1998 FORMULA FORD TECHNICAL REGULATIONS
The comments included in brackets e.g. [...] are for your information and assistance and do NOT form part of the Regulations. Items printed in bold italics (e.g.) are changes made for 1998.
Technical information and assistance is detailed in the Formula Ford Technical Manual, available from the Association.
From time to time, clarification of various Regulations may be required.
This can ONLY be given with the prior written approval of CAMS and any such changes will be advised, IN WRITING, to all Members.
Reprinted, with permission, from the 1998 CAMS Manual of Motor Sport
The following is the Australian version of "Formula Ford" as adopted by the Committee of the Formula Ford Association and approved by CAMS.
The Formula Ford Association Inc. (formerly Formula Ford Australia) was formed in March 1969 and is recognised by CAMS. The Association was incorporated in July 1992. The Committee, elected annually by members, represents the interests of entrants and drivers, racing car manufacturers and Organisers.
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1998 Formula Handbook Page 46
Any entrant or driver wishing to compete in Formula Ford events must be a member of the Formula Ford Association Inc. and abide by the rules and regulations issued by the Committee.
Enquiries about activities of Formula Ford should be directed to Mrs. M. Hardy, Formula Ford Association Inc., 12 Adelaide St., Murrumbeena, Vic. 3163.
The Committee and the Administrator of the Formula Ford Association derive the power, in conjunction with CAMS, to police Formula Ford regulations. Breaches of rules requiring punitive action will be referred to CAMS for action within CAMS' judicial procedures (refer NCR 161).
These regulations shall be effective from 1 January 1998, until further notice.
FORMULA FORD is open to single-seater cars with open coachwork as defined by CAMS and complying with its Vehicle Regulations, using standard 1600cc crossflow engines of the types described in Article 2 below (refer also to Schedule A, B & C and the specifications for 1st Category - Racing Cars).
2.1 Engine Type
Only the Ford 1600cc crossflow unit fitted to the Capri XL and the Escort Ghia (1975) is permissible. See Ford Motor Co. of Australia Bulletins :"1971 Capri" (January 1971) and "1975 Escort Ghia" (October 1974).
The nominal bore will be 81mm & stroke 77.62 mm
2.2 Engine Mounting
Engines will be mounted upright, and aligned fore and aft in the chassis, save that cars manufactured prior to 1 January, 1988, and complying with the requirements published in the 1987 FFA Handbook, may continue to race until further notice.
2.3 Addition of Material
The addition of any material, be it metal, plastic or composite etc, by any means be it welding, bonding, encapsulation or encasement to any component is prohibited. However, specific repair of castings may be allowed with the written approval of a FFA scrutineer.
Balancing of reciprocating and rotating parts is permitted only by the removal of metal from locations so provided by the manufacturer.
2.5 Rocker Covers
Non-standard rocker covers are permitted provided that they in no way improve the performance of the engine. Water passages are not permitted in rocker covers.
2.6 Valve Springs
Standard valve spring retainers must be used. Only single valve springs are permitted. Shims are permitted, otherwise valve springs are free.
2.7 Pushrods, Rockers, Tappets,
Pedestals and Shaft
Pushrods, rockers, tappets, pedestals and shaft must remain standard. Re-profiling of the valve stem contact pad on the rocker arm is permitted, provided that the maximum specified lift at the spring cap is not exceeded. No polishing, profiling, lightening or other modification to the standard part is permitted, save that the rocker pedestals may be shimmed (with a parallel strip of steel) to compensate for the surfacing of the cylinder head.
Cam followers may be replaced by after-market units of equivalent design & standard dimensions.
Type: Weber 32/36 DGV or DGAV (from 1600 GT Kent or 2000 NE Engine).
Number on engine: 1
Number of main venturi: 2
Max. dia. of main venturi: 26.0/27.0 mm
Max. dia. of carb. outlet to inlet manifold 32.0/36.0 mm
It is permitted to change jets, open both throttles together, remove cold start devices and diffuser bar, fit internal and external surge compensation pipes and to remove or modify the power valve system to accommodate such pipes.
