(DRAFT) - Taxonomy
                              Species MALLARD, MARIANA
                                Species Id ESIS101048
                                   Date 14 MAR 96



TAXONOMY

NAME - MALLARD, MARIANA OTHER COMMON NAMES - MALLARD, MARIANAS; MALLARD, MARIANA; DUCK, MARIANAS; DUCK and OUSTALET'S ELEMENT CODE - CATEGORY - Birds PHYLUM AND SUBPHYLUM - CHORDATA, CLASS AND SUBCLASS - AVES, ORDER AND SUBORDER - ANSERIFORMES, FAMILY AND SUBFAMILY - ANATIDAE, GENUS AND SUBGENUS - ANAS, SPECIES AND SSP - OUSTALETI, SCIENTIFIC NAME - ANAS OUSTALETI AUTHORITY - TAXONOMY REFERENCES - COMMENTS ON TAXONOMY - Marianas Mallard Anas oustaleti Salvadori, 1894 KINGDOM: Animal GROUP: Bird PHYLUM: Chordata CLASS: Aves ORDER: Anseriformes FAMILY: Anatidae Apparently two distinct morphs of the Marianas mallard (Anas oustaleti) exist. Following Yamashina (01) they are called the platyrhynchos type and the superciliosa (=poecilorhynca) type because of their similarities to the Mallard (A. platyrhynchos) and the Grey or Black duck (A. superciliosa) of the South Pacific. The Mariana mallard (A. oustaleti) is a typical dabbling duck 50.8-55.88 cm (20-22 inches) in length with the silhouette of a mallard. Measurements (in milimeters) from nine Marianas mallards (12) are: wing 238-266 (252); tail 75-84 (81); exposed culmen 49-53 (51); tarsus 41-43 (42). Species description: (01) The "platyrhynchos" type, adult male nuptial plumage: Head - whole head dark green except at sides which are intermingled with buff feathers, a dark brown streak through the eye and a faint white ring Taxonomy - 1 (DRAFT) - Taxonomy Species MALLARD, MARIANA Species Id ESIS101048 Date 14 MAR 96 on the lower neck; Scapulars and side of body - as in A. superciliosa, sides of body vermiculated but some brown feathers are found even in the full nuptial plumage, under wings lighter. Upper breast - dark reddish chestnut with dusky spots; Tail - upper and under tail coverts as in A. platyrhynchos i.e., dark below and above with white tail feathers, central upper tail coverts dark and curled upward. Speculum - as in A. platyrhynchos, i.e., dark blue bordered by white margins, upper border buff instead of white in some specimens; Bill - black with olive tip; Iris - dark brown; Feet - reddish orange, webs darker. Adult male eclipse plumage resembles eclipse plumage of A. platyrhynchos. The "superciliosa" type, adult male nuptial plumage resembles A. superciliosa pelewensis from Palau and Truk with the following differences: Head - top of head dark brown, sides of head brown and buffy, dark brown eye line, buffy eye stripe above, sides of head are browner, supercilliary stripes and ground color of cheeks are more buffy than A. superciliosa; Scapulars and sides of body - dark brown with light brown margins, more broadley edged with light brown than A, superciliosa; Underwing lighter; Upper breast - dark brown with light brown margins, more broadly edged with light brown then A. superciliosa; Tail - dark brown with no white, central upper tail coverts flat without curls; Speculum - usually dark blue or purple as in A .platyrhynchos but two specimens had dark green speculums, margins of speculum usually white, but sometimes faint or buffy. Bill - olive with black spot in center of mandible; Iris - dark brown. Feet - dark orange, darker in joints and webs. Adult male eclipse plumage same as nuptial plumage. Females of platyrhychos and superciliosa types are indistinguishable from each other and resemble A. superciliosa except for a blue speculum. General description: an all brown duck with feathers edged with light brown, sides of face marked with light yellow or buffy feathers, dark eye line through eye with buffy eye stripe above, tail brown without upward curling feathers, speculum blue, bill blackish or brownish. Species identification: The Marianas mallard was first described by Bonaparte in 1856 (02) as a subspecies of Anas boschas, based on one specimen from "Les Isles Malouines" in the Paris Museum. Thirty-eight years later Salvadori (03) examined the same specimen and called it A. oustaleti. The next six specimens were collected by Marche from Guam in 1888 and described by Oustalet (04). Since then the taxonomy of the species has been debated from time to time. Kuroda (05) changed the genus to Polionetta. Hartert (06) felt the population was a subspecies of A. superciliosa, and recent authors Amadon (07) and Delacour and Mayr (08) state that it is a subspecies of the Common mallard A. platyrhychos oustaleti. Much of the debate over the true species status was generated by Yamashina (01) in his studies on the hybrid origin of the Marianas mallard. Weller (09) in his recent review of island ducks prefers the mallard subspecies theory while Greenway (10) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (11) consider it a true species. Taxonomy - 2 (DRAFT) - Taxonomy Species MALLARD, MARIANA Species Id ESIS101048 Date 14 MAR 96 Specimens: The type specimen is located in the Paris National Museum of Natural History. There are fewer than 100 specimens recorded in the literature. The majority were collected by the Japanese in the 1930's to 1940's (12) and kept in private collections. Their whereabouts following the war is unclear. There are six additional specimens in the Paris Museum collected by Marche, one in the Tring Museum collected by Hartert (06), two in the U.S. National Museum and six in the American Museum of Natural History (12). There is an extensive series of slides of the Marianas mallard in the Honolulu office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. They were taken of captive ducks in 1979, the last positively identified birds found in the wild. The birds were captured for an artifical propagation program that eventually failed. Taxonomy - 3
                                  (DRAFT) - Status
                              Species MALLARD, MARIANA
                                Species Id ESIS101048
                                   Date 14 MAR 96



