**GALOIS GROUP** is found in 1899 in the *Bulletin of the
American Mathematical Society* (OED).

**GALOIS THEORY** is found in 1893 in the *Bulletin of the New
York Mathematical Society.*

The term **GAMMA FUNCTION** was introduced by Legendre (Kline,
page 424).

The term **GASKET** was coined by Benoit Mandelbrot. On page 131,
[Chapter 14] of "The Fractal Geometry of Nature", Benoit Mandelbrot
says:

And on page 142, Mandelbrot adds:Sierpinski gasketis the term I propose to denote the shape in Plate 141.

I call Sierpinski's curve aThe citation above was provided by Julio González Cabillón.gasket,because of an alternative construction that relies upon cutting out 'tremas', a method used extensively in Chapter 8 and 31 to 35.

**GAUSSIAN CURVE** (normal curve) appears in a 1902 paper by Karl
Pearson [James A. Landau].

**GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION** and **GAUSSIAN LAW** were used by
Karl Pearson in 1905 in *Biometrika* (OED2).

**GAUSSIAN LOGARITHM** appears in 1874 in *Rep. Brit. Assoc.*
(1873) (OED2).

The term **GEODESIC** was introduced in 1850 by Liouville and was
taken from geodesy (Kline, page 886).

The term **GEODESIC CURVATURE** is due to Pierre Ossian Bonnet
(1819-1892) [University of St. Andrews website].

**GEOMETRIC MEAN.** The term *geometrical mean* is found in
the 1771 edition of the *Encyclopaedia Britannica* [James A.
Landau].

The term **GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION** was used by Michael Stifel in
1543: "Divisio in Arethmeticis progressionibus respondet
extractionibus radicum in progressionibus Geometricis" [James A.
Landau].

**GEOMETRIC PROPORTION** appears in 1706 in *Synopsis Palmariorum
matheseos* by William Jones: "In any Geometric Proportion, when the
Antecedent is less than the Consequent, the Terms may be express'd by
*a* and *ar* (OED2).

**GEOMETRIC SERIES** is found in English in 1837 (OED2).

**GEOMETRY** appears in English in 14th century manuscripts. An
anonymous 14th century manuscript begins, "Nowe sues here a Tretis of
Geometri wherby you may knowe the heghte, depnes, and the brede
of mostwhat erthely thynges" (Smith vol. I, page 237). The OED shows
another 14th century use.

The term **GEOMETRY OF NUMBERS** was coined by Hermann Minkowski
(1864-1909) to describe the mathematics of packings and coverings.

The term **GÖDEL'S THEOREM** is used by Max Black in 1933 in
*The Nature of Mathematics* (OED2).

**GOLDEN SECTION.** According to *Greek Mathematical Works I -
Thales to Euclid* (which is Loeb 335): "This ratio is never called
the Golden Section in Greek mathematics. The name appeared in print
for the first time, as the goldene Schnitt, in *Die reine
Elementar-Mathematik* by Martin Ohm (1835)." This citation is from
a footnote on page 510 [John Conway].

According to Schwartzman (page 100) *golden section* was
apparently first used in print in 1835 by Georg Simon Ohm.

The term **GOODNESS OF FIT** is found in the sentence, "The
'percentage error' in ordinate is, of course, only a rough test of the
goodness of fit, but I have used it in default of a better." This
citation is a footnote in "Contributions to the Mathematical Theory
of Evolution II Skew Variation in Homogeneous Material," which was in
*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London*
(1895) Series A, vol 186, pp 343-414 [James A. Landau].

**GOOGOL** and **GOOGOLPLEX** are both dated 1938 in MWCD10.
Both terms were coined by Milton Sirotta, nephew of American
mathematician Edward Kasner (1878-1955), according to *Mathematics
and the Imagination* (1940) by Kasner and James R. Newman:

Words of wisdom are spoken by children at least as often as by scientists. The name "googol" was invented by a child (Dr. Kasner's nine-year-old nephew) who was asked to think up a name for a very big number, namely, 1 with a hundred zeros after it. He was very certain that this number was not infinite, and therefore equally certain that it had to have a name. At the same time that he suggested "googol" he gave a name for a still larger number: "Googolplex." A googolplex is much larger than a googol, but is still finite, as the inventor of the name was quick to point out.This quotation was taken from the article "New Names for Old" found in

**GRAD** or **GRADE** (hundredth of a right angle) is found in
1898 in *Houston Elec. Dict.,* in which both spellings are
given. [Joanne M. Despres of Merriam-Webster Inc.] The term may
have been used in the unpublished French *Cadastre* tables of
1801.

**GRADIENT** was introduced by Horace Lamb (1849-1934) in
*An Elementary Course of Infinitesimal Calculus* (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1897):

It is convenient to have a name for the property of a curve which is measured by the derived function. We shall use the term "gradient" in this sense.Sylvester used the term in a different sense in 1887 (OED2).

The *DSB* says that Maxwell introduced the term in 1870; this
seems to be incorrect.

The term **GRAPH** in mathematics is due to Sylvester, according
to the OED2, which states that he shortened the word *graphic*
and applied it to mathematics. The OED2 shows a use of the term by
Sylvester in 1878 in *American Journal of Mathematics* I. 65.

The phrase *graph of a function* was used by Chrystal in 1886 in
*Algebra* I. 307: "This curve we may call the graph of the
function" (OED2).

The term *graph* in the context of graph theory "appears to
have been coined by A. Cayley," according to an Internet web page.

**GRAPH THEORY** appears in 1953 in the title *Graph Theory as a
Mathematical Model in Social Science* by Harary and Norman (OED2).

**GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR** is dated ca. 1924 in MWCD10. In 1881
G. A. Wentworth uses the phrase "highest common factor" in
*Elements of Algebra,* although the phrase "G. C. M. of *a*
and *b*" is found, where the context shows he is referring to
the greatest common divisor [James A. Landau].

**GREEN'S THEOREM** appears in the 1902 *Encyclopaedia
Britannica* [James A. Landau].

**GROEBNER BASES.** Bruno Buchberger introduced Groebner bases in
1965 and named them for W. Gröbner (1899-1980), his thesis
adviser, according to *Ideals, Varieties, and Algorithms* by
Cox, Little, and O'Shea [Paul Pollack].

The term **GROUP** was coined (as *groupe* in French) by
Evariste Galois (1811-1832). According to Cajori (vol. 2, page 83),
the word group was first used in a technical sense by Galois in 1830.
The modern definition of a group is somewhat different from that of
Galois (Hans Wussing, "Die Genesis des abstrakten Gruppenbegriffes,"
Berlin 1969; translated as "The Genesis of the Abstract Group
Concept," M.I.T. Press 1984.). [Ken Pledger]

The term **GROUP OF AN EQUATION** was used by Galois (Kramer).

**GROUP THEORY** is found in English in 1898 in *Proc. Calf.
Acad. Science* (OED2).

**GRUNDLAGENKRISIS** (foundational crisis). Walter Felscher
writes, "As far as I am aware, 'Grundlagenkrisis' was a term invented
during the Hilbert-Weyl discussion between 1919 and 1922, occurring
e.g. in Weyl's *Über die neue Grundlagenkrise der
Mathematik,* Math.Z. 10 (1921) 39-79 .