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THE NEO-CONFEDERATE MOVEMENT

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KKK --African Americans -- Hispanics -- Women -- Hostility to Democracy -- Gays and Lesbians -- Anglo-Saxonism What is Neo-Confederacy -- Conservative movement and their involvment

 

From a letter to the editor of the Southern Partisan (SP), 2nd Quarter 1993:

... and for some courageous enough to defend Southern history (especially our War for Independence) as it really was.

It is little wonder that the US, which officially reveres Lincoln, is in the deplorable state it is now in. The United States now has a president who wants to free the gays, lesbians, transvestites, and all other sexual perverts, and let them in our military, schools, and public offices. Clinton has no backbone... his cabinet and appointees look like a freak show of special interest groups and other social malcontents. ...

I personally have had enough of this! I only fly the politically incorrect Stars and Bars from my flagpole ...

This letter is representative of neo-Confederate thinking and would be credible to most readers of Southern Partisan (SP) or to any other neo-Confederate. The historical ideas of this movement on the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the American Revolution serve to integrate a political and cultural belief system.

The neo-Confederate organizations described in this article and other smaller groups can be shown to have many low profile connections with the SCV and UDC, However, this article is not going to describe these connections, but show the connections of the neo-Confederate movement into the conservative movement in two ways. First, the neo-Confederate identifications and connections of conservative leaders and organizations such as Phil Gramm, and Pat Buchanan, Second, neo-Confederate sources of modern conservative thinking. The Confederacy is not a peripheral issue for many conservatives, but a core binding element of their political beliefs.

Essentially neo-Confederates believe that with the Civil War, Lincoln was able to expand the power of the federal government beyond constitutional limits, and that with the defeat of the Confederacy the ideals of states' rights were defeated. They believe that the 14th Amendment was illegally adopted. To them this has resulted in the growth of federal government into a Leviathan, a very large monstrous beast in the bible.

The neo-Confederate historical worldview encompasses all of American history, not just the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the South. The American Revolution in particular has a prominent place. Neo-Confederate writings on the subject work to define original intentions to justify both current political beliefs and the actions of their historical heroes, such as secession. M.E. Bradford wrote several books on the American Revolution. 1

In this historical view big government, integration and Brown vs. Brown, gay rights, civil rights, feminism, minorities, taxes, FDR, and other issues can be viewed as the result of the American Republic jumping the tracks during the Civil War and being out of control. The neo-Confederates seek to capitalize on discontent with these issues.

Since these issues are national, the movement is national, and neo-Confederate organizations are opening up chapters across the country. Since the American public is highly discontented, the movement is growing rapidly.

The neo-Confederates focus on historical questions, such as, "What caused the Civil War?" This serves to maintain the Confederate pantheon and the "Lost Cause" as supporting elements in their historical world view to justify their efforts.

The Southern Partisan (SP) is thoroughly a neo-Confederate magazine, For example, The issue from which the lead quote for this article comes from, has a cover article, "Boy Heroes of the Confederacy." The subscription coupons show a Confederate army with the 2nd National Confederate flag, designed to express the idea of white supremacy. A full page subscription ad has a picture of Robert E. Lee and his personal Confederate flag. Many of the articles focus on the Confederacy and remembrance activities.

SP is not a publication of the politically marginal. On its masthead we find listed as Senior Advisor, Pat Buchanan who has regular column aptly called, "Dividing Line," Boyd Cathey, assistant to the late Russell Kirk, and Andrew Lytle, one of the original Southern Agrarians. A few from its list of Advisors and Contributors are: David Funderbunk, newly elected member of Congress from the 2nd District in North Carolina; J.O. Tate who is on the masthead of National Review , Paul Gottfried, who is Senior Contributing editor of World & I and a prominent conservative writer; Charles Goolsby, a policy official of The Voice of America of the United States government, M.E. Bradford, until he died in 1992, was on the masthead as a senior advisor. SP is listed in the "Dictionary of American Conservatism" by Louis Filler.

