Alphabetical List

Alexander Alexius I Alexius II Alexius III Alexius IV Alexius V Anastasius I Anastasius II Andronicus I Andronicus II Andronicus III Andronicus IV Arcadius

Basil I Basil II Basiliseos

Constantine I Constantine III Constantine IV Constantine V Constantine VI Constantine VII Constantine VIII Constantine IX Constantine X Constantine XI Constantius Constans II

Heraclius Herclonas

Irene Isaac I Isaac II

John I John II John III John IV John V John VI John VII John VIII Jovian Julian Justin I Justin II Justinian I Justinian II

Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo V Leo VI Leontus

Manuel I Manuel II Marcian Maurice Michael I Michael II Michael III Michael IV Michael V Michael VI Michael VII Michael VIII

Nicephorus I Nicephorus II Nicephorus III


Romanus I Romanus II Romanus III Romanus IV


Theodora Theodosius I Theodosius II Theodosius III Theophilus Tiberius I Tiberius II Theodore I Theodore II


Zeno Zoe

Chronological List

         Political Development : Construction of the road network in
         Asia Minor. 251: The Emperor Decius falls in the battle of
         Abrittus (Dacia) against the Goths. 260: The Emperor
         Valerian is taken prisoner by Persian King Sapur I.
         Diocletian creates a military zone between the Red Sea and
         the Euphrates.
         Economics and Law : The economic crisis reaches its peak.
         Inflation. The reforms of Diocletian.

324-337 Constantine I
         Political Development : Foundation and development of the
         state church.

337-361 Constantius
         Economics and Law : System of combines. Heavily
         industrialized cities linked with provisioning regions
         (Rome-Sicily, Constantinople-Egypt)

361-363 Julian

363-364 Jovian

364-378 Valens

379-395 Theodosius I

395-408 Arcadius
         Political Development : 395: Official separation of the
         eastern and western halves of the Empire. Construction of
         the wall fortification of Constantinople.
         Economics and Law : Codex Theodosianus.

408-450 Theodosius II
         Political Development : 431: Council of Ephesus. Secession
         of the Nestorians.

450-457 Marcian

457-474 Leo I

474 Leo II

474-475 Zeno
         Political Development : 476: End of the western half of the
         Empire. Germanic principalities set up in the western half
         of the Empire.

475-476 Basiliseos

476-491 Zeno (again)

491-518 Anastasius I
         Political Development : System of military settlements in
         the province of Libya.
         Economics and Law : Lex Romana Visigothorum (506), Spain.
         Germans outside the imperium romanum. The customary law of
         the Germanic peoples.

518-527 Justin I

527-565 Justinian I
         Political Development : Regions regained by Italy and
         Africa are governed by exarchs. War with Persia. Aim of the
         war is to secure the trade route to India.
         Economics and Law : 533: Corpus juris civilis of Justianian
         I (Latin). Early Greek version (paraphrase of Theophilus).
         The so-called Anonymus' Greek version of the Digest. Greek
         collection of canon law (nomocanones).

565-578 Justin II
         Economics and Law : Changeover to a measure of natural
         economy. Wages paid in part in kind by the state
         (officials' and soldiers' wages). Contraction of money
         economy. Firm control of domestic trade. Increase in
         planned economy. Little remains outside the system of

578-582 Tiberius I Constantine

582-602 Maurice

602-610 Phocas

610-641 Heraclius
         Political Development : Byzantine and Persian Empires
         attacked by the Arabs spurred on by the new Muslim faith.

641 Constantine III and Heraclonas

641 Heraclonas

641-668 Constans II

668-685 Constantine IV
         Political Development : Reorganisation of the Empire with
         the introduction of themes. 674-678: Siege of
         Constantinople. First use of Greek fire.
         Economics and Law : Between 600 and 800: private legal
         codes: The Farmer's Law (Georgikos Nomos) and the Rhodian
         Sea Law.

685-695 Justinian II

695-698 Leontius

698-705 Tiberius II

705-711 Justinian II (again)

711-713 Philippicus

713-715 Anastasius II

715-717 Theodosius III

717-741 Leo III
         Political Development : Successful defence of
         Constantinople against the Arabs (717). 726: Beginning of
         the iconoclast controversy. Anti-monastic attitude of the
         Economics and Law : 726: the Ecloga.

741-775 Constantine V

775-780 Leo IV

780-797 Constantine VI

797-802 Irene

802-811 Nicephorus I

811 Stauracius

811-813 Michael I Rangabe

813-820 Leo V

820-829 Michael II

829-842 Theophilus

842-867 Michael III
         Political Development : End of the inonoclast controversy.
         Mission to the Slavs: Constantine and Methodius. 864:
         bulgaria, leading Balkan power accepts the Greek Orthodox
         Economics and Law : Procheiros Nomos: between 867 and 879.
         Epanagoge: between 879 and 886. The Tactica (military
         manual), c.900. Revision of canon law.

