Part of the Geographic Education and Technology Program's collection of lesson plans.

UNFOLDING THE MYSTERY OF TIMBUKTU

Ginny White

Table of Contents:
In this historical geography unit, students follow the changes in the ancient African city of Timbuktu from its founding to today.

Grade: 6

Time: 2-3 weeks

CONNECTION TO CHALLENGES AND CHOICES

STUDENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

The learner will:

ACCOUNTABILITY COMMISSION STANDARDS

CORRELATION TO OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES/DISCIPLINES

History, economics, political science, humanities, science, math, and language arts.

TEACHING STRATEGIES

Class discussion, discovery learning, hands-on activities, independent/group research, lecture, role playing, simulation, small group activity, visual aids, and computer software (if available).

TEACHER BACKGROUND

Students are to keep a journal throughout this unit in which to record their thoughts, complete evaluative assignments, and keep together handouts for reference. Specific teacher background information is included with the activity for which it is needed.

If the teacher wishes to reward excellent achievement in this unit, she or he may award the "Honor of the Trousers." The custom in the early African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay was to reward valiant deeds by giving the honoree a pair of trousers, narrow at the ankles, but with the width increasing as more and more achievements were honored. Thus the bigger the seat of the pants, the more noble the person. This award could be designed by teacher to use at the conclusion of the unit.

GLOBAL CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL ISSUES

TEACHER REFERENCES

STUDENT REFERENCES

COMPUTER SOFTWARE


ACTIVITY 1 Tenbuch? Timbuktu? Tombuto? Timbuctoo? Timbouctou?


Overview

Students are introduced to the ancient African city of Timbuktu, today a symbol of remoteness.

Time: 1 class period

Learning Outcomes

The learner will:

Materials

Procedure

  1. Students will maintain a portfolio/journal throughout this unit. Each entry will be dated.
  2. Write the different spellings of Timbuktu from the activity title on the board.

    Introduce phrases:

    1. To Timbuktu and back
    2. It's a long way to Timbuktu
    3. I'll knock you clear to Timbuktu
    4. Go to Timbuktu

    As journal entry 1, students write their first impressions of this place based on the sounds of the word, phrases, or prior knowledge.

  3. Ask students to share their associations. Ask what inferences they can make about the importance or location of Timbuktu today. Elicit the flavor of the place today: symbol of remoteness, epitome of isolation, "utter end of the earth." Students should come up with these ideas because most have probably never heard of it or only know the name.
  4. Using student atlases or desk maps, have students locate Timbuktu based on its latitude and longitude (16.49 N, 2.59 W). Ask them to identify in which continent and on which country it is located.
  5. Ask students what major river is nearby, describe its course, and name other cities along the Niger. From teacher background information, discuss the Niger River and its two deltas.
  6. Have students write a hypothesis in their journals about why Timbuktu is located in this place. Share theories with the class.

Extension

Evaluation

Teacher Background Activity 1

NIGER RIVER

ACTIVITY 2 Named for a Woman

Overview

From its founding in 1100 AD, Timbuktu soon became a center for trade because of its excellent location between the salt mines to the north and the gold fields to the south.

Time: 1 class period

Learning Outcomes

The learner will:

Materials

Procedure

  1. From their knowledge of how cities are named, ask students to speculate about how Timbuktu received its name. Allow a few guesses and then relate information from teacher background.
  2. Ask students to consider if Timbuktu had been named for one of them, what would it have been called? Examples: Tim Ed, Tom Maria, Tim Shanda, etc. Ask if anyone in the class knows how his or her city was named.
  3. Distribute map "Timbuktu - A Center for Trade." Remind students to keep it in their journals as it will also be used in another activity. Ask students what environmental factors influenced the location of the village of Timbuktu. Elicit: its location is between the salt mines to the north and the gold fields to the south, an ideal place for trade to occur; by not being directly on the riverbank, Timbuktu avoided the annual floods and had contact with caravans yearround; still had easy river access.

    *Note: Due to scale of map, Timbuktu appears to be located directly on the river, but it is not.

  4. Explain to students that they will role play "the silent trade." Use teacher background information on the gold-salt trade and read the description of the silent trade.
  5. Divide the class into three groups:
  6. Allow students to use their imaginations to ad lib how this silent trade might have worked.

