Article 262
Technical Regulations
for Super Touring Cars (Group ST)

Last update 1st April 1997

1) GENERAL

1.1 These Technical Regulations apply to large-scale series production touring cars of a minimum overall length of 4.20 metres and a maximum engine capacity of 2 litres, and having the engine installed in the front part of the car. These cars must be homologated in Super Touring by the FIA.

1.2 Closed-loop electronic control system:

Electronically controlled system in which an actual value (controlled variable) is continuously monitored, the feedback signal is compared with a desired value (reference variable) and the system is then automatically adjusted according to the result.

1.3 Decorative strips:

Any parts following the external contour of the bodywork and less than 25 mm high.

1.4 Action of signal:

Any signal which causes the vehicle to respond must be directly activated by the driver alone and not by the operation of other vehicle controls activating a switch.

1.5 Signal from the ECU:

Any signal from the ECU to control vehicle systems other than those directly related to the engine is prohibited.

1.6 Computer systems:

It must be possible to upload machine code from all onboard computer systems. The method of uploading must be compatible with Scrutineer's equipment.

1.7 Land vehicle:

A locomotive device propelled by its own means, moving by constantly taking real support on the earth's surface, of which the propulsion and steering are under the control of a driver aboard the vehicle.

1.8 Active suspension:

Any system that senses one or more continuously varying parameters, and uses the measured value(s) in the control of one or more actuators that influence the dynamic characteristics of the car.

1.9 Semi-automatis gearbox:

One which, when the driver calls for a gear change, takes over the control of one or more of the engine, clutch and gear selectors momentarily to enable the gear to be engaged.

2) FIA APPROVAL

2.1 The vehicle must comply with all the dimensional and other FIA Super Touring homologation requirements, except for those additional modifications allowed in these regulations. In particular, this car must belong to a family produced in a quantity of at least 25,000 units with identical external silhouettes and shells.

2.2 Homologation of a car will become null and void 5 years after the date on which the series production of the said model has been stopped.

2.3 Homologation forms (available from the ASN) must be presented, describing the vehicle and engine used.

3) WEIGHT

3.1 All cars using front-wheel drive only must not weigh less than 975 kg.

All cars using rear-wheel drive only must not weigh less than 1000 kg.

All cars using four-wheel drive must not weigh less than 1070 kg.

3.2 The minimum weights specified in art. 3.1 must be complied with at any time during the event, in particular at the time the car crosses the finishing line, excluding the driver and its equipment.

The use of ballast is permitted in accordance with Appendix J, article 252.2.2 - General Prescriptions.

Weight is used as the only controlling element between front-, rear- and 4-wheel drive cars.

4) MODIFICATIONS ALLOWED

4.1 General conditions:

4.1.1) Any nut, bolt or screw throughout the car may be replaced by any other nut, bolt or screw and have any kind of locking device (washer, lock-nut, etc.).

4.1.2) Apart from the parts for which the present regulation lays down freedom of modification, the original mechanical parts necessary for the propulsion, suspension as well as all accessories necessary for their normal functioning, excepting any steering or braking part, having undergone the normal machining operations laid down by the manufacturer for series production may be subjected to all tuning operations through finishing, scraping but not replacement.

In other words provided that the origin of the series production part may always be established, its shape may be ground, balanced, adjusted, reduced or modified through machining. Chemical and heat treatment are allowed, in addition to the above. However, the modifications defined by the above paragraph are allowed on condition that the weights and dimensions mentioned on the homologation form are respected.

4.1.3) Addition of material and parts:

Any addition of material or parts is not permitted unless it is specifically allowed by an article in these regulations. Any material removed is not to be reused.

Restoration of body shape and chassis geometry, following accidental damage, is permissible only using original panels or parts or by the addition of the materials necessary to effect the repairs (body filler, weld metal, etc.); other parts which are worn or damaged are not to be repaired by the addition or attaching of material unless an article in these regulations allows appropriate freedom.

4.2 Engine:

4.2.1) The engine must be of the same make as the car and must be homologated by the FIA in Super Touring. The orientation and direction of the axis of the original engine relative to the homologated bodyshell must be retained. The engine revolution direction is free, provided art. 4.2 is respected.

Two-stroke engines are prohibited.

Any device to artificially limit the engine speed/power below the peak of the engine power curve will be deemed to be artificially controlling power and is therefore prohibited with the exception of a rev limit above 8200 rpm whose sole purpose is to control the engine below an FIA approved limit. For the purpose of changing a gear ratio only it is momentarily permitted to take the control of the propulsion system away from the driver. It is permitted to have a sensor on the gear lever to initiate a spark cut, to have one timed cut for all the gears in the ECU and to have a sensor in the gear box to indicate the successful selection of the gear. It is not permitted to have a sensor from the gearbox (or any other source) to convey to the ECU which gear it is in.

4.2.2) Engine block:

The engine must have no more than 6 cylinders. Bore and stroke may be changed to achieve a maximum capacity of 2000 cm3. The bore is required to be cylindrical and the stroke linear. The position and the axis of the ports must be retained. The axis of the cylinders may be moved, but they must remain parallel to the original ones.