867-886 Basil I
         Economics and Law : Deveopment of Byzantine foreign trade
         with the West. Treaties granting monopolies. Rise of Venice
         as distributor of Byzantine goods in the West.

886-912 Leo VI

912-913 Alexander
         Political Development : The legitimate Emperor overshadowed
         by a co-Emperor from the aristocracy.

913-959 Constantine VII

920-944 Romanus I Lecapenus
         Political Development : Eastern policy of the Byzantine
         Empire is directed by the Asia Minor magnates.
         Economics and Law : Result of blackade of Byzantine and
         Islamic goods: Beginning of shortage of luxury wares in the
         West. Development of a western industry in North Italy and
         the Rhine valley.

956-963 Romanus II
         Economics and Law : Beginning of Venetian trading
         aggreements with Muslim states.

963-969 Nicephorus II Phocus

969-976 John I Tzimisces
         Political Development : Russia accepts Orthodoxy

976-1025 Basil II
         Economics and Law : Emperors from the aristocratic magnate
         class give up a planned economy. Liberalizing of the grain

1025-1028 Constantine VIII

1028-1034 Romanus II Argyrus

1034-1041 Michael IV

1041-1042 Michael V
         Political Development : Dynastic crisis arises out of a
         struggle for control of the government.

1042 Zoe and Theodora

1042-1055 Constantine IX Monomachus

1055-1056 Theodora (again)

1056-1057 Michael VI

1057-1059 Isaac I Comnunus

1059-1067 Constantine X Ducas
         Political Development : The Byzantine Empire faces a double
         treat from Seljuk Turks attacking Asia Minor and from the
         Normans in Europe.
         Economics and Law : Economic crisis. The attempt to create
         a state monopoly of corn overturns price control.

1068-1071 Romanus IV Diogenes

1071-1078 Michael VII Ducas

1078-1081 Nicephorus III Botaneiates
         Economics and Law : Debasement of the Byzantine currency.
         Reduction of gold content of the solidi.

1081-1118 Alexius I Comnenus
         Political Development : 1082: Alliance with Venice.

1118-1143 John II Comnenus
         Political Development : Struggle with the Hohenstaufen for
         control of the Mediterranean.

1143-1180 Manuel I Comnenus

1180-1183 Alexias II Comnenus
         Economics and Law : End of independent Byzantine economy.
         Privileges granted to Italian maritime cities. Individual
         treatises with these cites limit Byzantine sovereignity.

1183-1185 Andronicus I Comnenus

1185-1195 Isaac II Angelus

1195-1203 Alexius III Angelus

1203-1204 Isaac II Angelus (again) and Alexius IV Angelus
         Political Development : 1202-1204: Fourth Crusade. Capture
         of Constantinople. Setting up of the Latin Empire.

1204 Alexius V Murtzuphlus
         Political Development : Political consolidation in Asia
         Minor: Empire of Nicaea.
         Economics and Law : Sound economic basis of the Byzantine
         Empire in Asia Minor.

1204-1222 Theodore I Lascaris

1222-1254 John III Ducas Vatatzes

1254-1258 Theodore II Lascaris
         Political Development : 1250: Defeat by Louis IX of France
         at Damietta in Egypt.

1258-1261 John IV Lascaris
         Political Development : 1261: Constantinople retaken by the

1261-1282 Michael VIII Palaeologus
         Political Development : Alliance between the Byzantine
         Empire and the Ilkhan Hulagu of Persia against the Seljuks
         of Asia Minor. 1272: Alliance with the Tartars of South
         Russia. 1274: Union between Byzantine and Roman churches.
         Economics and Law : 1261: Treaty of Nymphaeum. Political-
         economic agreements give the command of the straits to the

1282-1328 Andronicus II Palaeologus
         Political Development : 1282: Sicilian Vespers and the end
         of the Latin Empire.

1328-1341 Andronicus III Palaeologus

1341-1391 John V Palaeologus
         Political Development : Beginning of the period of decline.

1347-1354 John VI Cantacuzenus
         Political Development : Byzantium between the rising
         Ottoman state and the national states in the Balkans
         (Serbia, Bulgaria) and Hungary.
         Economics and Law : The Empire is the base for Genoese
         trade with eastern Asia.

1376-1379 Andronicus IV Palaeologus

1390 John VII Palaeologus

1391-1425 Manuel II Palaeologus
         Political Development : Internal disintegration: social
         struggles between magnates and zealots. Failure to change
         the old universal Byzantine Empire into a national state in
         the Peloponnese.

1425-1448 John VIII Palaeologus

1448-1453 Constantine XI Palaeologus
         Political Development : Conquest of Constantinople by the
         Turks (1453). Certain Greek regions survive under Venetian
         rule until the eighteenth century (areas of Byzantine

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