Extension

Evaluation

Teacher Background Activity 2

HOW TIMBUKTU WAS NAMED

An illustration of the Tuaregs is shown under "T" in From Ashanti to Zulu.  This
illustration could serve as a visual aid for the following information.

About 1100 AD, a group of nomads called Tuaregs, who grazed their herds during
the dry season on the banks of the Niger River, dis-covered an oasis a short
distance away from the river and decided to establish a permanent camp of
tents there.  While they were away tending their herds, they left the settlement
in the care of a woman.  One version of the story says she was a slave girl,
named  Buktu and that Tim means "place of."  Another version says her name was
Tomboutou, meaning "the mother with the large navel," while still another tale
says her name was Boutou and that Tom means "belonging to."  Whatever the
circumstances, the name of the settlement came from a woman and nomad tents
were replaced by straw huts, which eventually were replaced by more
permanent houses.

Although it was the Tuaregs who founded Timbuktu, it was the merchants who
solidly established it.  El Sadi writes this description of early Timbuktu:
"Travelers paused there.  The population increased by the power and will of God,
and the people began to build themselves fixed dwellings.  Caravans coming
from the north and east on their way to the Mali kingdom delayed at the camp to
renew their stores.  A market soon formed; a high enclosure of matting was
substituted for the barrier of dead thorns, and it became a meeting place for
people traveling by canoe or camel."


BACKGROUND FOR THE GOLD-SALT TRADE

Beginning about 400 AD, the kingdom of Ghana, meaning "warrior king" or "king
of the gold" (not to be confused with the present-day country) controlled the
trade of gold and salt along with other goods in West Africa.  Until about 1350
at least two-thirds of the world's supply of gold came from this area.  This
exchange of gold for salt was originally conducted in a ritual known as "the
silent trade" because the trading partners did their business without seeing or
speaking to each other.


THE SILENT TRADE

Pictures of salt slabs (pp. 163-165) and gold jewelry (p. 174) from National
Geographic artice "River of Sorrow, River of Hope" may help the student better
visualize the natural resources of this area.

There are various versions of how the silent trade was conducted.  One version
has it that the Arab traders first would meet with the villagers from Timbuktu
who would lead them to a specific trading spot.  The Arabs would then beat
drums to signal opening of the market.  They would pile their salt in rows, each
trader identifying his piles with his own special marks.  Then the traders would
pull back from the trading site (up to a half-day's journey away, but certainly
out of the area).

After the traders had retreated, the gold miners would arrive in their boats
with gold from the Wangara area.  They would heap gold beside each pile of salt.
Then they would leave. Perhaps they too beat drums to signal the traders.

The traders would then come back.  If satisfied with the exchange, the traders
would collect the gold and leave, again beating on drums to signal that the
business was concluded.  If the traders were not satisfied with the amount of
gold left by their salt piles, they would leave the piles untouched, and retreat
once more, hoping the miners would add to the amount of gold.

Such action would continue until a bargain was struck.  When the traders took
the gold, the miners would then leave with the salt.  It is probable that the
villager middlemen received some percentage from each group for their part in
the trading transaction.

ACTIVITY 3 Unfolding the Mystery: Legendary Kings of Mali

Overview

Students will discover the early history of Timbuktu through a reading and completing a timeline.

Time: 1-2 class periods

Learning Outcomes

The learner will:

Materials

Procedure

  1. Distribute Clue Sheet 1 - student reading entitled "Legendary Kings of Mali" to be kept in each student's journal. Students may read this silently, or it may be read aloud. Discuss this information by questioning students on the content. Refer to map used in previous activity which shows route Mansa Musa travelled.

    Include inferential questions such as:

  2. Distribute Timeline 1: Legendary Kings of Mali. Working in small groups and using Clue Sheet 1, each student will write in the appropriate year and description where marks extend on the right side of the timeline. Keep in student journal.
  3. Still working in the same small groups, students will compose a nursery rhyme about Mansa Musa's trip to Mecca. These rhymes may vary in length and could be illustrated. Class sharing is appropriate when all are completed. (This activity may stretch over into the next day.) Poems may be displayed on bulletin board or kept in student journals. Students may look over nursery rhyme books to help get started. Possible nursery rhyme models include:
    Simple Simon met a pieman going to the fair
    There was a crooked man, and he went a crooked mile
    Jack and Jill went up the hill
    Sing a song of sixpence, pocket full of rye
    Over the river and through the woods to Grandmother's house we go
    Ickle Me, Pickle Me, Tickle Me Too went for a ride in a flying shoe
    
    
    Mansa Musa went to Mecca
    Quite a trip you know
    Crossed the desert, stopped at Cairo
    Showing off his dough.
    