Sleeving or resleeving of the cylinder bores is allowed; material of the sleeves is free. Machining of all surfaces is allowed; material may be added. Steel, or other material, main caps are allowed, as are ladder reinforcement frames, inside the block and following the bearing supports.

4.2.3) Cylinder head:

The position and the axis of the cylinders and ports must be retained, as must the axis and angle of the valves. Port sizes may be changed, but the port centres at the manifold face must remain original ( 2 mm). The addition or removal of material is allowed subject to the restrictions in these regulations (see in particular art. 4.2.12).

The cylinder head covers (rocker covers) are free, including their material, if these parts have no other function than covering the cylinder head, and possibly that of attaching the engine.

4.2.4) Compression ratio: Free.

4.2.5) Cylinder head gasket: Free.

4.2.6) Pistons: Free, as well as the piston rings, gudgeon pins and their securing mechanism.

4.2.7) Connecting rods, Crankshaft: Free, but they must be made of ferrous materials, i.e. containing at least 80% of pure iron by weight. The use of non-ferrous materials for balancing the crankshaft is not permitted.

4.2.8) Bearings:

Make, dimensions and material are free; but the original type must be retained (e.g. thin wall shell or roller bearings), as well as their number (see art. 4.2.11 for exception).

4.2.9) Flywheel: Free.

4.2.10) Fuel feed and induction system:

Free, except it is forbidden to use any type of water injection system. The use of any other substance or device to reduce the temperature of the mixture is forbidden (other than the fuel radiator permitted by art. 4.10.1). The induction system, location of the injectors, number of injectors, air filter assemblies and pipes are free to be changed or modified. Fuel electronics and injector types are free. It is not permitted to inject any fuel or additive other than that specified under art. 4.2.24.

Variable intake systems are forbidden.

4.2.11) Camshaft(s):

Free, except position and number which must remain as for the original head. Number of bearings is free. Belts, pulleys, chains are free, as are their layout and protection. A belt may therefore be changed for a chain, and vice versa.

Within these conditions and those specified under art. 4.2, the variable valve driving is therefore allowed.

4.2.12) Valves:

The material, dimensions and the shape of the valves are free, but their principle of operation (coil springs, hydraulic) mentioned on the homologation form must be retained (including the respective angles of the valve axes). Cups, cotters, guides and springs are all free. Shims may be added under the springs. Hydraulic cam followers may be changed for solid ones. Valve lift is free. The material of the seats is free. The number of valves cannot be changed from that homologated.

4.2.13) Rocker arms and tappets:

Free, including the respective leverages of the rocker arms.

4.2.14) Ignition:

Free, but must include the FIA approved RPM limiting device which must be installed so as to limit engine RPM to 8,500 maximum. A rev logger approved by the FIA may be used in place of an RPM limiter. In this case, it is the competitor's responsability to ensure that the engine RPM does not exceed 8,500.

This RPM limiting device must be installed in such a manner as to provide direct and easy access to it, to facilitate inspection and testing procedures which are to be carried out by the Technical Scrutineer or other approved FIA personnel. It must be placed either on the dashboard, or on the floor on the passenger side if a camera is present in the cockpit. The RPM limiter or logger must be installed and wired up strictly in accordance with the limiter manufacturer's instructions and any wiring diagrams issued. The regulation wiring plug seal must always be intact. The RPM limiter or logger will be checked and certified as and when deemed necessary throughout the event.

The number of spark plugs may not be modified.

4.2.15) Cooling:

The method of cooling must be as on the homologated car or engine (i.e. air cooled/water cooled). Provided the original location in the car is retained, the radiator and its attachments are free, as are all its connections to the engine. Within these conditions one radiator may therefore be replaced by several. A radiator screen may be fitted without being visible from the exterior, but it must not be adjustable while the vehicle is moving.

Cooling fans and their method of operation are free. Thermostats are free, as well as their housings and the lines situated between the thermostat body and the water pump on the one hand, and between the thermostat body and the cylinder head on the other hand. The water pump is free, including with regard to its location in its original compartment. A water catch-tank may be fitted. The expansion chamber is free.

4.2.16) Lubrication:

Lubrication is free. A dry sump system is permissible.

The position of the oil tank is free other than it must not be located within the cockpit, unless positioned in the luggage area of a hatch-back car and then enclosed within a fluid/flame-proof bulkhead. Additional oil pumps, fans and coolers are allowed, but no aerodynamic benefits may be derived from them. Air ducts and mounting brackets under the car to these coolers and pumps are allowed, but no aerodynamic benefits may be derived from them, and the external appearance of the car must remain unchanged; oil pumps and ducts must not protrude beyond the perimeter of the bodywork as seen from above. Oil coolers must be contained within the volume left free under the car when a template with an angle of 45° to the horizontal is introduced along the ground around the perimeter of the car touching the bodywork (see drawing 262-1). If the lubrication system includes an open type sump breather, it must be equipped in such a way that the oil can flow into a catch-tank of at least 2 litres capacity. This catch-tank must be made out of plastic or must include a transparent window.