It is permitted to remove the seals from emission control carburettors.
No other modifications are permitted. Chokes must remain standard and no polishing or re-profiling is permitted. Any means of reducing intake air temperature is prohibited. Any form of water injection is prohibited.
Carburettor to inlet manifold gasket
Part No 1663371: Maximum thickness 6.7 mm
The air cleaner may be removed or replaced and a trumpet fitted.
2.9 Exhaust System
The exhaust system and manifold are free, save for compliance with the requirements of 1st Category - Racing Cars, Part 2 (vi).
A muffler complying with the requirements of CAMS must be fitted at all times during practice and racing.
2.10 Lubrication System
The lubrication system, external to the engine, is free. Existing standard production oilways, linings or oil grooves may be enlarged or reduced but no additional ones are permitted. Standard friction surfaces must remain unchanged.
[Note: The word reduced does not mean removed.]
Dry sump is permitted: Oil coolers are free.
2.11 Cooling system
A liquid cooling system is mandatory. Radiator and water pump are free, save that the water pump must be in the original location.
The radiator if housed in or incorporating a cool air scoop or deflector must comply with the bodywork regulations.
From 1 January, 1995, the only permitted camshaft is a Ford production camshaft purchased from the Formula Ford Association Inc, (FFAI) being part number FFAC1 - nnn (nnn representing a three-digit number unique to each individual camshaft) which number is stamped on the camshaft.
The camshaft will be ground from a master cam approved by CAMS and held by the FFAI. Each unit will be the subject of a "cam doctor" report.
The minimum base circle diameter will be 25.900mm.
"Tuftriding" or "Parkerising" is permitted. Shot peening, shot blasting or polishing are prohibited. Offset dowels are permitted.
Notwithstanding anything else in this Regulation, modification of the camshaft is expressly prohibited.
Camshafts may be tested and measured on an approved "cam doctor" as nominated by FFAI or CAMS and may be compared with the original report for that camshaft and/or with a report from the master camshaft.
Maximum permitted lift at the top of the pushrod:
- inlet 5.917mm
- exhaust 5.943mm
Maximum permitted lift at the spring cap with
zero tappet clearance:
- inlet 9.042mm
- exhaust 9.093mm
Measurement of Lift
Where any engine valves, up to a maximum of two being inlet and/or exhaust, are found to have lift in excess of that permitted, then the lift on all four inlet valves or all four exhaust valves is to be added and divided by four. The average lift as determined may not exceed that permitted for the relevant valve. If more than two valves are measured as having excess lift, then the foregoing does not apply and the engine is prima facie ineligible.
A standard crankshaft must be used. Localised spot machining of the outer (ie, larger) circumference of the counterweights, or the outer face of the inner (ie, smaller) circumference of the big end surfaces may be undertaken only to achieve balance.
Crankshafts may be ground to reclaim damaged surfaces in accordance with normal reconditioning procedures, provided always that the stroke is standard.
Tuftriding, shot peening and shot blasting are permitted. Polishing is prohibited.
Minimum Weight: 11.1kg
Crankshaft pulley is free as is the toothed belt drive. It is not permitted to alter the number of bearings or fit bearings of less than standard production width.
Standard oversize and undersize bearings are permitted.
Main bearing cap bolts may be replaced by ferrous bolts of similar type and dimension.
It is permitted to dowel the rear crank seal housing and to machine the rear seal housing to allow external removal and fitment of the seal.
2.14 Flywheel and Clutch
The flywheel and clutch pressure plate assembly must be standard components. The ring gear is free but must be directly fitted to the flywheel and must have a minimum ID of 215mm.
It is permissible to mill or machine the flywheel only to achieve minimum weight and balance.
For rectification the clutch mating face may be resurfaced. It is permitted to use a similar pattern replacement clutch (ie, conventional single diaphragm spring) driven plate with more than one shock absorber spring. Organic friction material only is permitted.
Racing clutches are prohibited.
