíks ‘of the shield-whitefish [SWORD]’: (a) This edn follows Kock (Skald) in emending to rand ‘shield’. Síkr is houting, a type of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus; CVC: síkr; Þul Fiska 2/3III), and together the two elements produce a standard sword-kenning (cf. Meissner 154). Like other analyses this results in the finite verb bað ‘ordered’ in l. 2 being preceded by both its subject and its object, a word order that is abnormal in standard dróttkvætt but not in Rst; see Note to st. 7/1-4. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends instead to Ránsóks ‘Rán-fire’, i.e. ‘sea-fire [GOLD]’. (c) Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) assumes that síkr means fire, but this does not seem to be the case. — [1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

síks ‘whitefish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < randsík (noun n.)

[1] ‑síks remmi‑: so 61, harri reins Bb(112ra), 54, harri róins or harri reins Bb(101vb), ríki remmi Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] randsíks ‘of the shield-whitefish [SWORD]’: (a) This edn follows Kock (Skald) in emending to rand ‘shield’. Síkr is houting, a type of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus; CVC: síkr; Þul Fiska 2/3III), and together the two elements produce a standard sword-kenning (cf. Meissner 154). Like other analyses this results in the finite verb bað ‘ordered’ in l. 2 being preceded by both its subject and its object, a word order that is abnormal in standard dróttkvætt but not in Rst; see Note to st. 7/1-4. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends instead to Ránsóks ‘Rán-fire’, i.e. ‘sea-fire [GOLD]’. (c) Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) assumes that síkr means fire, but this does not seem to be the case. — [1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

síks ‘whitefish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < randsík (noun n.)

[1] ‑síks remmi‑: so 61, harri reins Bb(112ra), 54, harri róins or harri reins Bb(101vb), ríki remmi Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] randsíks ‘of the shield-whitefish [SWORD]’: (a) This edn follows Kock (Skald) in emending to rand ‘shield’. Síkr is houting, a type of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus; CVC: síkr; Þul Fiska 2/3III), and together the two elements produce a standard sword-kenning (cf. Meissner 154). Like other analyses this results in the finite verb bað ‘ordered’ in l. 2 being preceded by both its subject and its object, a word order that is abnormal in standard dróttkvætt but not in Rst; see Note to st. 7/1-4. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends instead to Ránsóks ‘Rán-fire’, i.e. ‘sea-fire [GOLD]’. (c) Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) assumes that síkr means fire, but this does not seem to be the case. — [1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

síks ‘whitefish’

sík (noun n.; °-s; -): fish, ?channel < randsík (noun n.)

[1] ‑síks remmi‑: so 61, harri reins Bb(112ra), 54, harri róins or harri reins Bb(101vb), ríki remmi Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] randsíks ‘of the shield-whitefish [SWORD]’: (a) This edn follows Kock (Skald) in emending to rand ‘shield’. Síkr is houting, a type of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus; CVC: síkr; Þul Fiska 2/3III), and together the two elements produce a standard sword-kenning (cf. Meissner 154). Like other analyses this results in the finite verb bað ‘ordered’ in l. 2 being preceded by both its subject and its object, a word order that is abnormal in standard dróttkvætt but not in Rst; see Note to st. 7/1-4. (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends instead to Ránsóks ‘Rán-fire’, i.e. ‘sea-fire [GOLD]’. (c) Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) assumes that síkr means fire, but this does not seem to be the case. — [1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

remmi ‘the forceful’

remmi- ((prefix)): forceful, strong < remmilaukr (noun m.)