    
    Such a glorious man
    "Get me reservations and a map,
    Need to see where HE began."
    
    

Extensions

Evaluation

Unfolding the Mystery of Timbuktu 
Clue Sheet 1 - Student Reading


LEGENDARY KINGS OF MALI

The caravan trade existed long before the founding of Timbuktu.  Dromedary, or
one-humped, camels had been used as pack animals in the desert since about
200 AD.  The kingdom of Ghana was the first of three great West African
kingdoms, which grew rich from control of the caravan trade of salt for gold.
This kingdom's greatest period was between 700 and 1000 AD.

Although the Tuaregs founded Timbuktu in 1100 AD, they were nomads, who kept
only loose control of the city.  As the kingdom of Ghana began to fall to Moslem
invaders from the north, a second great West African kingdom developed.

The legendary Mandingo warrior Sundiata fought fiercely to establish the
kingdom of Mali in 1235.  He gained control of more territory,  established a
stable government, improved the practices in agriculture, and controlled the
trade in the area.  Legends of Sundiata's courage, wisdom, and greatness can be
found in many books.

The Mandingo tribe had accepted the religion of Islam a few hundred years
earlier.  The main beliefs of this religion are called the "Five Pillars of Islam."
They state (1) belief in one God, whose prophet is Muhammad, (2) prayer five
times a day facing Mecca, (3) sharing wealth with the needy, (4) rules about
fasting, and (5) making at least one pilgrimage to Mecca.

The rulers of the kingdom of Mali took the title Mansa, which means "emperor"
in Arabic.  The most famous of these rulers was Mansa Musa (Arabic for Moses).
During his 25 years as ruler,  he extended the boundaries of the kingdom,
encouraged learning and the arts (art, architecture, and literature), and set an
example as a devout Muslim.

In 1324, Mansa Musa made his hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca.  This journey put
Mali, Timbuktu, and Mansa Musa on the map!  A map made for the Catalan Atlas
of King Charles in 1375 helped spread the stories of the riches and power of
this kingdom.

The story goes that 500 slaves, each one bearing "a staff of gold" that weighed
5-6 pounds, led the great caravan across the Sahara.  Mansa Musa himself
supposedly rode a white Arabian steed and was accompanied by as many as
60,000 followers.  There were 80-100 camel-loads of gold dust, each load
weighing about 300 pounds.

The caravan passed through Walata and Tuat on its way across the desert to
Cairo, where the good Muslim Mansa Musa gave generously to the poor and made
presents to others.  It is told that there was so much gold in circulation that its
value fell and had not recovered even 12 years later.

Mansa Musa visited the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and again was generous
with his gold.  He asked his new friend, the Arab poet and architect Abu-Ishaq
Ibrahim-es-Saheli, and other scholars to return with him.   After they returned
to Mali, Mansa Musa had es-Saheli build a mosque (Islamic place of worship) at
Gao, an auditorium at Niani, and a mosque as well as a palace at Timbuktu.  Es-
Saheli introduced the use of burnt brick (red brick) as a building material to
this region.

Mansa Musa's pilgrimage resulted in the spread of tales of wonder and glory
about the kingdom of Mali.  The Sankore University of Timbuktu attracted many
scholars.  Trade increased.  The treasury was overflowing.  Curiosity about the
region grew.

ACTIVITY 4 Unfolding The Mystery: Legendary Kings of Songhay


Overview

Students will follow the history of Timbuktu to its apex and its subsequent decline.

Time: 1 class period

Learning Outcomes

The learner will:

Materials

Procedure

  1. Distribute Clue Sheet 2 - student reading entitled "Legendary Kings of Songhay" to be kept in each student's journal. Students may read this silently, or it may be read aloud. Discuss this information by questioning students on the content. Include such inferential questions as:
  2. Distribute Timeline 2: Legendary Kings of Songhay. Working in small groups and using Clue Sheet 2, each student will write in the appropriate year and description where marks extend on the right side of the timeline. Keep in student journal.
  3. Student may choose either of the following activities, which may be used for display or kept in student journal:

Extension

Evaluation

Unfolding the Mystery of Timbuktu
Clue Sheet 2 - Student Reading


LEGENDARY KINGS OF SONGHAY

Salt comes from the north,
gold from the south, and
silver from the country of the white man,
but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom
are only to be found in Timbuktu.