Wheel bolts are free. Locating dowels are permitted. The addition of a single flat washer under the head of each bolt is permitted. Maximum dimensions for these washers are:
It is permitted to secure the starter ring to the flywheel.
Flywheel and clutch assembly (ie, complete unit, including flywheel to crankshaft mounting bolts)
Minimum permitted weight: 11.79kg
2.15 Compression Ratio
The maximum compression ratio will be controlled as follows:
minimum combustion volume in piston 41 cc (with piston at TDC in cylinder & no account taken of volume down to top piston ring), measured in "as run" condition (eg, without removal of carbon);
standard Ford cylinder head gasket part no. 781 M6051 AA; min. compression thickness, 0.85mm; min. dia. of cylinder aperture, 82.5mm;
pistons must not produce above the cylinder block face at TDC. The cylinder block surface may be machined;
maximum permitted protrusion of the valves into the combustion chamber: 1.2mm;
notwithstanding the requirements herein & in other relevant regulations, including those of cylinder head, pistons, cylinder blocks etc, engines prepared for competition in accordance with the eligibility requirements published in the 1987 FFA Handbook may continue to race until further notice provided such engines comply with all such requirements. It is not permissible for engine specifications to be selected from both these & earlier Regulations.
2.16 Inlet and Exhaust Ports
It is permissible to reshape inlet and exhaust ports by removal of metal within limits. Any chamfering of ports at manifold faces will be included in port measurements. Addition of material in any form is prohibited.
Maximum port diameter at inlet manifold face:
Inlet and exhaust port diameter may be exceeded in isolated spots if the original casting is visible and untouched at the gasket face.
2.17 Repairs and Replacement
It is permitted, as a means of repair, to replace damaged valve guides to standard dimensions, and to fit hardened valve seat inserts, with a maximum depth of 8.5mm.
It is permitted, as a means of repair, to replace damaged cylinder bores with cast iron cylinder liners, all to standard dimensions.
Localised machining of the cylinder block is permitted to allow fitting of a dry sump system.
The crankcase breather may be altered or removed, but all breathers must discharge to a catch tank.
The block may be machined to maintain deck height.
Pedestal and cylinder head bolts may be replaced by ferrous bolts of similar type and dimension.
2.18 Inlet Manifold
Standard Ford production inlet manifold for 1600 GT Kent engine, unmodified in any way must be used; save that it is permissible to match he manifold ports to the cylinder head ports by machining the manifold ports to a distance not exceeding 35mm from the manifold head inner face, including polishing.
The mounting holes of the inlet manifold may be enlarged and/or bushed to achieve adjustment. Dowelling of the inlet manifold to the cylinder head is permitted.
Carburettor Seat Face
The carburettor seat face may be machined to horizontal in the fore and aft plane, save for those cars exempted in Regulation 2.2 which may have the carburettor seat face machined to the horizontal in all planes.
The water passage in the inlet manifold may be blanked off or plugged.
The manifold may be machined externally sufficiently to clear the throttle mechanism in the case of both throttles being opened together.
The thickness of the inlet manifold to cylinder head gasket part no. EEG 64 must be not more than 0.86mm.
Other than as provided above, manifolds must remain standard.
Pistons must be standard Ford production pistons unmodified in any way except for balancing and as detailed herein.
All three piston rings must be fitted, which must be of standard production or similar pattern replacements, ie, the compression rings must be one-piece, single-material type with conventional plain gaps. Chromium plating of the top ring is optional. The oil control rings must be either single-piece twin land or apex three-piece (two rails and an expander) type.
Molybdenum-faced top compression rings are permitted.
Matching of the top and bottom of the crown (including the bowl) and the gudgeon pin bosses of the piston to achieve volumetric and weight balance and minimum weight is permitted.
Minimum weight complete with pistons rungs and gudgeon pin: 520g
Weight of gudgeon pin: 115 ± 2g
Notwithstanding the above, engines with pistons complying with the 1996 Regulations may continue to be used until 31 December, 1997.
Valves must remain standard. No re-profiling or polishing is permitted. The original 45° seat angle must be maintained.