Finally, there is the recently deceased Russell Kirk, who had been a Senior Advisor and contributor since 1981. Kirk, who was a resident of Mecosta, Michigan, is perhaps the most prominent American conservative in the 20th Century. Kirk has one of the largest single entry for himself and about a dozen separate entries for his books in the "Dictionary of American Conservatism." His entry for himself states, ".. is credited with having given form and direction to the New Conservative of the post World War II decades," Indeed, endless numbers of conservative books, including the "Dictionary of American Conservatism," have either a preface, forward or article written by Kirk. Among his many books is "The Portable Conservative Reader" by Penguin Books, He wrote for National Review for a quarter-century, and founded the leading conservative magazines, "Modern Age" and "The University Bookman."

Many major conservatives write for SP: Samuel Francis who has a regular column in the Washington Times, and is published in numerous conservative publications, has a regular column. So did the recently deceased Murray Rothbard.

Forrest McDonald, professor of history at the University of Alabama, specializing in constitutional history, wrote for SP in the early issues. His book, "A Constitutional History of the United States," by the Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., which has the view of a segregationist, is a major selection of the Conservative Book Club. More significantly his constitutional thinking is regularly entered into the Congressional Record by Arlen Spector, U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania to support the line item veto Constitution amendment.

The SP also has the who's who of Homophobia interviewed in cordial terms in its pages, U.S, Senator Trent Lott of Mississippi, Sons of Confederate Veteran (SCV) spokesman on its recruitment video, explains how the Republican party is the party of Jefferson Davis as he stated in a speech to an SCV annual convention.' others have been Jesse Helms, Phil Gramm, Dick Armey, Pat Buchanan, who discussed how he is a partisan of his Confederate heritage, Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson, Rev. Donald Wildmon, president of the American Family Association, (AFA), and T. Kenneth Cribb Jr., president of the Intercollegiate Studies Institute, and Wes Pruden, editor of the Washington Times.2

The following example probably bests sums up their attitude towards gays. From a regular feature, "Southern Sampler" devoted to worthy southern sayings is:

ON "GAY" WRONGS

Whosoever shall be guilty of... sodomy with man or woman, shall be punished; if a man, by castration, a woman by boring through the cartilage of her nose a hole of one half inch in diameter at the least.- The Criminal Code of The Commonwealth of Virginia, 18th Century

Gays and Lesbians are attacked at least in six other articles in this issue, In one article, the 1993 gay March on Washington is called "... the Battle of Armageddon."

A Texas variant of the SP is the Texas Republic (TR) published in Dallas, TX, It shares many writers and themes with the SP. As the TR editor, Bill Murchison, a notoriously homophobic columnist with the Dallas Morning News, is interviewed in the 1st Quarter 1994 SP. He writes for the Wall Street Journal and National Review, and is also a regular writer for SP,

In the interview, Murchison, states he has concluded from his conversations with Texas governor George W. Bush, that he is an authentic conservative. Murchison also discusses that Texas is a southern state with a Confederate heritage, specifically rejecting Lyndon B. Johnson's idea that there is a "distinction ... between Texas and the South .." Murchison discusses the concept of Texas values, which was the campaign slogan of governor George Bush, as deriving from that historical heritage. As Murchison states, "We've needed a magazine that respected and spoke to the traditional values of Texans." Murchison also states, " I was one of those Southerners who grew up thinking the South had won."

A copy of the TR was placed on every chair at the Texas State Republican convention in 1994. Tom Paukens, State Chairman of the Republican party, was a founding contributor and has been interviewed in the TR, U,S, House Representative Dick Armey is a contributor to TR and the subject of several articles praising him. A recent issue has an extensive cover article supporting Phil Gramm. The masthead is a who's who of conservative Republicans in Texas: Tex Lezar, William Caruth III, J. Evetts Haley, Jr., Jerry Bartos, John J. Dwyer (religious right publisher), Jim Wright senior editor at the Dallas Morning News, and Thomas H. Landess. Indeed Dallas is a major focal point of neo-Confederate activity.

Another major neo-Confederate organization is the Council of Conservative Citizens (CofCC) headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri. It has many chapters, outside the traditional south, including California, Arizona, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts. It has new chapters opening up all the time outside as well as inside the South.

