PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY COURSES

2201/6 GEOMORPHOLOGY (Le3,La2) The main processes responsible for shaping the surface of the Earth are the movement of water, wind, and ice. At present, the work of water is dominant, but many landforms are in fact inherited from the recent Pleistocene glaciation. The course therefore examines weathering, slope development, channel processes and form, drainage basin development, movement of particles in wind, ice movements and glacial deposition, glacio-isostasy and periglacial processes. The chronology and events of the Pleistocene are discussed in some detail. Laboratory and field work will emphasize research and experimentation as aids to the investigation of geomorphic processes. Students may not receive credit for both 2201/6 and 2211/3. Prerequisite: 1200/6, or both 1201/3 and 1202/3. Corequisite: W.H.M.I.S.

2202/6 INTRODUCTORY GEOLOGY (Le3,La2) An introductory course providing the student with the basic fundamentals of history and methods of geology. Topics include the identification of rock and mineral types, the origins of the Earth's history and structure, together with explanation of such catastrophic phenomena as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tidal waves. In addition to pure geology the course will examine both engineering and economic geology. Corequisite: W.H.M.I.S.

2203/6 GEOGRAPHY OF SOILS AND VEGETATION (Le3,La2) A discussion of soil, physical and chemical properties and soil genesis, is followed by an examination of the Canadian Soil Classification System and how it specifically applies to Manitoba. Emphasis on the interrelationships between soil and vegetation at the local, national and international geographical scales is then stressed. During the fall term several field trips allow students the opportunity to observe soil-plant relationships in the field and to collect soil samples for examination in the laboratory. It is recommended that students first take 1200/6, or both 1201/3 and 1202/3. Corequisite: W.H.M.I.S.

2204/3 HUMAN IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT (Le3) A study of the causes, effects, and controls of detrimental change to the natural environment resulting from human activity. Emphasis will be given to issues pertaining to the alteration of ecosystems and the various types of air, water, and soil pollution.

2205/6 CLIMATOLOGY (Le3,La2) The course expands upon the information introduced in the climate half of Physical Geography 1200/6. The first half of the course will review and elaborate upon the global pattern and fundamental mechanisms of climate. The second half will examine meso- and microclimates, including topics such as bioclimatology, agroclimatology, urban climatology, and applied climatology. Students with standing in 2205/3 cannot receive credit for 2205/6. Prerequisite: 1200/6 or 1201/3 and 1202/3. Corequisite: Introductory Statistics advisable.

2206/3 WORLD CLIMATOLOGY (Le3) This course examines the fundamental mechanisms of macro-scale climates and surveys the distribution of climates across the surface of the Earth. Issues related to global climate change and modelling will be introduced. Prerequisite: 1200/6, or 23:1201/3 and 23:1202/3. Restrictions: Students with standing in 2205/6 cannot receive credit for 2206/3.

2207/3 PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY (Le3,La2) This course examines the micro-scale and meso-scale processes by which energy and mass are transferred between the Earth and the atmosphere. The spatio-temporal characteristics of these processes are used to study climates and climate variability. Applications in bioclimatology, agroclimatology, and urban climatology will be discussed. The labs provide an introduction to the use of computers in the analyses of climatological data and the modelling of climatic processes. Prerequisite: 23:2206/3. Restrictions: Students with standing in 2201/6 cannot receive credit for 2207/3.

2210/3 METEOROLOGY (Le3,La2) This course surveys the causes and characteristics of weather. Fundamental thermodynamic and hydrodynamic principles of atmospheric physics will be reviewed. Common and severe/unusual weather phenomena will be explained, as will be the processes involved in the preparation of weather forecasts. Prerequisite: 1200/6 or 1201/3 or permission of Instructor.

2211/3 GLACIAL AND PERIGLACIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY (Le3,La2) This course deals with the major events and processes occurring during the Pleistocene. Topics to be covered include: Pleistocene chronology; causes of glaciation; glacial flow; glacial deposition; glacio-isostasy and associated changes of level; periglacial processes; the Pleistocene in Manitoba (a regional synopsis). Emphasis will be placed on laboratory and field work. Students registering for this course will join 2201/6 for second term. Students may not receive credit for both 2211/3 and 2201/6. Prerequisite: 1200/6, or both 1201/3 and 1202/3, or permission of Instructor. Corequisite: W.H.M.I.S.

2212/3 NATURAL HAZARDS (Le3) This course examines the natural hazards in our environment and their effects on society. The emphasis will be on the actual risk that these events pose, their geographical distribution and the perceived risk that different people associate with them. Special attention will be paid to natural hazards in Canada and newsworthy hazards (such as the eruption of Mt. St. Helens) as they occur during the term. Prerequisite: 1200/6, or both 1201/3 and 1202/3, or permission of Instructor.

3206/3 SYNOPTIC CLIMATOLOGY (Le3) This course examines the relationship between atmospheric circulation systems (at the surface and in the upper atmosphere) and weather and climate at the surface. The nature of atmospheric circulation variability and teleconnections is discussed and used to explain climatic anomalies such as El Nios, droughts, and floods. Prerequisite: 2210/3.

3210/3 HYDROLOGY (Le3) This course examines all major components (precipitation, evaporation, streamflow, groundwater) of the hydrologic cycle with the most attention being given to surface hydrology. The emphasis throughout the course will be placed upon the methods by which each component may be measured or estimated. Additional topics to be covered include the causes and consequences of floods, flood frequency analysis, estimation of peak streamflows, snow hydrology, sediment transport, water balance methods and urban hydrology. Weekly assignments will provide experience in the practical aspects of data treatment, measurement techniques and methods of prediction. This course will be offered in alternate years. Students may not receive credit for both 3210/3 and 4221/3. Prerequisite: 1200/6, or both 1201/3 and 1202/3, or permission of Instructor.

3211/3 KARST AND COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY (Le3,La2) Nearly a third of Manitoba is made up of rocks highly susceptible to chemical solution, and surficial and subterranean karstification is an important aspect of landscape development in the province. Canada possesses the longest coastline in the world, Manitoba is the only prairie province with a sea coast, and Manitoba's lacustrine shorelines show many examples of the same features seen in marine environments. This course examines the distinct processes and landscapes in regions of carbonate rocks and evaporites, and in the coastal zone. Practical laboratory work and field investigations will be integral parts of this course. Prerequisite: 2201/6 or permission of Instructor. Corequisite: W.H.M.I.S.

3215/3 BIOGEOGRAPHY (Le3,La2) This course concentrates on two of the major themes in biogeography. The first section deals with nutrient or biogeochemical cycling, the input and output of energy and nutrients within ecosystems, the throughflow and internal cycles within terrestrial ecosystems and nutrient system modelling. The second section deals with the role of people in accidentally or inadvertently altering biogeochemical cycles and natural soil-vegetation systems, the effects of deforestation and the role of agriculture and fire in the expansion of grasslands and savannas. Laboratory sessions deal primarily with techniques used in the study of nutrient cycles, examples of nutrient cycle modification and techniques used in recounting past environment conditions. Alternates with 3214/3. Prerequisite or Concurrent: 2203/6 or permission of Instructor.

3217/3 TROPICAL ENVIRONMENTS (Le3) This course will deal primarily with the physical geography, soil vegetation systems and induced environmental problems found in the wet and dry tropics and subtropics. Specific topics will include, the influence of tectonics on landscape, variations in climate, soil fertility, soil-vegetation interrelationships, and the consequences of over-exploitation of both physical and biological resources. Prerequisites: 1200/6, or both 1201/3 and 1202/3.



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