4.2.17) Engine mountings:

The engine position and its mountings are free, provided the crankshaft retains its same orientation within the engine bay as in the homologated car, and the metal sheet forming the engine/gearbox bay remains as in the FIA homologated car. The bulkhead must be capable of preventing the passage of fluid or flame into the cockpit.

4.2.18) Exhaust:

Exhaust manifold and system are free but the noise from the car is not to exceed 110 dB(A) at 6300 RPM (or 3/4 max RPM, if less), when measured at 0.5 mm distance and at a 45 degrees angle to the point of exit of the exhaust. No exhaust-pipe or pipes may protrude beyond the perimeter of the car's bodywork as seen from above; furthermore the outlet for the exhaust-pipe must be at the rear of the car, not more than 10 cm from the perimeter of the car. The exhaust system must incorporate one or more homologated catalytic converters, which must be functioning at all times and through which all exhaust gases must pass.

It is permitted to modify the floor pan for the purposes of providing exhaust-pipe clearance, but at no point may this result in a duct larger than 21 cm in diameter, and only one such duct per vehicle is allowed; this tunnel must not include any closed section and must contain only the exhaust. If this tunnel passes through a structural element, this element must not be reconstituted. Any cutting of the bumper in order to provide clearance for the exhaust is forbidden. The maximum height of this tunnel must not exceed 400 mm (see drawing 262-7).

All measures which are taken to ensure that the maximum noise limit is not exceeded, must be permanent in nature, and must not be removed by the exhaust gas pressure. For exemple a butterfly valve in the exhaust manifold is prohibited.

4.2.19) Driving belts and pulleys for ancillaries:

These are free, in number, location and design.

4.2.20) Gaskets: Free.

4.2.21) Engine springs:

Free, but they must keep their original functioning principle.

4.2.22) Starter:

A starter must be present, its make and type being free; it must be capable of starting the engine at any time using energy stored on board.

In the pits, the use of an external source of energy is permitted.

4.2.23) Supercharging:

Any system of forced induction is prohibited. Ram effects which are entirely produced by the forward motion of the vehicle or the tuning of induction or exhaust pipe length, are permitted.

4.2.24) Fuel:

The fuel must be commercial petrol which comes from a service station pump, without any additive other than that of a lubricant on current sale. The fuel must be approved by the ASN and must have the following characteristics:

- 102.0 RON and 90.0 MON maximum, 95.0 RON and 85.0 MON minimum for unleaded fuel.

- 100.0 RON and 92.0 MON maximum, 97.0 RON and 86.0 MON minimum for leaded fuel.

The measurements will be made according to the standards ASTM D 2699-86 and D 2700-86.

- Specific gravity between 720 and 785 kg/m3 at 15°C (measured according to ASTM D 4052).

- A maximum of 2.8 % oxygen (or 3.7 % if the lead content is less than 0.013 g/l) and 0.5 % nitrogen by weight, the remainder of the fuel consisting exclusively of hydrocarbons and not containing any power-boosting additives.

The measuring of the nitrogen content will be carried out according to the standard ASTM D 3228 and that of the oxygen content by elemental analysis with a tolerance of 0.2 %.

- Maximum content of peroxides and nitrooxide compounds: 100 ppm (ASTM D 3703 or in the case of impossibility UOP 33-82).

- Maximum lead content: 0.40 g/l or the standard of the country of the event, if it is lower (ASTM D 3341 or D 3237).

- Maximum benzene content: 5 % volume (ASTM D 3606).

- Maximum Reid vapour pressure: 900 hPa (ASTM D 323).

- Distillation at 70°C: 10 % - 47 % (ASTM D 86).

- Distillation at 100°C: 30 % - 70 % (ASTM D 86).

- Distillation at 180°C: 85 % minimum (ASTM D 86).

- Maximum final boiling point: 225°C (ASTM D 86).

- Maximum residue: 2 % volume (ASTM D 86).

The fuel being accepted or rejected according to the standard ASTM D 3244 with a confidence limit of 95 %.

If the fuel available locally for the event is not of a sufficient quality for use by competitors, the ASN of the organising country must ask the FIA for a waiver in order to enable the use of fuel not corresponding to the characteristics defined above.

4.2.25) Only air may be mixed with the fuel as an oxidant.

4.3 Transmission:

4.3.1) Clutch:

The clutch and its control are free but automatic operation of the clutch is not allowed and, in the case of a hydraulic clutch, the liquid tank must not be situated in the cockpit. The clutch must be activated by the driver's feet.

Automatic declutching devices in the event of over-revving are permitted, if these devices have no other functions, if the declutching occurs at an engine speed higher than that foreseen by the limiter and if it is homologated (2 500 units).

4.3.2) Gearbox:

Considering the following reservations, gearbox is free.