Distance apart at the centres: 39.12 ± 0.5mm
Maximum face diameter: inlet 39.62mm; exhaust 34.00mm
Overall length: inlet 110.92 ± 0.5mm; exhaust 101.61 ± 0.5mm
Valve stem seals are optional.
Valves with oversize valve stems are permitted, provided that they are standard Ford Motor Co. replacement parts.
2.21 Connecting Rods
Connecting rods must be standard Ford parts. Machining is permitted to remove metal from the balancing bosses on the big end cap and at the little end to achieve balance only. Polishing is prohibited. Connecting rod bolts may be replaced by ferrous bolts of similar type and dimension.
Minimum weight (including bolts and small end bearing): 640g.
2.22 Timing Chain
The timing chain cover may be altered or replaced. Mechanical tachometer drives may be fitted.
2.23 Non-Standard Replacements
The use of non-standard replacement fasteners, nuts, bolts, screws, studs and washers which are not connected with or which do not support any moving parts of the engine or its compulsorily retained accessories is permitted.
Gaskets are free and must be of approximate production thickness except for the cylinder head, carburettor to inlet manifold, and inlet manifold to cylinder head gaskets which must be of standard Ford manufacture for the engine.
Pump, fan and generator drive pulleys and their retention bolts, washers and belts are free.
Compounds and Cleaning
Any process of cleaning may be used providing the surface finish on any component which must remain standard is not affected.
Forced induction eg, supercharging, is prohibited.
3. FUEL SYSTEM
3.1 Fuel Pump
Only the standard mechanical fuel pump for the engine is permitted.
3.2 Fuel pipes are free.
3.3 Fuel cooling radiators are not permitted.
3.4 Fuel tanks are free.
3.5 Commercial fuel
Only commercial fuel, as defined by CAMS, may be used unless otherwise specified by CAMS.
Maximum capacity of fuel tank: 41 litres.
The gearbox must contain not more than four forward gears and include an operable reverse gear, capable of being engaged by the driver whilst normally seated.
Gear selection mechanism must be mechanical in operation. Electronic, sequential, hydraulic or pneumatic systems are prohibited.
Notwithstanding, cars which are the subject of a Certificate of Origin dated prior to 1 January, 1988, and fitted with gearboxes incapable of carrying a reverse gear may continue to race without an operable reverse gear until further notice.
4.2 Ratios The ratios are free.
4.3 Rear-wheel drive only is permitted.
4.4 Final drive ratio is free.
Torque biasing, limited slip and locked differentials are prohibited. The use of non-ferrous material in different components is prohibited.
From 1 January, 1997, all new Formula Ford chassis will be required to be constructed with lateral protection structures.
A lateral protection structure is defined as continuous panels whose projection on a vertical plan parallel to the longitudinal axis of the car shall be at least 15cm high, shall extend on either side of the car, at a minimum distance of 55cm from the car's longitudinal centre line between at least the transverse planes passing through the fuel tank rear face and the frontal extremity of the minimum cockpit opening, and at a minimum distance of 35cm from the car's longitudinal centre line between at least the transversal planes passing through the above extremity and the front rollover bar hoop.
These panels shall be made from a composite material of 30cm² minimum cross section with a honeycomb core in metal giving adequate resistance to compression. The external skins shall be of aluminium alloy of a minimum thickness of 0.5mm or made up of another assembly of materials of equivalent efficiency. The panels must be securely attached to the bottom and at the upper extremity to the main structure of the car in such a manner as to ensure absorption of a lateral impact.
The radiators may play the role of protective panels or of transversal struts.
The periphery of the bodywork covering the lateral protection structure, when viewed from below, must be curved upwards with a minimum radius of 5cm, and a maximum radius of 7cm with the exception of air entry and exit openings into the lateral protection structure. The floor of the side pod must reflect the plan of the upper surface.
The floor is to be in the same plane as the undertray in both directions, ie transverse and longitudinal, subject to all points being within 2.54cm of any flat plane situated under the car (see 5.1 below).
5.1 Chassis Construction
The chassis must be of tubular steel construction with no stress-bearing panels except bulkheads and undertray; curvature of the undertray must not exceed 2.54cm.