Old Sudanese Proverb


The Mali leaders after Mansa Musa were much less effective rulers.  Timbuktu
was raided, and  parts of it were burned.  In 1433 the Tuaregs regained control
of the city they had founded.

Meanwhile another kingdom, the Songhay, was developing.  Sunni Ali became the
king of Songhay in 1464.  Like Sundiata of Mali, he was a fierce warrior who
wanted to expand his kingdom.  Timbuktu was ripe for the taking!  Four years
after being king, Sunni Ali gained control of Timbuktu.  Although he was a
Muslim, he distrusted the scholars and mistreated them.  Sunni Ali went on to
capture other cities, more interested in territory and trade than in learning and
culture.

In 1493, one of the army generals overthrew Sunni Ali's son, who had just
become king.  His name was Askia Muhammad.  He was a devout Moslem, who
followed the practices of Islam faithfully.  Culture and learning again became of
prime importance in the Songhay kingdom, and Timbuktu began its greatest
period.  With a stable government, trade and learning flourished.  Timbuktu
became a great center of religion and learning.  Scholars from all over the
Islamic world came to the Sankore Univeristy, where  courses in theology,
Islamic law, rhetoric, grammar, and literature were taught.

Leo Africanus,  a famous traveler and writer, visited Timbuktu during this time.
He wrote the following description of this famous city:

"The king of Timbuktu has many plates and sceptres of gold, some whereof
weigh 1300 pounds; and he keeps a magnificent and  well-furnished court....
Here are a great store of doctors, judges, priests and other learned men, that
are bountifully maintained at the king's cost and charges.  And hither are
brought divers manuscripts of written books out of Barbary, which are sold for
more money than any other merchandise."

Obviously Askia Muhammad was ruler of a wealthy land, known for its learning
as well as its trading.  As Mansa Musa had 170 years before, Askia Muhammad
made a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1495, returning two years later.  His huge
caravan and his generosity kept the stories and legends of the riches of the
Africans growing.  It is told that at this time the city of Timbuktu had a
population of one million.

The kingdom of Songhay continued to flourish until 1589.  The ambitious Sultan
of Morocco wanted control of Wangara gold supply.  Armed with gunpowder and
firearms, El Mansur had his army cross the Sahara.  They captured Timbuktu in
1591 and brought ruin to the Song-hay kingdom.  As a historian of the time
reported, "From that moment everything changed.  Danger took the place of
security; poverty of wealth."

The glory of Timbuktu was only now a legend.

ACTIVITY 5 Unfolding the Mystery: To Timbuktu and Back


Overview

Students will journey with European explorers to Timbuktu through a student reading and timeline.

Time: 1-2 class periods

Learning Outcomes

The learner will:

Materials

Procedure

  1. Distribute Clue Sheet 3 - student reading entitled "The Race to Timbuktu" to be kept in each student's journal. Students may read this silently, or it may be read aloud. Discuss this information by questioning students on the content. Include inferential and evaluative questions such as:
  2. Distribute Timeline 3: To Timbuktu and Back. Working in small groups and using Clue Sheet 3, each student will write in the appropriate year and description where marks extend on the right side of the timeline through 1828. Keep in student journal.
  3. Ask each student to imagine being a CNN reporter right on the spot where these three explorers "raced for Timbuktu." Working in groups of three, direct students to write in their journals two or three questions for each of the three explorers as well as possible answers the three men might have given. These may be roleplayed if desired.

Extension

Students may further research and map information about the explorations of Mungo Park, Gordon Laing, and Rene Caillie as well as that of Heinrich Barth, the third European to reach Timbuktu. Some students may even want to research and map the exploration in other areas, such as that of David Livingstone. Distances involved could also be calculated.

Evaluation

Unfolding the Mystery of Timbuktu
Clue Sheet 3 - Student Reading


THE RACE TO TIMBUKTU

Wide Afric, doth thy sun
Lighten, thy hills unfold a city as fair
As those which starred the night o' the elder world?
Or is the rumor of thy Timbuctoo
A dream as frail as those of ancient time?