Gear selection mechanisms must be mechanically operated, (electronic, hydraulic or pneumatic mechanisms are not permitted). The maximum number of forward gears allowed is 6. Semi-automatic and automatic gearboxes are forbidden. The drive train concept, i.e. FWD, RWD or 4WD must be retained. However 4WD cars can disconnect either front or reardrive, and remove transmission parts being therefore no longer necessary. art. 3.1 will then apply according to the type of resulting transmission.

A reverse gear must be retained and be operational at all times. Additional oil pumps and coolers are allowed, but no aerodynamic benefits may be derived from them. Air ducts and mounting brackets under the car to these coolers and pumps are allowed, but no aerodynamic benefits may be derived from them, and the external appearance of the car must remain unchanged; oil pumps, coolers and ducts must not protrude beyond the perimeter of the bodywork as seen from above. Oil coolers must be contained within the volume left free under the car when a template with an angle of 45° to the horizontal is introduced along the ground around the perimeter of the car touching the bodywork (see drawing 262-1). Gearbox supports are free. The gearbox location relative to the other transmission/drive train components must be retained, and it will have to remain in the half of the wheelbase in which it was originally located.

The making of a hole with a maximum diameter of 80 mm is authorised in order to allow the passage of the gearbox lever, but the assembly must be impenetrable by gases.

4.3.3) Final-drive assembly, differentials, prop-shafts and drive-shafts:

Free, subject to art. 4.3.2 and to the following:.

Closed-loop electronically controlled systems are prohibited, included traction control. Constantly variable transmissions (CVT) are also prohibited. A simple electrical switch acting simply on an electric engine is not considered to be an electronic control.

Traction control is prohibited, and the competitor must be able to demonstrate that the sensors installed do not allow this control.

Differentials with electronic, pneumatic or hydraulic slip control are forbidden. Viscous differentials are not considered to have hydraulic slip control, provided outside control is not possible when the car is in motion. Outside control of differentials is not allowed when the car is in motion.

4.3.4) Transfer boxes:

4WD transfer boxes with electronic, pneumatic or hydraulic slip control are forbidden. Outside control of 4WD transfer boxes is not possible when the car is in motion.

4.3.5) Use of rear-wheel drive transmission on a 4-wheel drive bodyshell:

During 1997 and 1998, only those cars which existed in this configuration in 1996 may use a four wheel drive suspension/bodyshell assembly with a front-wheel drive only transmission.

4.4 Suspension:

4.4.1) Type:

The generic type must remain the same as the homologated car.

Anti-roll bars, fitted to the homologated car, may be removed. Mechanically adjustable anti-roll bars are permitted and these may be adjusted from the cockpit.

The bars, their levers and linkages may pass through the luggage compartment, engine bay and wheel arches but only the adjustment cables or rods may pass through the cockpit.

The removal or the addition of anti-roll bars must not change the generic type of suspension. The competitor must submit to the FIA a scheme and explanation of the operating principle and design layout of the racing suspension showing that the generic type is respected, and receive written approval. All existing suspensions raced prior to 01.01.97 must be submitted through the ASN for automatic approval.

4.4.2) Pivot points:

The inboard points of all linkages, McPherson strut mounting points and spring and/or damper mounting points must lie within a sphere of radius :

- 20 mm for all points below the upper line of the wheel rim

- 75 mm for all points above the upper line of the wheel rim.

The position of the wheel rim relative to the body shell (or chassis) is as per the homologated car, when at its unladen static height.

with its centre at the original equivalent point of the homologated car's suspension.

Modifications to the shell (or chassis), to accommodate the changed position of pivot and mounting points, are limited to that necessary to provide clearance for suspension components, drive shafts, and wheel and tyre.

The type and material of suspension joints are free.

4.4.3) Materials :

The materials from which the suspension components are made, and their design, within the limitations of art. 4.4.1., is free, except that composite materials which are not permitted.

4.4.4) Reinforcement :

Strengthening of the mounting points, suspension parts, and running gear is allowed.

Reinforcing bars on the suspension mounting points of the body shell (or chassis) may be installed as follows : the distance between the suspension attachment point and the attachment point of the reinforcing bar must not exceed 100 mm, unless the bar is a transverse, tensile/compression member homologated with the rollcage, or unless there is an upper bar attached to the top mounting of a strut suspension. In the latter case, the maximum distance between the attachment point of the reinforcement bar and the upper articulation point of the strut must not exceed 150 mm. The attachment points at not more than 100 mm/150 mm are the only points on or within the car to which the reinforcing bars are to be fixed.

4.4.5) Active systems:

Active systems that control any part or characteristic of the suspension or steering are not permitted, except power steering systems, as defined in art. 4.7.

4.4.6) Springs:

The front and rear spring types (coil, torsion bar, rubber, pneumatic, etc.), must retain the same principle as the respective spring types on the homologated car.

The number of springs is free, provided that they can be fitted without any modifications other than those specified in these regulations. Combined coil spring/shock absorber units are permissible and may be used in conjunction with the original spring type subject to art. 4.4.7.

The material and main spring dimensions are free.