STATUS

Coded Status E: Federal Endangered Commercial/consumption Game (Consumptive Recreational) Non-consumptive recreational COMMENTS ON STATUS - U.S. STATUSES AND LAWS: The Marianas mallard (Anas oustaleti) has been designated an Endangered species pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (50 CFR 17.11; P.L. 93-205, 87 Stat. 884; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1540), as amended. The species has this status wherever found including the Territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. This species is protected by the Lacey Act (P.L. 97-79, as amended; 16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.) which makes it unlawful to import, export, transport, sell, receive, acquire, or purchase any wild animal (alive or dead including parts, products, eggs, or offspring): (1) in interstate or foreign commerce if taken, possessed, transported or sold in violation of any State law or regulation, or foreign law; or (2) if taken or possessed in violation of any U.S. law, treaty, or regulation or in violation of Indian tribal law. It is also unlawful to possess any wild animal (alive or dead including parts, products, eggs, and offspring) within the U.S. territorial or special maritime jurisdiction (as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7) that is taken, possessed, transported, or sold in violation of any State law or regulation, foreign law, or Indian tribal law. RESPONSIBLE FEDERAL AGENCIES: USFWS -Responsible for the management/recovery, listing, and law enforcement/protection of this species. DOD -Responsible for the law enforcement/protection of this species with applicable State and Federal laws on public land under their control. Also responsible for management/recovery on Department of Defense lands. All Federal agencies have responsibility to ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out by that agency is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of the species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of Critical Habitat (50 CFR 402), and to utilize their authorities to carry out programs for the conservation of the species. Status - 1 (DRAFT) - Status Species MALLARD, MARIANA Species Id ESIS101048 Date 14 MAR 96 STATE STATUSES AND LAWS: TERRITORY: Guam DESIGNATED STATUS: Endangered ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCY: Division of Aquatic and Wildlife Resources, Department of Agriculture, Guam STATE STATUTE: Endangered Species Act of Guam 1982; Guam Public Law 15-36, June 18, 1979. COMMONWEALTH: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands DESIGNATED STATUS: None. INTERNATIONAL STATUSES, TREATIES, AND AGREEMENTS: This species is listed in Appendix I of CITES; it is listed as Endangered in the IUCN Red Book (1981 edition) and the 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. ECONOMIC STATUSES: The Marianas mallards were once hunted for food. They also were once sought recreationally by bird watchers. 77/02/22:42 FR 10465/10488 - Rule on CITES. 77/06/02:42 FR 28136/28137 - Listing, final rule. 77/07/14:42 FR 36420/36431 - Updated list. 78/03/06:43 FR 09168/09172 - Survey of species listed by CITES. 78/05/03:43 FR 19176/19191 - Survey of species listed by CITES. 78/12/11:43 FR 58030/58048 - Updated list. 80/04/03:45 FR 22848/22849 - Final rule on amended CITES list. 80/05/20:45 FR 33768/33779 - Updated list. 81/09/04:46 FR 44660/44674 - Final rule on amended CITES list. 82/09/27:47 FR 42387/42388 - Five year review. 83/07/27:48 FR 34182/34196 - Updated list. 87/07/07:52 FR 25522/25528 - Five year review. Status - 2
     

HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS

HABITAT - AQUATIC INLAND AQUATIC COASTAL LAND USE - Streams and Canals Lakes Nonforested Wetland NATIONAL WETLAND INVENTORY CODES NWI NWICLS NWIMOD NWISPEC Lacustrine, littoral EM2 Palustrine EM2 Palustrine EM1 Estuarine, intertidal FO3 COMMENTS ON HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS - Marianas mallards typically inhabit wetland areas, particulary freshwater/brackish lakes and ponds adjacent to marshes, but are also known to use lagoons, streams and flooded fields (12,14,15,16). Historically the major wetlands used by mallards included: on Guam, the Talofofo River Valley, small streams and scattered small marshy areas (12); on Tinian, Lake Hagoi, a small "freshwater" pond surrounded by 40 acreas of marsh on the northern end of Tinian (01,15); on Saipan, the Garpan lagoon, a small mangrove covered lagoon on the west coast and Lake Susupe a 45 acrea brackish water lake with several hundred acres of adjacent marsh and small ponds. All three islands also have temporary ponds that are used seasonally by waterfowl. In 1984 wetlands in the Northern Marianas were rated as primary or secondary mallard habitat on the basis of water levels, nesting cover and size. Of 12 wetland areas only 4 ranked as having primary habitat potential for mallards (18). Wetland vegetation typical of mallard habitat is described in detail by Stemmermann (20). Dense nesting and security cover in the best habitat includes thick stands of large aquatic fern Acrostichum aureum and zones of Scirpus, Cyperus and Phragmites karka (15). Little is known about the environmental parameters required by A. oustaleti except that it is depended on small natural wetlands that varied from rivers and streams to ponds and small lakes and mangrove lagoons. Presumably the salinity, temperature, turbidity and nutrient levels varied between locations. A wetlands survey, conducted by the Army Corps of Engineers (14), described wetland areas relative to wetland bird populations. Habitat Associations - 1
                                (DRAFT) - Food Habits
                              Species MALLARD, MARIANA
                                Species Id ESIS101048
                                   Date 14 MAR 96



FOOD HABITS

TROPHIC LEVEL - OMNIVORE LIFESTAGE FOOD FOOD PART General Crustaceans General Molluscs General Floating aquat. plant General Vascular Plants-Emergent Nonwoody General Vascular Plants-Submerged Nonwoody General Poaceae General General Arthropods Food Habits - 1
                         (DRAFT) - Environment Associations
                              Species MALLARD, MARIANA
                                Species Id ESIS101048
                                   Date 14 MAR 96



ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS

G = General A = Adult LIM = Limiting RA = Resting Adult J = Juvenile FA = Feeding Adult RJ = Resting Juvenile BA = Breeding Adult FJ = Feeding Juvenile P = Pupae L = Larvae E = Egg RL = Resting Larvae FL = Feeding Larvae
LIFESTAGE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSOCIATIONS G Coastal Features: Vegetated offshore islands G Human Association: Farm ponds Environment Associations - 1
                               (DRAFT) - Life History
                              Species MALLARD, MARIANA
                                Species Id ESIS101048
                                   Date 14 MAR 96