[1] ‑síks remmi‑: so 61, harri reins Bb(112ra), 54, harri róins or harri reins Bb(101vb), ríki remmi Flat

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

lauka ‘masts’

laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast < remmilaukr (noun m.)

kennings

remmilauka randsíks
‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish ’
   = WARRIORS

the shield-whitefish → SWORD
the forceful masts of the SWORD → WARRIORS

notes

[1] remmilauka randsíks ‘the forceful masts of the shield-whitefish [SWORD > WARRIORS]’: This line from 61 (partly supported by Flat) is preferable to the highly problematical line in Bb(112ra) (partly supported by 54), rann harri reins lauka. The latter line is unmetrical and also lacks the oddhending in the penultimate syllable which is usual in Rst (and dróttkvætt generally), although that is also true of l. 3; cf. M. Kristensen (1928, 276). Further, the line apparently only makes sense when construed as part of Harri, rógsvellir, bað fella stœrri lauka aska Rán-reins ‘The ruler, strife-sweller [WARRIOR], ordered the larger masts of the ash-trees of the land of Rán <goddess> [SEA > SHIPS > MEN] to be killed’, but ‘larger masts’ is unexpected, the kenning Rán-rein ‘land of Rán [SEA]’ only works with tmesis, and the general meaning of the stanza is not consonant with the prose context. In contrast the line from 61 is satisfactory both on metrical and contextual grounds.

Close

róg ‘strife’

róg (noun n.; °-s): strife, slander < rógsvellir (noun m.): [strife-sweller]

[2] rógsvellir: ‘rauk spellir’ Flat

kennings

Strangr rógsvellir
‘The tough strife-sweller ’
   = WARRIOR = Eiríkr

The tough strife-sweller → WARRIOR = Eiríkr
Close

svellir ‘sweller’

svellir (noun m.): increaser, sweller < rógsvellir (noun m.): [strife-sweller]

[2] rógsvellir: ‘rauk spellir’ Flat

kennings

Strangr rógsvellir
‘The tough strife-sweller ’
   = WARRIOR = Eiríkr

The tough strife-sweller → WARRIOR = Eiríkr
Close

fella ‘fall’

3. fella (verb): fell, kill

notes

[2, 3] fella stœrri aska ‘to make larger ash-timbers fall’: The stanza presents Eiríkr jarl’s order to fella stœrri aska as the decisive action that enables him to conquer Ormr inn langi, but the sense of this is elusive. Fella, the causative verb from falla ‘fall’, means ‘to make fall’ and its specific meaning here depends on the interpretation of aska. Stœrri ‘larger’ is grammatically comp., but the point of the comparison remains unclear, unless it simply means ‘larger than normal’. What is meant by aska is also obscure. The word askr means ‘ash-tree, ash-timber’ and therefore objects made of ash, or the objects themselves, whether of ash or not: spear-shafts (hence spears) or ships (LP: 1. askr), though the use of askr as a nautical term is surprisingly rare, especially given that OE æsc is used of viking ships (Jesch 2001a, 135). Askr ‘(ash-)tree’ is also used as a base-word in man-kennings (Meissner 267; LP: askr). The prose context (see Context above) understands Eiríkr’s strategy as the hurling of timbers onto Ormr inn langi. Kock (NN §3121), however, doubting that Eiríkr could have brought timber from Norway for this purpose, suggests that ships are meant, and that fella á (ll. 2, 4) means ‘fall upon, attack’. Further possibilities assuming that the prose is based on a misunderstanding are that aska simply means ‘spears’, or that aska belongs to a man-kenning, and that Eiríkr’s order is simply to kill the opposition. The difficulty here is that there is no convincing determinant for such a kenning, unless it was originally styrjar ‘of battle’, which, because it echoes styr earlier in the line, was altered in the course of transmission to the problematic stœrri.

Close

styrr ‘battle’

styrr (noun m.; °dat. -): battle

[3] styrr: styrs Flat

Close

þreifsk ‘flourished’

þreifa (verb): feel with hand

[3] þreifsk: om. Flat

notes

[3] þreifsk : aska: It is necessary to assume either that this pair forms an inexact skothending, or that the skothending is provided by styrr : stœrri, although in that case the placing of the second rhyming syllable is abnormal.