The spring seats may be made adjustable and include the addition of material.

4.4.7) Shock absorbers:

The number of shock absorbers fitted to each wheel suspension must be the same as the homologated car.

The make and type are free.

It is permissible to replace the strut, including spring seats, of a strut type suspension with another make or type but this must not result in a change of working principle.

4.5 Wheels and tyres:

4.5.1) The maximum width of the rim-tyre assembly is of 9 inches; the complete wheel diameter is not to exceed 650 mm.

The complete wheel above the hub centre-line must be able to be housed within the wheel arch.

The internal arch may be modified minimally to accommodate the complete allowed wheel (diameter 650 mm) as long as it does not affect the structural integrity of the vehicle, does not change the external appearance, does not contravene art. 4.4 and art. 4.8.3.11, allows the normal operation of the suspension, transmission and steering, with no possible contact between the wheel and the wheel arch, and does not contravene the following:

It is authorised to reach the maximum width of the basic car provided for in art. 204 of the FIA homologation form of the car considered In other words, the wing of the original car, having undergone all the stages of manufacture foreseen by the manufacturer for series production, up to the final stage for the car considered, may be stretched to the vertical from the axis of the wheel (point of measurement in art. 204) The deformation resulting from this stretching may be hammered in order to obtain a finish following the general line of the wing of the original car. It is not authorised to cut or trim the arch of the wing. The development of the wing will be measured according to the drawing 262-2.

For those parts of the inside of the wheel arch which may be changed in this way, the material shall be free within the same family (steel remaining steel, plastic remaining plastic, this provision including composite materials, etc.).

In the special case in which a modification has been made to the wheel arch and the front side members in order to allow the fitting of the wheel (including the consequently modified suspension and half-shaft), it is permitted to bolt on the new side members.

4.5.2) Wheels:

The design and diameter are free, as is the type of attachment, but wheels made partially or entirely from composite materials are prohibited. If the wheel is of the centre lock type using a central nut, then a safety spring must be in place on the nut at all times during the event. These springs must be painted "dayglo red" and each car must have spare springs available at all times.

4.5.3) Ground clearance:

At any time during an event no part of the car must touch the ground when both the tyres on one side are deflated.

A test may be carried out on a flat surface, in race trim, with the driver on board.

4.6 Brakes:

4.6.1) Drum brakes may be changed for disc brakes and vice versa. Anti-lock devices are not allowed, and brake fluid tanks must not be situated in the cockpit. On the other hand brake master cylinders may be located inside the cockpit.

4.6.2) Brake linings:

Material, dimensions and mounting method are free.

4.6.3) Brake servos, callipers, brake pumps and brake adjusters are free.

4.6.4) Brake cooling:

Protection shields may be modified or removed.

At the front: The openings homologated with the front aerodynamic device may be used, as may those corresponding to the holes for the additional headlamps in the original front face. From these openings, flexible ducts to bring the air to the brakes of each wheel are allowed, but its cross-sectional area must total less than 80 cm2 and the maximum dimension less than 25 cm. The air ducts must not protrude beyond the perimeter of the car seen from above.

At the rear: Flexible ducts to bring the air to the brakes of each wheel are allowed, but its cross-sectional area must total less than 80 cm2 and the maximum dimension less than 25 cm. The air ducts must not protrude beyond the perimeter of the car seen from above, and the air intakes must be situated within the rear half of the wheelbase of the car.

4.6.5) Brake discs:

Brake discs are free, subject to them being made from ferrous material.

4.6.6) Handbrake:

May be removed.

4.6.7) Hydraulic lines:

Hydraulic lines may be replaced by lines of aircraft quality.

4.7 Steering:

Free on condition that the type of steering fitted to the homologated vehicle is retained and that the steering mechanism only operates the front wheels. The steering wheel must be fitted with a quick release mechanism. Its method of release must be by pulling a concentric flange installed on the steering column behind the wheel. Power steering may be disconnected removed, or added, but the power steering pump must not be placed in the cockpit.

Free; the anti-theft steering-lock device must be made inoperative. The steering may be either right or left-hand, provided this is achieved by a simple inversion of the steering wheel controls, specified and supplied by the manufacturer, without any other mechanical modifications except those made necessary by the inversion.

A limited cutting of the bulkhead is permitted for the passage of a new steering column (see art. 4.8.4.2), with no deformation of this bulkhead.

Power steering systems which do anything other than reduce the physical effort required to steer the car are not permitted.

4.8 Bodywork - Bodyshell:

4.8.1) Lightening and reinforcement:

All bodywork panels of the vehicle must be of the same shape, material and thickness as the original homologated car(tolerance 10%). Strengthening of the chassis and bodywork is allowed provided that the material used follows the original shape, is in direct contact with it, and that the original material is fully preserved under the reinforcement.

Subframes or auxiliary frames (parts bolted to the chassis) may freely be removed or changed if they are interchangeable with the original ones, and further attachments may be added.