LIFE HISTORY

FOOD HABITS: Virtually nothing is recorded about the food habits of A. oustaleti (12,15). The only specific comment is made by Marshall (16) who states: "This mallard feeds on green vegetation and seeds by plucking away at the grass in very shallow water. No tip-up feeding was seen." The food habits checklist (refer to field "Food:") is constructed from the food habits of the Common mallard and what foods are available in Marianas wetlands. One can expect that A. oustaleti will eat floating, emergent, and submerged nonwoody plants, grasses, seeds, insects, crustaceans and snails. HOME RANGE/TERRITORY: There are no specific observations of territorial behavior in A. oustaleti (12,15), but one can expect that territorial behavior occurs during the breeding season as it does for most ducks. Again, the behavior of the species is poorly documented. Pair bonding occurs during the mating season, but the female is responsible for nest building and rearing of young. Young chicks stay with their mother until they are fledged and can live independently. Size of home range is unknown, although the wetlands that mallards inhabit are sometimes quite small. PERIODICITY: There is no record of any unusual periodicity displayed by A. oustalet (12,15). As one might expect they tend to use dense cover in the middle of the hot tropical day (24). MIGRATION PATTERNS: In a strict sense this species is nonmigratory. The Marianas mallard is known from only three small islands in the Mariana archipelago (Guam, Tinian, Saipan) (12). Inter-island movement of ducks between Saipan and Tinian separated by three miles of open ocean does not occur (15,18). Movements probably occur as a means of obtaining food or in reaction to human disturbances. Inter-island movements between Guam and Rota (30-40 miles) have been suspected but never proven (12). COVER/SHELTER REQUIREMENTS: Dense cover associated with wetlands includes large stands of rushes Scirpus juncoides, Phragmites karka and various sedges. Also important for cover are wetland ferns Acrostichum aureum which form hammocks in several marshes (20). The largest complex of mallard habitat lies in southern Saipan, the Lake Susupe marsh area, a total of 150-200 acres with periphal marsh habitat. Other areas known to have been used by mallards are much smaller; they bred on Lake Hagoi which is a small pond of about 10 acres surrounded by 40 acres of marsh (15). Detailed descriptions of existing wetlands are found in a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report (14). In ranking mallard habitat, primary habitat was considered to be 7.5 acres or larger plus meeting other requirements (18). Life History - 1 (DRAFT) - Life History Species MALLARD, MARIANA Species Id ESIS101048 Date 14 MAR 96 REPRODUCTIVE SITE REQUIREMENTS: Reproductive sites for A. oustaleti occurred in freshwater/ brackish water wetlands on Tinian, Saipan and Guam (12). There is no detailed information on specific display, breeding or nursery areas. Nests have been collected (15,01) from Tinian where the nest was built on the edge of Lake Hagoi in the "thickets" from dead leaves, stems and stems with roots attached, and with feathers from the parents mixed in. REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Information on breeding in A. oustaleti exists as scattered notes in the literature. From these bits and pieces it appears that the mallard breeds and nests from at least January to July, with more records occurring in June and July than any other time (12,15). Seale (22) found Marianas mallard nests on Guam "among the reedy swamps and streams." Two downy young were found in June. Others have reported breeding on Guam in January and February (23) while Saipan breeding records run from January to March in one account (01). Marshall (16) reports seeing ducklings in April in the Northern Marianas. Clutch size ranged from 7-12, eggs being greyish white with a pale greenish tinge, measuring 61.6 x 38.9 mm in an oval shape (15). Kuroda believed that mallards in the Marianas had only one clutch per year that was laid in June or July. Mating as in other Anas probably involves strong pair bonding and ritualistic breeding behavior similar to common mallards, however, there is no record of breeding behavior for A. oustaleti. They were frequently seen in pairs (16) and preferred winding channels and dense vegetation rather than open water (16,24). Incubation was estimated by Kuroda to be 28 days (15). Artificial propagation in captivity was not successful, so details are largely unavailable. PARENTAL CARE: There is very little information on parental care in A. oustaleti (12,15). It can be assumed however that parental care is similar to other species of dabbling ducks in the genus Anas, such as A. platyrhynchos. In this species the eggs are incubated and defended by the female. The young are precocial, following the female away from the nest shortly after hatching. Young birds learn about their environment while they accompany the female for several weeks, until they have fledged. Unlike migratory species, where parental bonds are broken during the fall migration, related Marianas mallards have the potential of continued contact in the small restricted wetland habitats in the island chain. Indeed there is a higher chance of genetic inbreeding in such an island ecosystem. POPULATION BIOLOGY: Recent surveys indicate that the Marianas mallard is extinct within the Northern Marianas Islands (18,19). Similar conclusions have already been reached for the Guam population (21). Without a viable population it is impossible to describe the current biology of the species. The recovery potential for the species disappeared when the captive breeding program failed (18). Life History - 2 (DRAFT) - Life History Species MALLARD, MARIANA Species Id ESIS101048 Date 14 MAR 96 SPECIES INTERRELATIONSHIPS: The Marian mallard has no known special interrelationships with a particular species of plant or animal. OTHER LIFE HISTORY DESCRIPTORS: None. Life History - 3
                           (DRAFT) - Management Practices
                              Species MALLARD, MARIANA
                                Species Id ESIS101048
                                   Date 14 MAR 96



MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

RESULT MANAGEMENT PRACTICE Beneficial Controlling/Restricting Boating Activities Beneficial Maintaining/Controlling Water Flow Beneficial Beneficial Developing/maintaining/protecting wetlands Beneficial Controlling water levels Beneficial Maintaining undisturbed/undeveloped areas Beneficial Restricting/regulating human use of habitats Beneficial Land Acquisition Beneficial Water Right Acquisition Beneficial Controlling pollution [thermal, chemical, physical] Beneficial Stocking captive-reared wild-strain animals Beneficial Controlling/Restricting Noncommercial Harvest Beneficial Restricting Poaching Beneficial Controlling/Removing Exotic Vertebrates Adverse Subsistence Hunting/Fishing/Trapping Existing Subsistence Hunting/Fishing/Trapping Adverse Artillery/Explosions Existing Artillery/Explosions Adverse Harassment/Vandalism/Indiscriminate Killing Existing Harassment/Vandalism/Indiscriminate Killing Adverse Low Gene Pool Existing Low Gene Pool Adverse Rural Residential/Industrial Areas Existing Rural Residential/Industrial Areas Adverse Highway/Railroads Existing Highway/Railroads Adverse Salinity alteration Existing Salinity alteration Adverse Draining wetlands, marshes, ponds, lakes Existing Draining wetlands, marshes, ponds, lakes Adverse Strip mining Existing Strip mining Adverse Existing Adverse Vegetation Composition Changes Existing Vegetation Composition Changes COMMENTS ON MANAGEMENT PRACTICES - Like many Endangered species the decline of the Marianas mallard was probably the result of several factors, some of which are difficult to document in retrospect. The species has probably never been abundant in the small island chain that lacks extensive wetland areas (12). Based on historical information the primary reasons for the decline of A. oustaleti are habitat destruction, overhunting and inadequate regulatory mechanisms in the past. Habitat Destruction: Extensive alteration of native vegetation began during the Japenese administration (1914-1944) when Saipan and Tinian Management Practices - 1 (DRAFT) - Management Practices Species MALLARD, MARIANA Species Id ESIS101048 Date 14 MAR 96 were intensively farmed and the island supported a human population many times larger than the present one. Aerial photos taken prior to World War II indicate that very little native vegetation remained and the wetlands were drained and/or regulated for the production of crops. World War II also had a devastating impact on mallard habitat. Saipan in particular was virtually leveled by bombs and artillery in 1944 (13). Since the war the two islands that supported mallards, Saipan and Guam, have experienced large scale land development projects such as airports, housing developments, tourist facilities, military bases, and modern roads. Some of these projects have reduced the amount and quality of Mariana mallard habitat (14). For example a brackish water swamp and marsh near the village of Garapan on Saipan, that harbored a breeding population of A. oustaleti prior to the war (15) no longer exists. The wetland was filled in for development of an industrial park. New roads that cross the Chalan Kanoa marsh near Lake Susupe (major mallard habitat) have altered the natural drainage of the wetland, increasing its salinity and affecting plant succession. Overutilization: Overhunting has been implicated as a reason for the decline of the Mariana mallard both during Japenese times (15) and following the war (16). The Japenese, who were interested in studying A. oustaleti (15) attempted to regulate the harvest and eventually protected certain wetland areas. To what extent game laws were enforced is unknown. Ironically 30-40 specimens of the mallard were taken by the Japanese for scientific reasons. Collecting may have reduced an already small gene pool at an inopportune time prior to major habitat destruction. During and immediately after island fighting (WW II) people were forced to live off the land, including wildlife for substance. There is a distinct possibility that several mallards were killed during this period. Inadequate Regulatory Mechanisms: Wild ducks were killed illegally by hunters on Saipan and Tinian as late as the 1970's. Both migratory and the native species were subject to mortality from hunters when the A. oustaleti population was very small. There was and still is a definite lack of enforcement of game laws at the local level, even though the Mariana mallard has been protected by Territorial and Federal laws since the early 1970's (17). Future Threats: Based on recent surveys in the Mariana islands, A. oustaleti is probably extinct (18,19). As a result of these findings a discussion of future threats is academic. However, the existing wetlands that support other wildlife species (including the Endangered race of Common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus guami) will continue to suffer in the future from development projects similar to those mentioned above. UNAPPROVED PLAN: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1985. The Marianas Mallard Recovery Plan. Draft. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR. 23 pp. Management Practices - 2 (DRAFT) - Management Practices Species MALLARD, MARIANA Species Id ESIS101048 Date 14 MAR 96 The Mariana mallard (Anas oustaleti) is jeopardized by its limited area of habitat and small population (may be extinct). It appears to have succumbed to over-hunting. Hope for its rediscovery steadily diminishes with the repeated but unsuccessful surveys by local and Federal wildlife biologists, many of whom now consider the bird extinct. Although a recovery plan has been drafted, it seems likely that, upon impending completion of a status report, the species will be considered for delisting, owing to extinction. In the meantime, the following recovery actions have been recommended; (1) continued surveys to locate the mallard, (2) continued prohibition of hunting, (3) rigorous protection of all wetlands in the Marianas (this would include the following: acguisition of wetlands [especially Hagoi area on Tinian, and Lake Susupe and its surrounding wetland areas on Saipan], controll and restrict pollution, restrict development, restrict boating activities that harrass the birds, maintain water tables, maintain/control water flows, maintain/control water salinity levels, and develope a wetland management plan that favors wetland species, particularly on Saipan and Tinian where the mallard was last seen, (4) preventing the introduction of feral mallards and other domestic waterfowl to wetlands of Marianas, and (5) If any birds should be found, captive breeding is considered essential. Recovery actions underway include ongoing surveys and law enforcement by the CNMI Division of Fish and Wildlife and review of development projects affecting wetlands. Management Practices - 3
                                   (DRAFT) - References
                                 Species MALLARD, MARIANA
                                  Species Id ESIS101048
                                      Date 14 MAR 96



     

