Articles in the Scientific Literature on the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS)
Richard A. Gardner, M.D.
There are some who claim that "the PAS does not exist" because it is not listed in DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Vol. IV, of the American Psychiatric Association). DSM-IV does not consider for inclusion disorders that do not have a backlog of publications. Accordingly, newly described disorders generally have a time-lag before consideration. Between 1987 (the time of publication of DSM-lll- R) and 1994 (the time of publication of DSM-IV) there were only occasional articles published on the PAS. In the last few years, however, there has been increasing attention on the PAS and more articles are being published. When input is being invited for the next edition of DSM-IV (DSM-V?), which will probably not be for a few years, I hope to have enough publications (written by others and myself) to submit a proposal. The argument, sometimes proffered in courts of law, that the parental alienation syndrome does not exist, because it is not listed in DSM-IV, is like saying in 1980 that AIDS does not exist because it was not then to be found in medical textbooks.
There are some who claim that my book on the PAS (The Parental Alienation Syndrome, Creative Therapeutics, Inc., 1992) was not peer-reviewed and therefore the diagnosis cannot be given serious consideration. Again, this is often the argument given by critics, especially in courts of law, when there is something to be gained by utilizing this argument. The facts are that PAS has been given professional recognition via peer-reviewed articles I have written on the PAS that have been published in peer-reviewed professional journals. For those who are not familiar with the term peer reviewed, it refers to scientific publications in which the submitted article is reviewed anonymously by peers with expertise in the particular area being focused on in the submission. Reviewers may reject the article, may accept the article, or may send it back for revision and reconsideration. Generally, the most prestigious journals require peer review before an article can be published.
The following articles of mine on the PAS have been published in peer-review journals.
Gardner, R. A. (1985), Recent trends in divorce and custody litigation. The Academy Forum, 29(2)3-7. New York: The American Academy of Psychoanalysis.
Gardner, R. A. (1987), Child Custody. In Basic Handbook of Child Psychiatry, ed. J. Noshpitz, Vol. V, pp. 637- 646. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
Gardner, R. A. (1987), Judges interviewing children in custody/visitation litigation. New Jersey Family Lawyer, 7(2):26ff.
Gardner, R. A. (1990), Childhood stress due to parental divorce. In Stressors and the Adjustment Disorders, ed. J. D. Noshpitz and R. D. Coddington, pp. 43-59. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Gardner, R. A. (1991), Legal and psychotherapeutic approaches to the three types of parental alienation syndrome families: when psychiatry and the law join forces. Court Review, 28(l):14-21.
Gardner, R. A. (1994), The Detrimental Effects on Women of the Misguided Gender Egalitarianism of Child-Custody Dispute Resolution Guidelines. The Academy Forum. 38 (1/2): 10-13. New York: The American Academy of Psychoanalysis.
In addition, the following articles are devoted completely to the PAS. I am not referring here to occasional reference, or even emphasis, but rather such focus that the term is utilized in the title.
Palmer, N.R. (1988), Legal Recognition of the Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 16(4):361-363.
Goldwater, A. (1991). Le syndrome d'aliénation parentale (in English). In Développements récents en droight familial (pp. 121-145). Cowansville, Quebec: Les Editions Yvon Blais.
Levy, D. (1992), Review of parental alienation syndrome: a guide for mental health and legal professionals. American Journal of Family Therapy, 20(3):276-277.
Cartwright, G.F. (1993). Expanding the Parameters of Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(3):205-215.
Dunne, J. and Hedrick, (1994), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Analysis of Sixteen Selected Cases. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 21(3/4):21-38.
Lund, M. (1995), A therapist's view of parental alienation syndrome. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 33(3):308-316.
Walsh, M. R. and Bone, J. M. (1997), Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Age-old Custody Problem. The Florida Bar Journal, LXXI(6):93-96.
Rand, D.C. (1997a), The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome (part I). American Journal of Forensic Psychology. 15(3):23-51.
Rand, D.C. (1997b), The spectrum of parental alienation syndrome (part II). American Journal of Forensic Psychology. 15(4):39-92.
In addition, there are many publications that focus significantly on the PAS. I am not referring here to an occasional reference but to specific focus on the PAS even though the PAS name does not appear in the title.
- Huntingon, D. S. (1986), The Forgotten Figures in Divorce, and Fatherhood: the Struggle for Parental Identity. Ed. Jacobs, J.W.Washington, D.C.: The American Psychiatric Association Press
- Lampel, A. (1986), Post-divorce therapy with high conflict families. The Independent Practioner, Bulletin of the Division of Psychologists in Independent Practice, Division 42 of the American Psychological Association, 6(3):22-6.
- Jacobs, J. W. (1988), Euripidies' Medea: a psychodynamic model of severe divorce pathology. American Journal of Psychotherapy, XLII(2):308-319.
- Johnston, J. R. and Campbell, L. E. (1988), Impasses of Divorce: The Dynamics and Resolution of Family Conflict. New York: The Free Press.
- Blush, G. J. and Ross, K. L. (1990), Investigation and case management issues and strategies. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations. 2(3): 152-160.