Close

stœrri ‘to make larger’

stórr (adj.): large, great

notes

[2, 3] fella stœrri aska ‘to make larger ash-timbers fall’: The stanza presents Eiríkr jarl’s order to fella stœrri aska as the decisive action that enables him to conquer Ormr inn langi, but the sense of this is elusive. Fella, the causative verb from falla ‘fall’, means ‘to make fall’ and its specific meaning here depends on the interpretation of aska. Stœrri ‘larger’ is grammatically comp., but the point of the comparison remains unclear, unless it simply means ‘larger than normal’. What is meant by aska is also obscure. The word askr means ‘ash-tree, ash-timber’ and therefore objects made of ash, or the objects themselves, whether of ash or not: spear-shafts (hence spears) or ships (LP: 1. askr), though the use of askr as a nautical term is surprisingly rare, especially given that OE æsc is used of viking ships (Jesch 2001a, 135). Askr ‘(ash-)tree’ is also used as a base-word in man-kennings (Meissner 267; LP: askr). The prose context (see Context above) understands Eiríkr’s strategy as the hurling of timbers onto Ormr inn langi. Kock (NN §3121), however, doubting that Eiríkr could have brought timber from Norway for this purpose, suggests that ships are meant, and that fella á (ll. 2, 4) means ‘fall upon, attack’. Further possibilities assuming that the prose is based on a misunderstanding are that aska simply means ‘spears’, or that aska belongs to a man-kenning, and that Eiríkr’s order is simply to kill the opposition. The difficulty here is that there is no convincing determinant for such a kenning, unless it was originally styrjar ‘of battle’, which, because it echoes styr earlier in the line, was altered in the course of transmission to the problematic stœrri.

Close

aska ‘ash-timbers’

askr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): ash, ash-tree, ash-ship

[3] aska: haska Flat

notes

[2, 3] fella stœrri aska ‘to make larger ash-timbers fall’: The stanza presents Eiríkr jarl’s order to fella stœrri aska as the decisive action that enables him to conquer Ormr inn langi, but the sense of this is elusive. Fella, the causative verb from falla ‘fall’, means ‘to make fall’ and its specific meaning here depends on the interpretation of aska. Stœrri ‘larger’ is grammatically comp., but the point of the comparison remains unclear, unless it simply means ‘larger than normal’. What is meant by aska is also obscure. The word askr means ‘ash-tree, ash-timber’ and therefore objects made of ash, or the objects themselves, whether of ash or not: spear-shafts (hence spears) or ships (LP: 1. askr), though the use of askr as a nautical term is surprisingly rare, especially given that OE æsc is used of viking ships (Jesch 2001a, 135). Askr ‘(ash-)tree’ is also used as a base-word in man-kennings (Meissner 267; LP: askr). The prose context (see Context above) understands Eiríkr’s strategy as the hurling of timbers onto Ormr inn langi. Kock (NN §3121), however, doubting that Eiríkr could have brought timber from Norway for this purpose, suggests that ships are meant, and that fella á (ll. 2, 4) means ‘fall upon, attack’. Further possibilities assuming that the prose is based on a misunderstanding are that aska simply means ‘spears’, or that aska belongs to a man-kenning, and that Eiríkr’s order is simply to kill the opposition. The difficulty here is that there is no convincing determinant for such a kenning, unless it was originally styrjar ‘of battle’, which, because it echoes styr earlier in the line, was altered in the course of transmission to the problematic stœrri. — [3] þreifsk : aska: It is necessary to assume either that this pair forms an inexact skothending, or that the skothending is provided by styrr : stœrri, although in that case the placing of the second rhyming syllable is abnormal.

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aska ‘ash-timbers’

askr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): ash, ash-tree, ash-ship