References

***** REFERENCES FOR ALL NARRATIVES EXCEPT N-OCCURRENCE ***** 01 Yamashina, Y. 1948. Notes on the Marianas mallard. Pac. Sci. 2:121-124. 02 Bonaparte, C.R. 1850-57. Conspects generum avium. 1850, 1:1-543; 1855-57, 2:1-232. 03 Salvatori, T. 1894. Anas. oustaleti. Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club. 20:1. 04 Oustalet, M.E. 1896. Les mammiferes et les oiseaux des Iles Mariannnes. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Paris. 8:24-74. 05 Kuroda. In: Momiyama, T.T. 1922. Birds of Micronesia. Descriptons of two new genera and nine new subspecies of birds of Micronesia. Ornith. Soc. Japan 1:1-24. 06 Hartert, E. 1930. List of birds collected by Ernst Mayr. Novit. Zool. 36:27-128. 07 Amadon, D. 1943. Notes on some non-passerine genera. Amer. Mus. Novit. 1237:1-22. 08 Delaour, J. and E. Mayr. 1945. The family Anatidae. Wilson Bull., 57:3-55. 09 Weller, M.W. 1980. The island waterfowl. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa. 121 pp. 10 Greenway, J.C., Jr. 1958. Extinct and vanishing birds of the world. Spec. Publ. 13 New York: Am. Comm. Intern. Wildl. Prot. 11 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1977. Endangered and Threatened wildlife and plants: Determination that the Mariana mallard is an endangered species. Fed. Reg. 42:28136-28137, June 2, 1977. 12 Baker, R.H. 1951. The avifauna of Micronesia, its origin, evolution, and distribution. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist. 3:1-359. 13 Baker, R.H. 1946. Some effects of the war on wildlife of Micronesia. Tran. 11th N. Am. Wildl. Conf. pp. 205-213. 14 Tenorio, J. and Associates. 1979. Ornithological surveys of wetlands in Guam, Saipan, Tinian, and Pagan. U.S. Army Corps of Eng. Pacif. Ocean Div., Honolulu. 202 pp. 15 Kuroda, N. 1941-42. A study of the Marianas Mallard, Anas oustaleti. Tori. pt 1, 11:99-119 pt. 2, 11:443-448. (In Japenese). 16 Marshall, T.J., Jr. 1949. The endemic avifauna of Saipan, Tinian, Guam and Palau. Condor 51:200-221. 17 Engbring, J. and F.L. Ramsey. 1984. Unpubl. data. Micronesian forest bird survey, 1982. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Ser., Honolulu, HI. 224 pp. 18 Lemke, T.O. 1984. Marianas mallard surveys and investigations. Pitman-Roberstson Job Progress Report. FY 1984. Div. of Fish and Wildlife, Saipan. 4 pp. 19 Schmitt, B. 1985. Unpubl. data. Mariana mallard surveys and investigations. Pittman-Robertson Job Progress Rept. FY 1985. Div. of Fish and Wildl., Saipan. 20 Stemmermann, L. 1981. A guide to Pacific wetland plants. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Honolulu District. Honolulu, HI. 116 pp. 21 Jenkins, J.M. 1983. The native forest birds of Guam. Am. Ornith. Union., Ornith. Mono. 31:1-61. References - 1 (DRAFT) - References Species MALLARD, MARIANA Species Id ESIS101048 Date 14 MAR 96 22 Seale, A. 1901. Report of a mission to Guam. Occ. Papers Bernice P. Bishop Mus. 1:17-128. 23 Phillips, J.C. 1983. A natural history of the ducks. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston and New York. 409 pp. 24 Stott, K., Jr. 1947. Notes on Saipan birds. Auk. 63:523-527. ***** REFERENCES FOR N-OCCURRENCE NARRATIVE ONLY ***** 01 Lemke, T.O. 1983. Marianas mallard surveys and investigations. Pitman-Roberstson Job Progress Report. FY 83. Div. of Fish and Wildlife, Saipan. 4 pp. 02 Lemke, T.O. 1984. Marianas mallard surveys and investigations. Pitman-Roberstson Job Progress Report. FY 84. Div. of Fish and Wildlife, Saipan. 4 pp. 03 Mayr, E. 1945. Birds of the southwest Pacific. Macmillian Co. New York. 316 pp. 04 Baker, R.H. 1951. The avifauna of Micronesia, its origin, evolution, and distribution. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist. 3:1-359. 05 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination that the Marinana mallard is an Endangered species. June 2, 1977. Fed. Reg. 42:28136-28137. 06 Phillips, J.C. 1983. A natural history of the ducks. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston and New York. 409 pp. 07 Jenkins, J.M. 1983. The native forest birds of Guam. Am. Ornith. Union., Ornith. Mono. 31:1-61. 08 Pratt, H.D., P.L. Bruner, and D.G. Berret. 1979. America's unknown avifauna: the birds of the Mariana Islands. Amer. Birds 33:227-235. References - 2