- Wakefield, H. and Underwager, R. (1990), Personality characteristics of parents making false accusations of sexual abuse in custody disputes. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 2(3):121-136.
- Ross, K.L. and Blush, G.J. (1990), Sexual Abuse validity discriminators in the divorced or dovorcing family. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 2(1):1-6.
- Theonnes, N. and Tjaden, P.G. (1990), The extent, nature, and validity of sexual abuse allegations in custody visitation disputes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12:151-163.
- The California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law: Issues and Answers for Health Practitioners. State of California, 1991.
- Clawar, S. S. and Riviin, B. V. (1991), Children Held Hostage: Dealing with Programmed and Brainwashed Children. Chicago, Illinois: American Bar Association.
- Wakefield, H„ and Underwager, R. (1991), Sexual abuse allegations in divorce and custody disputes. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9:451-468.
- Patterson, D. (1991-92), The other victim: the falsely accused parent in a sexual abuse and custody case. Journal of Family Law, 30:919-941.
- Maccoby, E. E. and Mnookin, R. H. (1992), Dividing the Child: Social and Legal Dilemmas of Custody. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Rogers, M. (1992), Delusional disorder and the evolution of mistaken sexual allegations in child custody cases. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 10(l):47-69.
- Ceci, S. J„ and Bruck, M. (1993), Suggestibility of the child witness: a historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3):403-39.
- Johnston, J. R. (1993), Children of divorce who refuse visitation. In Nonresidential Parenting: New Vistas in Family Living, ed. Depner, C. E. and Bray, J.H. London: Sage Publications.
- Rand, D. C. (1993), Munchausen syndrome by proxy: a complex type of emotional abuse responsible for some false allegations of child abuse in divorce. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 5(3)135-55.
- Johnston, J.R. and Campbell, L. E. (1993), Parent-child relationships in domestic violence families disputing custody. Family & Conciliation Courts Review,31(3):2S2-298.
- Sanders, C. H. (1993), When you suspect the worst: bad- faith relocation, fabricated child sexual abuse and parental alienation. Family Advocate, winter:54-56.
- Ward, P. and Harvey, J. C. (1993), Family wars: the alienation of children. New Hampshire Bar Journal,. March:30.
- Garrity, C.B. and Baris, M.A. (1994), Caught in the Middle: Protecting the Children of High-Conflict Divorce. New York: Lexington Books (an Imprint ofMacmillan, Inc.).
- Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceeding (1994). American Psychologist, 49(7)677-680.
- Hysjulien, C„ Wood, B., and Benjamin, G.A.H. (1994), Child custody evaluations: a review of methods used in litigation and alternative dispute resolution. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 32(4):466-489.
- Stahl, P.M. (1994), Conducting Child Custody Evaluations: A Comprehensive Guide. London: Sage Publications. Turkat, I.D. (1994). Child Visitation Interference in Divorce. Clinical Psychology Review, 14(8):737-742.
- Ehrenberg, M. F. and Eiterman, M.F. (1995), Evaluating allegations of sexual abuse in the context of divorce, child custody and access disputes. In True and False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Case Management. ed. Ncy, T. New York: Brunner/Mazel Publishers.
- Mapes, B. E. (1995), Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations. Brandon, Vermont: Clinical Psychology Publishing Co., Inc.
- Turkat, 1. D. (1995), Divorce related malicious mother syndrome. Journal of Family Violence, 10(3):253-264.
- Adams, J. K. (1996), Investigation and interviews in cases of alleged child sexual abuse: a look at the scientific evidence. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 8(3/4):120-138.
- Jones, M.M. and Sullivan, M. (1996), Dealing with Parental Alienation in High Conflict Custody Cases. Presentation at Conference of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, San Antonio, TX.
- Lampel, A. (1996), Children's alignment with parents in highly conf;licted custody cases. Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 34(2):229-239.
- Campbell, T.W. (1997), Psychotherapy with children of divorce: the pitfalls of triangulated relationships. Psychotherapy (In press).
The American Psychological Association has published guidelines* for child-custody evaluations in divorce proceedings. These are the guidelines The American Psychological Association proposes examiners use when conducting such examinations. The guidelines refer to two books of mine, one on the parental alienation syndrome and one on the protocols I use for differentiating between true and false sex-abuse accusations:
- Gardner, R. A. (1992), The Parental Alienation Syndrome: A Guide for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics, Inc.
- Gardner, R. A. (1992), True and False Accusations of Child Sex Abuse. Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics, Inc.
* Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluation in Divorce Proceedings. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association (1994).
The Family Law Section of the American Bar Association invited Clawar and Rivlin to write Children Held Hostage: Dealing with Programmed and Brainwashed Children.**
The following book of mine is referenced:
**Clawar, S. and Rivlin, B.V. (1988), Children Held Hostage: Dealing with Programmed and Brainwashed Children. Chicago, IL:Division of Family Law, American Bar Association.
- Gardner, R.A. (1987),The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the Differentiation Between Fabricated and Genuine Child Sex Abuse Cresskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics, Inc.