New supports and mounting brackets may be added as required subject to art. 4.4. Reinforcement by composite materials is allowed in accordance with this article. Insulating material may be removed from under the car floor, from the engine compartment, the luggage boot and the wheel arches. Unused supports (e.g. for spare wheel) situated on the chassis/bodywork may be removed unless they are required for mechanical parts which cannot be moved or removed.

When the upper and lower supports for the radiator are welded at both ends to the shell, they may be made detachable.

4.8.2) Any holes in the cockpit, engine bay and luggage compartment, must be closed in such a way as to prevent the passage of fluid or flame.The use of adhesive tape on the exterior surface of the car is prohibited.

4.8.3) Exterior:

4.8.3.1 - Except in the case of explicit allowance by this regulation, all external bodywork must remain as on the original homologated vehicle.

4.8.3.2 - The cutting of the bumper, limited to what is strictly necessary, will be authorised for access to the towing eye. The interior reinforcements of the bumpers may be removed, and the bumpers may be attached to the car by means of fast attachments.

It is authorised to reduce the plastic edges of the bumpers when they protrude inside the wheel housing. The limit of the modification of the original part must not extend beyond the thickness of the bumper at the point where the edge begins to turn in. In other words, the appearance of the bumper after modification must retain its original finish and the bumper must retain the same development as the original on all points (it must still be possible to see the point where the edge begins to turn in in order to determine the development of the bumper).

4.8.3.3 - Hub caps and wheel embellishers must be removed.

4.8.3.4 - Windscreen wipers and washers:

The wiper is free but it must be operational and clear the screen directly in front of the driver. The capacity of the washer tank may be increased and it may be moved in position or removed.

4.8.3.5 - External decorative strips and mud flaps may be removed (see art. 1.3).

4.8.3.6 - Jacking points may be strengthened, moved and increased in number.

4.8.3.7 - Headlights covers may be fitted provided that their sole aim is to protect the headlight glass and that they have no effect on the car's aerodynamics.

4.8.3.8 - Registration plates and registration plate mountings may be dismounted as well as their lighting system.

4.8.3.9 - Windows must be made of glass, be approved for road use and marked accordingly except that it is permitted to use front and rear windscreens made of hardcoated and appropriately marked polycarbonate. Nevertheless, the side windows may be changed for polycarbonate, and the doors adapted for the attachment of these windows. Additional safety fastenings for the windows may be fitted provided that they do not improve the aerodynamic qualities of the car.

4.8.3.10 - The fitting of any underbody protection is prohibited except for undertrays installed as original equipment on the homologated car. If they are in contact with the external airstream, the engine and gearbox supports must be perforated with 50 mm diameter holes with centres 150 mm apart.

4.8.3.11 - The metal or plastic edges of the wing panels may be folded back or trimmed if they protrude inside the wheelhousing. The plastic sound-proofing parts may be removed from the interior of the wheel bays (see also art. 4.5.1).

4.8.3.12 - Pneumatic jacks are permitted, but compressed air bottles are not to be carried on board.

4.8.3.13 - "Skirts" are banned. All non-homologated devices or constructions designed so as to fill, fully or partially, the space between the sprung parts of the car and the ground are forbidden in all circumstances.

4.8.3.14 - It is authorised to remove or replace existing supports between the bodywork and the chassis, but it is not possible to change or add locations.

4.8.3.15 - Aerodynamic devices: Only homologated devices may be used, including with regard to the mounting on the car, the profile, and the position, throughout the duration of the event. Furthermore, if a front device and a rear device are homologated together, on the basic form or on a variant, they must be used simultaneously, as combinations are not authorised.

The front aerodynamic devices must have no radiators visible from outside the car. The original non-structural parts covered by the front device may be removed.

At no time during the event may the lowest point of the front device be situated less than 45 mm from the ground.

The rear aerodynamic device must be situated entirely, including its supports, ahead of the vertical plane perpendicular to the longitudinal centre-line of the car situated 100 mm ahead of the rearmost point of the car.

4.8.3.16 - External rear-view mirrors: The reflecting part may be replaced with another possessing the same qualities of reflection and of which the basis is composed of plastic. The electrical defrosting and adjustment systems may be removed.

4.8.4) Cockpit:

4.8.4.1 - Seats:

The driver's seat must be homologated by the FIA (norm 8855-1992), with an extension padded with energy-absorbing and non-inflammable material around the driver's head, and must not be modified. It is recommended that the seat attachments should be homologated on the car's form. In this case, these attachments must be used. The seat must include a head-restraint. Its dimensions must be such that the driver's head with its helmet is retained and cannot move past it under rearward acceleration, or be trapped between the roll-over bar and the head restraint. It is recommanded that the distance between the sides of the head restraint should not exceed 400mm and that there should be a minimum of 20mm of energy absorbing material on either side. The driver's seat may be moved backwards, but not beyond the vertical plane defined by the front edge of the original rear seat. Lateral positioning as close as possible to the longitudinal centre-line of the car is recommended, but at the level of the "H" point the driver's seat must be situated entirely to one side of this centre-line (drawing n° 262-6). Passengers' seats are to be removed to reduce combustible material.