- Alfred Lord Tennyson
excerpt from "Timbuctoo"

On June 7, 1788, in England twelve distinguished men formed the Association
for Promoting the Discovery of the Inland Parts of the Continent of Africa.  They
sought out young explorers to learn all they could about the mysterious,
uncharted interior of Africa.  Between the late 1500s and the 1870s, nearly 50
Europeans attempted to "go to Timbuktu."  This is the story of three such men.

In June 1795, a young Scotsman with the interesting name of Mungo Park set out
from Gambia (on Africa's west coast).  His mission was to determine the course
of the Niger River and to visit its principal towns, particularly Timbuktu.
Braving local customs such as "mumbo jumbo," curiosity from the native
peoples, and capture by the Moors, Park finally reached the Niger River.

He discovered the Niger was flowing eastward; Leo Africanus in the 1500s had
stated it flowed westward.  Finding out that Timbuktu was controlled by
Muslims who allowed no Christians to live there, Park decided not to go there
after all.  Park's journey home, however, was even more hazardous - rain,
famine, sickness, delays, and no money.  He finally reached England on December
22, 1797, and promptly wrote his Travels.

Intrigued by Africa, Park gained a second mission in 1805 - to trace the course
of the Niger River as fully as was possible.  Departing in April again from
Gambia, Park finally reached the Niger at Bamako in August.

He wrote to the Colonial Secretary:  " ...I am sorry to say that of the forty-four
Europeans who left Gambia in perfect health, five only at present are alive.... but
though all Europeans who are with me should die, and though I were myself half
dead, I would still persevere; and if I could not succeed in the object of my
journey, I would at last die on the Niger."  He also wrote his wife.  These were
his last communications with England.  In 1810 it was discovered that Park had
been killed by natives in a battle on the River Niger.

In December 1824  an award of 10,000 francs was offered to the first person to
reach Timbuktu and return to Europe.  Another Scotsman, Gordon Laing,
organized his "Timbuktu Mission," setting out on July 18, 1825, from Tripoli.
Meanwhile Hugh Clapperton, also Scottish, was landing on the west coast of
Africa.

Laing reached In Salah (Algeria) on December 2, where reports of battles
between two desert tribes kept everyone fearful and reluctant for the caravan
to leave.  By the end of January 1826, Laing and Clapperton were both about the
same distance from Timbuktu, approaching from different directions.  An attack
on Laing's caravan left many dead.  Laing himself suffered 24 wounds, most of
them severe.  Next he was struck by yellow fever.  Finally on August 26, 1826,
Laing arrived at the fabled city of Timbuktu in the midst of two tribes' fighting
over control of the city.

Laing could now answer the question:  was the fabled Timbuktu truly a city of
gold?  A letter home states that Timbuktu "has completely met my
expectations" except in size - a somewhat vague description.  He certainly
wouldn't have wanted to lose any chance at personal fame.  When a sultan, who
gained control of the city, ordered death or exile to any Christian, Laing decided
to return home.  On September 22, he left Timbuktu with a small caravan bound
for Morocco.  On September 24, he was slaughtered in his tent.  Hugh Clapperton
never visited Timbuktu after all.

As a child, the Frenchman Rene Caillie was fascinated by the map of Africa,
which showed hardly anything but "desert" or "unknown."  Hearing of the prize of
10,000 francs, he decided it would be his.  He would use the money to help his
crippled sister, Celeste.  In March 1827, he set off from Freetown, Sierra Leone.

Three years earlier, he had lived with the Moors and learned their language and
customs.  Disguising himself as an Arab named Abd Allahi (meaning Slave of
God), Caillie concocted a "cover" story.  He said he had been captured by
Napoleon's army as a young boy, sold in slavery, and just recently brought to
Senegal by his master.  He was now trying to make his way home to Egypt.
Caillie was trying to be inconscipuous and cautious.

Caillie survived a tremendous amount of walking, sickness, and used caution
around the desert nomads.  On April 20, 1828, he finally arrived at Timbuktu,
which did not meet his expectations of grandeur and wealth.  All he saw was "a
mass of ill looking houses built of earth.... In a word, everything had a dull
appearance."