Monocoque chassis construction is prohibited.
Stress-bearing panels are defined as sheet metal affixed to the frame by welding, bonding or rivets or bolts or screws which have centres closer than 15.24cm. Bodywork must not be used as stress-bearing panels.
5.2 Older Cars
Notwithstanding the provisions of Regulation 5.1 above, cars manufactured (and subject to a Certificate of Origin dated) prior to 1 January, 1985 and complying with the requirements published in the 1984 CAMS Manual of Motor Sport may continue to race until further notice.
5.3 Prohibited Materials
The use of stabilised/composite materials using carbon and/or Kevlar reinforcement is prohibited.
5.4 Tubes Prohibited
No engine oil or water tubes are permitted within the cockpit.
5.5 Current Cars
All cars manufactured on or after 1 January, 1987, must also comply with the following:
the internal cross-sectional area of the cockpit from the soles of the driver's feet to behind his seat shall nowhere be less than 700 sq cm. The minimum width must be 25cm over the whole length of the cockpit. The only intrusion permitted into the cross-sectional area is the steering column;
the driver's feet (in normal position, pedals not depressed) must be located behind a line drawn through the front wheel axis.
5.6 Ride Height
No part of the car, except for tyres, may be closer to the ground than 40mm. This measurement will be taken with the driver seated at the steering wheel, the car in race trim and with the wheels pointed straight ahead.
6. WHEELS AND TYRES
Wheels are free, save that:
only 13" wheels with a maximum rim width of 5½" are permitted;
if of non-ferrous material, they must be a production (ie, mass produced) type of Australian manufacture;
all wheels must be of one-piece construction (ie, composite wheels are not permitted).
6.2 Safety Checks
For safety reasons, it is strongly recommended that weekly checks are carried out and that wheels are renewed at least once every year.
The make, type, specification and dimensions of the tyres permissible for use in Formula Ford racing shall be advised from time to time.
For 1998, the permissible tyres are:
Avon ACB10 SemiSlick compound cross ply
- Front: 7317 MX 6.0/21.0 x 13
- Rear: 7319 MX 7.0/22.0 x 13
6.4 Tread Depth
At the start of any race or timed official practice the depth of tread must be at least 1mm, save that isolated flat spots may not render a tyre ineligible.
6.5 Tyre Warmers
The use of any device to artificially heat the tyres is prohibited.
6.6 Tyre Covers
Protective tyre covers may be used in the paddock area. Their use is prohibited in the assembly, impound and scrutiny areas and they must not be re-fitted until after all post-session checks are completed.
7. STEERING GEAR
The complete steering system is free.
The complete braking system is free, save that:
it must be a dual system;
alloy callipers and/or calliper pistons are not permitted;
only brake discs made predominantly from ferrous material are permitted, but pad material is free, including carbon metallic.
9. SUSPENSION AND RUNNING GEAR
9.1 Suspension System
All parts of the suspension system must be of steel or ferrous material, with the exception of bellcranks, tracking or alignment arms, hubs, hub adaptors, hub carriers, bearings and bushes, spring caps, abutment nuts and anti-roll bar links.
9.2 Active Suspension
Active suspensions are prohibited, as is any system which allows control of the flexibility of the suspension springs, shock absorption and trim height whilst the car is moving.
9.3 The use of titanium is prohibited.
9.4 Shock Absorbers
Shock absorbers are free, save that vehicles cannot be fitted with more than four, ie, no more than two at the front and rear. Interconnection of fluid between units and mechanical interconnection between front and rear units is not permitted.
10. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
10.1 Generator is optional.
Distributors are free provided that they retain the original drive and location. The distributor is defined as the component which triggers the LT current and distributes the HT ignition current.
The ignition timing may be varied only by vacuum and/or mechanical means.
It is prohibited to use any other method or component to trigger, distribute or time the ignition.
It is permitted to mount a simple indicating pointer to the engine to facilitate the timing of the distributor with respect to the crankshaft/flywheel.