4.8.4.2 - Dashboard:

The trim situated below the dashboard, and which is not part of it, may be removed. It is also permitted to remove the part of the centre console which contains neither the heating nor the instruments. The limited cutting of the dashboard is permitted for the passage of the gear lever and steering (see drawing 255-7). If moved towards the driver, the instruments must be contained in a housing which is an extension of the original instrument binnacle.

4.8.4.3 - Doors:

On the condition that the original bodywork is respected, the door locking system may be modified.

All door interior-trim and sound-proofing material may be removed and replaced with panels of non-combustible material (e.g. aluminium carbon and/or aramid based composites) in order to obscure the door and window mechanisms. It is permitted to remove the window opening mechanisms from all four doors or replace electric winders with manual winders.

Driver's side:

The inside of the front and rear doors on the driver's side must be filled with energy-absorbing material, but the outside of the interior door panel must remain identical to the original. The reinforcement bars positioned inside the doors, together with the interior trim and the sound-proofing material, may be removed.

4.8.4.4 - Roof:

All padding, insulating material and roof lining are to be removed from the underside of the roof. Sun roofs are not permitted. Therefore, a sun roof may be riveted or welded, on condition that it is integrated into the structure of the car. A glass sun roof may also be replaced with a metal sheet if the thickness of the metal is the same as for the rest of the roof.

4.8.4.5 - Floor:

Insulating and padding materials and carpets are to be removed. For cars with rear-wheel or four-wheel drive, part of the floor may be displaced within a maximum volume of 30 dm3 and a maximum height of 20 cm, in relation to the original floor.

Floors made from composite materials may be fitted to the driver's and passenger's side of the cockpit between the front bulkhead (but not on it) and the front of the rear seat as defined in Art. 255.5.7.3.1. These floor panels must be retained by attachments no larger than 5mm with a minimum of 150mm between each attachment point. Bonding to the shell is prohibited

4.8.4.6 - Any other padding and interior trim may be removed.

4.8.4.7 - The cockpit heating system may be removed; however an adequate system of de-misting must be fitted.

4.8.4.8 - Air conditioning may be added or removed, but de-misting must be assured.

4.8.4.9 - Pedals:

Pedals are free, and their installation may entail a limited cutting of the engine/cockpit bulkhead, but there must be no deformation of this bulkhead. The pedals may be either right or left provided this is achieved by a simple inversion of the pedals controls, specified and supplied by the manufacturer, without any other mechanical modifications except those made necessary by the inversion.

4.8.4.10 - The removable rear window shelf in two volume cars may be removed together with its supports.

4.8.4.11 - Air pipes:

Air pipes may only pass through the cockpit if these are intended for the ventilation of the cockpit or air jacks.

4.8.4.12 - In addition to the outside rear-view mirrors, rear vision must be ensured by an inside mirror commanding the rear window completely.

4.8.5) Additional accessories:

All those which have no influence on the car's behaviour are allowed, e.g. equipment which improves the aesthetics or comfort of the car interior (lighting, radio, etc.). In no case are these accessories permitted to increase the engine power or influence the steering, transmission, brakes or road holding, even in an indirect fashion. All controls must retain the role laid down for them by the manufacturer. They may be adapted to facilitate their use and accessibility, e.g. a longer hanbdbrake lever, an additional pad on the brake pedal, etc.

The following are allowed:

1 - The original windscreen may be replaced by a laminated or polycarbonate windscreen with defrosting equipment incorporated.

2 - Measuring instruments such as speedometer, etc. may be installed, replaced, or removed. In this last case the original holes must be sealed.

Data logging/time-keeping equipment may be fitted outside the field of view of any on-board camera.

3 - The horn is not compulsory.

4 - Circuit breakers on the dashboard may be removed, on condition that the original shape and appearance of the dashboard remain the same.

Circuit breakers may be freely changed regarding their use, position or number in the case of additional accessories.

5 - A "fly-off" hand brake may be installed.

6 - A spare wheel is not compulsory. However, if there is one, it must be securely fixed and not installed in the cockpit. No exterior modification of the bodywork is to result from its installation.

7 - Insulating material may be added to the existing bulkheads to provide additional protection for the driver from fire.

4.9 Electrical system:

4.9.1) The nominal voltage of the electrical system, including that of the supply circuit of the ignition, must be retained.

Relays, fuses and cables are free.

4.9.2) Battery:

The make, number and capacity of the batteries are free. Each battery must be securely fixed and covered to avoid any short-circuits or leaks. The location of each battery is free, however if in the cockpit it will only be possible behind the front seats or, failling this, at the side of these seats. In this case, the protection box must include an air intake with its exit outside the cockpit (see drawings 255-10 and 255-11). Should the battery be moved from its original position, it must be attached to the body using a metal seat and two metal clamps with an insulating covering, fixed to the floor by bolts and nuts.

For attaching these clamps, bolts with a diameter of at least 10 mm must be used, and under each bolt, a counterplate at least 3 mm thick and with a surface of at least 20 cm2 beneath the metal of the bodywork.