[3] aska: haska Flat

notes

[2, 3] fella stœrri aska ‘to make larger ash-timbers fall’: The stanza presents Eiríkr jarl’s order to fella stœrri aska as the decisive action that enables him to conquer Ormr inn langi, but the sense of this is elusive. Fella, the causative verb from falla ‘fall’, means ‘to make fall’ and its specific meaning here depends on the interpretation of aska. Stœrri ‘larger’ is grammatically comp., but the point of the comparison remains unclear, unless it simply means ‘larger than normal’. What is meant by aska is also obscure. The word askr means ‘ash-tree, ash-timber’ and therefore objects made of ash, or the objects themselves, whether of ash or not: spear-shafts (hence spears) or ships (LP: 1. askr), though the use of askr as a nautical term is surprisingly rare, especially given that OE æsc is used of viking ships (Jesch 2001a, 135). Askr ‘(ash-)tree’ is also used as a base-word in man-kennings (Meissner 267; LP: askr). The prose context (see Context above) understands Eiríkr’s strategy as the hurling of timbers onto Ormr inn langi. Kock (NN §3121), however, doubting that Eiríkr could have brought timber from Norway for this purpose, suggests that ships are meant, and that fella á (ll. 2, 4) means ‘fall upon, attack’. Further possibilities assuming that the prose is based on a misunderstanding are that aska simply means ‘spears’, or that aska belongs to a man-kenning, and that Eiríkr’s order is simply to kill the opposition. The difficulty here is that there is no convincing determinant for such a kenning, unless it was originally styrjar ‘of battle’, which, because it echoes styr earlier in the line, was altered in the course of transmission to the problematic stœrri. — [3] þreifsk : aska: It is necessary to assume either that this pair forms an inexact skothending, or that the skothending is provided by styrr : stœrri, although in that case the placing of the second rhyming syllable is abnormal.

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strangr ‘The tough’

strangr (adj.): strong

kennings

Strangr rógsvellir
‘The tough strife-sweller ’
   = WARRIOR = Eiríkr

The tough strife-sweller → WARRIOR = Eiríkr

notes

[4] strangr ‘tough’: The adj. is taken here with rógsvellir ‘strife-sweller’ [WARRIOR]’. It could alternatively qualify styrr ‘battle’ (l. 3, so Skj B and Skald), which makes the intercalary clause less terse and compact.

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Orm ‘Ormr’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: Óláfr’s famous longship; see Notes to sts 18/2 and 19/4.

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inn ‘inn’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: Óláfr’s famous longship; see Notes to sts 18/2 and 19/4.

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langa ‘langi (‘the Long Serpent’)’

langr (adj.; °compar. lengri, superl. lengstr): long

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: Óláfr’s famous longship; see Notes to sts 18/2 and 19/4.

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Ættstórr ‘the high-born’

ættstórr (adj.): [high-born]

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ella ‘Otherwise’

ella (adv.): otherwise

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mætti ‘have been able’

mega (verb): may, might

[5] mætti: mátti 61, 54, Flat

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dyn ‘the din’

dynr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ir): din

kennings

dyn geira.
‘the din of spears. ’
   = BATTLE

the din of spears. → BATTLE
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geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

dyn geira.
‘the din of spears. ’
   = BATTLE

the din of spears. → BATTLE
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oflinn ‘the mighty snake’

oflinnr (noun m.): [mighty snake]

[7] oflinn: ‘olínn’ Bb(112ra), 54, ‘o᷎flinn’ 61, ‘olín’ Bb(101vb), ítran Flat

notes

[7] oflinn ‘the mighty snake’: Another reference to Ormr inn langi; cf. l. 4 and Note to st. 18/2. This seems the most likely interpretation of the mss, although none has precisely this reading and the word occurs nowhere else.

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aldri ‘would never’

aldri (adv.): never

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Óláfr ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

[8] Óláfr: Óláf Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(101vb), ‘Ol’ 61, Flat

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veg ‘the path’

1. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir, gen. -a/-na, acc. -a/-i/-u): way, path, side

[8] veg: vegg 61

kennings

veg sólar …
‘the path of the sun … ’
   = SKY

the path of the sun … → SKY
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sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

veg sólar …
‘the path of the sun … ’
   = SKY

the path of the sun … → SKY
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Eiríkr jarl has his men hoist up (vinda upp) great timbers on his ship Barði and throw them onto (fella á) Ormr inn langi; it is said that the ship would never have been overcome except for this ploy suggested by Þorkell inn hávi.

[8]: For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8.

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