People were kind to him, sympathetic because he had been a slave of the
Christians.  Caillie only stayed in Timbuktu for two weeks.  He seemed to be
most struck by his observation that Timbuktu was "created soley by the wants
of commerce, and destitute of every resource except that its accidental
position as a place of exchange affords."  Founded as a meeting place between
the desert and the river, Timbuktu continued to be just that.

On May 4, Caillie departed from Timbuktu and joined a caravan to cross the
Sahara.  He reached Fez on August 12, weakened from the thirst he experienced
in the desert.  He finally removed his disguise in Tangier.  He reached French
soil on October 8, 1828.  Caillie received the award of 10,000 francs, a pension
of 6000 francs, and the Legion of Honor for being the first European to reach
Timbuktu and return alive.  He wrote his tale in Travels Through Central Africa
to Timbuctoo.

ACTIVITY 6 Unfolding the Mystery: To Timbuktu Today


Overview

Students will examine the Timbuktu of today.

Time: 1 class period

Learning Outcomes

The learner will:

Materials

Procedure

  1. Ask students to look at their Timeline 3. Six dates remain unexplained. Ask what they think might have happened at these times. List their hypotheses on the board. Then complete the timeline by showing overhead transparency of "Mali - History" (PC Globe). Discuss this information. Completed timeline should be kept in student journals.
  2. Ask students to explain why Timbuktu is no longer the trading center it once was. Elicit: destruction caused by Moroccans, changes in attitudes of people, lack of interest of Europeans once visited, political instability, changes in the manner of trade from caravan routes to more advanced modes of transportation due to technological advancement.
  3. Ask students the following questions: if our class were to visit Timbuktu this year, what do we need to know? List ideas on the board. Elicit - when to go, what to pack, what requirements are there for entry, where to stay, what to expect (how much tourism is there, what are the people like, what is there to do, etc.).
  4. Using transparencies made from information sheets, graphs, charts from PC Globe and other information provided in teacher background, answer as many of these questions as possible. Questions for which answers are unavailable can be further researched by student volunteers.
  5. Have students answer the following two questions in a written journal entry: Do you want to go to Timbuktu and back? Why or why not?

Extensions

Evaluation

Teacher Background Information - Activity 6


Extra information from Kim Naylor's Discovery Guide to West Africa.

Timbuktu has two hotels.  There is an inexpensive, tourist class, Le Campement,
government owned.  The other is a more expensive first class Azali (part of the
French Sofitel group).  The latter has air conditioning.  In addition locals may
put you up in their houses at a cheaper rate.

Both hotels have restaurants.  Prices are generally higher in Timbuktu because
of its inaccessibility, shortage of agricultural land, and few natural resources.
Timbuktu is one of the poorest towns in Mali; tourists are often regarded as an
extra source of income, particularly by children.

Timbuktu has a post office, a bank, and a tourist office.  Everything is within
walking distance.

Travel to and from Timbuktu:
Road transportation irregular especially in high water season
Steamer transportation also irregular
Domestic air flights once or twice a week

Tourist office address in Mali:
Societe Malienne d'Exploitation des Ressources Touristiques
(SMERT)
BP 222
Bamako, Mali

US Embassy address in Mali:
USA
BP 34
Avenue Mohammed V
Bamako, Mali

ACTIVITY 7 Telling the Tale of Timbuktu


Overview

Students will complete the study of Timbuktu by telling the story of its rise and decline in a traditional African manner.

Time: 2-3 days

Learning Outcomes

The learner will:

Materials

Procedure

  1. Ask students to imagine each is an elder of the present-day city of Timbuktu. Within the African heritage of oral storytelling, each elder will be a part of telling the story of Timbuktu to their grandchildren. The goal of this activity will be to weave together the story of Timbuktu so that it may be told within a class period.
  2. Students choose or are assigned the following roles for the story telling. Each group telling a segment of the story needs members to cover the three aspects needed for each story segment.

    Background music - these students need to create the instruments for musical accompaniment to the spoken story; drums and stringed instruments are appropriate; some research will be needed.

    Artists/Illustrators - each spoken segment of the story needs a student or two to create visuals to complement their spoken words.

    Storytellers - these groups of students should write the verse or prose to tell in first person their part of the story.

    Suggested 7 segments:

  3. Students are given date for their portion to be completed and for class to perform in class "the tale of Timbuktu."

Extension

Evaluation


Part of the Geographic Education and Technology Program's collection of lesson plans.