The battery must be covered by a leakproof plastic box, attached independently of the battery (see drawing 255-11).

4.9.3) Generator and voltage regulator:

Free, including position and drive system.

4.9.4) Lighting and indicating:

All lighting and signalling devices, as homologated, must be operational (with the exception of the number-plate lights and reversing lights) in order to preserve vehicle identity. The make of the lighting devices is free. Original headlights may be replaced by others having the same lighting functions as long as there is no cutout in the bodywork, the original holes are completely closed, and the shape of the headlights and their operation remain unchanged. The operating system of the retractable headlights, as well as its energy source, may be modified. If a reversing light is operational, it must only operate when reverse gear is selected. Fog lights may be removed and the subsequent apertures must be blocked off if they are not used according to art. 4.6.4.

The headlamps must be capable of providing effective illumination.

4.10 Fuel circuit:

4.10.1) The fuel tank must be replaced by one or several safety fuel tanks homologated by FIA (specification FT3). Each tank must be placed inside the luggage compartment, or in its original location, provided that it is not in the cockpit. It is permitted to make holes in the bottom of the luggage compartment to allow the refuelling pipes to reach the tank if this is situated beneath the luggage compartment.

The construction of collector-tanks with a capacity of less than 1 litre is free. A fluid/flame-proof bulkhead is to be installed between the tank compartments and the cockpit, and if needs be, suitable protection provided for the supplementary accessories (refuelling orifice, petrol pump, overflow pipe). The changes of the position of the tanks should not give rise to any lightening or reinforcement other than provided for under this article and art. 4.8.1. In the case of a fuel tank being fitted below the floor of the car, it must be contained in a close fitting flame proof housing that adds no aerodynamic advantage. This housing must include a crushable structure as defined for F3 fuel tanks and be secured using a minimum of two metal clamps 30 mm x 3 mm, fixed to the floor pan by bolts and nuts. For attaching these clamps, bolts with at least 10 mm must be used, and under each bolt a counterblow at least 3 mm thick and with a surface of at least 20cm2 above the metal of the floor pan. The opening remaining after the removal of the original tank may be closed by the installation of a panel of the same dimensions as the fuel tank aperture. The position and the dimension of the filler hole, as well as that of the cap may be changed as long as the new installation does not protrude beyond the bodywork, and is effected in such a way that no fuel will leak into the interior compartments of the car. If the filler hole is situated inside the car, it must be separated from the cockpit by a liquid-tight protection.

Fuel lines are permitted through the cockpit, on condition that they are protected with a liquid-tight and flame proof cover.

It is permitted to fit a radiator in the fuel circuit.

The total capacity of the fuel tanks must not exceed 100 litres.

4.10.2) All cars must be fitted with a self sealing connector which can be used by the scrutineers to obtain fuel from the tank.

This connector must be of a type approved by the FIA.

4.11 General prescriptions and safety:

4.11.1 - Cars must comply with the following requirements of Appendix J, article 252 - General Prescriptions and article 253 - Safety, as published in the FIA Yearbook and Sporting Bulletin, and which are not already covered in these regulations:

- 252.1.1 - Prohibited modifications
- 252.1.3 - Magnesium
- 252.2.2 - Ballast
- 252.6 - Wheels
- 252.9.3 - Refuelling procedure
- 252.9.4 - Tank ventilation
- 253.1 - Dangerous car
- 253.3.1 - Protection of lines
- 253.3.2 - Specifications and installation of lines
- 253.3.3 - Automatic fuel cut-off
- 253.4 - Braking safety system
- 253.5 - Additional fasteners
- 253.6 - Harness
- 253.7 - Extinguishers
- 253.8.5 - Safety cage: must be homologated by the FIA for any car built after 01.01.97.
- 253.10 - Towing eye
- 253.13 - General circuit breaker
- 253.14 - FT3 tank
- 253.15 - Protection against fire
- 253.16 - Seat attachments and supports
- 253.17 - Pressure control valves
4.11.2 - Moreover, safety cages must comply with the following measures:

- They must be described on the car's homologation form (art. 253.8.5 of Appendix J).

- The tubes close to the driver must be padded with CF 42 or CF 45 "Confor" foam, or with foam of the "KOLBERMOOR Oldopur 1000" type. This foam must not be inflammable.

- Energy-absorbing material must be placed between the tubes on the side of the cage, to the front and to the rear on the driver's side (see drawing n° 262-5). This material must be installed mechanically, ensuring that the cage remains intact, without piercing, gluing or welding, and must not be inflammable.

- Panels of energy-absorbing material must be placed between the cage and the front and rear doors on the driver's side, and/or between the cage and the seat on the driver's side. This material must not be inflammable.

4.11.3 - The safety harness shoulder straps must be 76 mm (3") wide.

4.11.4 - The use of NASCAR type nets affixed to the safety cage is obligatory.

5) FINAL TEXT

The final text for these regulations shall be the French version which will be used should any dispute arise over their interpretation.