Transistorised ignition is not permitted.
10.3 Starter Motor
A starter motor, capable of starting the engine at the start of and during an event, must be fitted.
11.1 Aerodynamic Devices
Any device designed to aerodynamically augment the downthrust on the vehicle is prohibited. These devices specifically include aerofoils, venturi tunnels, skirts, nose fins and spoilers of any kind. Integration of aerofoils and spoilers by design or the mismatching of bodywork and/or chassis panels and members is also prohibited.
11.2 Upper Rear Bodywork
The upper rear bodywork (located above the wheel centreline) is permitted to extend rearwards for a maximum of 375mm from a line drawn through the rear wheel axis. The maximum height at any part wider than 110cm ahead of the front wheels is not to exceed the front wheel rim height.
11.3 Shape of Bodywork
The shape of the bodywork behind a vertical line drawn from the highest point of the roll-over bar must not include any reflex curves or flat surfaces which are capable of augmenting downthrust.
11.4 Lower Rear Bodywork
The lower rear bodywork (located below the wheel centreline) is only permitted alongside and beneath the engine and may only extend from behind the cockpit to a line drawn through the rear wheel axis. The incorporation of suspension or other fairings in this bodywork is prohibited.
11.5 Suspension Members
It is not permitted to construct any suspension member in the form of an aerofoil or to incorporate a spoiler in the construction of any suspension member.
The use of suspension fairings separate from this bodywork is prohibited.
11.6 Carbon Fibre
The use of composite materials using carbon fibre reinforcement is prohibited.
11.7 Roll Bar
The roll bar must comply with the requirements of Schedule J.
11.8 Seat Belts
Seat belts must be fitted in accordance with the requirements of Schedule I.
11.9 Nose Boxes
Nose boxes/cones manufactured in ferrous materials (eg steel) are prohibited.
The minimum racing weight at any time including the driver with helmet and wearing all apparel (eg, as at the end of a race or practice) shall be 495kg as recorded on the scales at the circuit on the day of the meeting. Any ballast which is carried must be securely fixed (eg, welded, riveted, or bolted) and located in a position able to be readily checked.
13. ENGINE SEALING
All engines must have provision for scrutineers' wire seals - 2mm (5/64") holes pre-drilled in readily accessible locations on installed engines must be available if requested by the scrutineers. The following are required:
Sump: two holes through the cylinder block/sump joint flange, one either side of the engine.
Timing Cover: at least two retaining screw heads must be cross-drilled.
Rocker Cover: at least two retaining screw heads must be cross-drilled.
Carburettor at least two of the retaining nuts must be cross-drilled.
Distributor: no special requirement.
Bell housing: at least two of the bolts fastening the housing to the engine must be cross-drilled to provide sealing of the clutch/flywheel assembly; alternatively entrants may provide for sealing of the clutch and flywheel by cross-drilling at least two of the clutch cover retaining bolts.
Inlet Manifold: the heads of at least two of the retaining bolts must be cross-drilled.
14.1 Standard Parts Required
Engine components not covered by these Regulations must remain standard and unmodified. The requirement for the use of standard parts is deemed to mean the part, as defined by the part number, prescribed by the Ford Motor Co. spare parts listing for the appropriate engine. Unless otherwise specified herein, all parts shall be "standard" parts and further, unless specifically authorised they shall not be altered in any way; and they shall be assembled and fitted in the manner intended by the Ford Motor Co.
14.2 Exotic Materials
The use of titanium, high-strength composites and similar material is prohibited.
14.3 Electronic Equipment
Data loggers are only permitted one speed sensor, which must be fitted to a front wheel. Random data sampling may be undertaken by the Technical Commissioner. Telemetry devices are prohibited.
The fitment of an electronic timing device as required by the circuit timing systems is permitted.
Timing transmitters must be fitted, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, at a position no less than 1.6 m behind the point of the nose of the car, unless otherwise directed by meeting officials.
14.4 Communication Systems
Electronic systems (eg, radio, mobile phone etc), designed to provide communication between car and pit during competition, are not permitted.