The CofCC is thoroughly a neo-Confederate organization. Its membership brochure has a map of the United States with all the former slave states and Illinois shaded in. one of the issues as it states in its brochure is "preserving our honored TRADITIONS fighting efforts to destroy America's heritage (efforts like the NAACP's attempt to tear down the Confederate flag in the South." Its logo, until a couple of years ago, was an American flag crossed with a Confederate flag with a shield bearing a cross in front.

It publishes the Citizen Informer. Chapters of the Sons of Confederate Veterans regularly contribute articles and advertisements to it. With rallies and protests CofCC defends Confederate symbols, one of its major concerns, with extensive coverage in the Citizen Informer. At its 1993 convention it had a Southern Heritage salute. Michael Andrew Grissom, author of "Southern by the Grace of God," "The Last Rebel Yell," and "When the South Was Southern," a leading neo-Confederate writer, was an honored speaker. In a survey of its membership in 1994, 96.9 percent said no to the question "Should Confederate flags, statues, memorials and other Southern heritage symbols be removed?" The issue was considered important to 82 percent of its readers.

The CofCC is not marginal in importance, U.S. Representative Hancock of Missouri writes for the Citizen Informer. Tennessee governor Sundquist has also contributed an article, Governor Fordice of Mississippi is very involved with the CofCC, In the pages of the Citizen Informer are the names of numerous state legislators and Republican party officials, both local and national.

Pat Buchanan, Joseph Sobran, Samuel Francis, U.S. Senator Trent Lott (with the Mississippi logo), and Claire Bawcom have regular columns in the Citizen Informer.

Though certainly homophobic, the Citizen Informer focuses on the issue of race and is hostile to African Americans. It opposes every civil rights law ever passed. It vigorously supported apartheid in South Africa and is unrelentingly hostile to Nelson Mandela. A couple of examples of their attitudes in the Winter 1994 issue are: an ad titled "WHITE PRIDE ... with hard work" by an accountant living in North Texas; a column by Robert B. Patterson which reads, "A major factor in the monopoly by black athletes of our major sports is that many white potential athletes refuse to enter a sport that is dominated by blacks and to live in close personal and intimate contact with blacks that is required on athletic teams."

Jared Taylor, author of "Paved With Good Intentions," is strongly associated with CofCC and contributed an article to the Citizen Informer that was originally published in his local Sons of Confederate Veterans camp newsletter.

  • There are other smaller neo-Confederate organizations, their attitudes are similar or more outspokenly white supremacist.
  •  

    The Rockford Institute in Rockford, Illinois, outside Chicago, and the Ludwig von Mises Institute (LvM) in Auburn, Alabama, are two conservative institutes which can be labeled as neo-Confederate. The Ludwig von Mises institute publishes The Free Market and is concerned primarily with "Austrian" economics and fears "statism". In its newsletter can be seen many of the writers of the Southern Partisan and other neo-Confederate publications. Though at first glance it might not seem very Confederate, because Confederate symbols are missing. It owes its neo-Confederate identity to more than just overlap in membership with other neo-Confederate organizations and activities. It is a part of the new wave of secessionist thinking, In 1994, in Atlanta, Georgia, the topic for its annual symposium was "The Costs of War." The neo-Confederate nature is revealed by the topics of some of the speeches as follows:

    Thomas Fleming, Chronicles, Richard Gamble, George Mason University,

    "Did the South Have to Fight?" "Rethinking Lincoln."

    Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr. Murray N. Rothbard, Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas

    Ludwig von Mises Institute "Two Just wars: 1776 and 186le"

    "Protectionism, War and the

    Southern Tradition."

    Jeffrey A. Tucker Clyde Wilson, Univ. of South Carolina

    Ludwig van Mises Institute "War, Reconstruction, and the End of the Old Republic."

    "Secessionism vs. Imperialism"

    Others at this convention were: Allan Carlson, Rockford Institute; Robert Higgs, Seattle Univ.; Paul Gottfried, Elizabethtown College; Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (Evidently the University mascot, a Confederate soldier means something.); Samuel Francis; John V, Denson of Auburn Univ.; Paul Fussel, Univ. of Pennsylvania; Ralph Raico, State University College at Buffalo; Yuri N. Maltsev, Carthage College; William Kauffman, novelist; Joseph T, Salerno, Pace Univ., Justin Raimondo, LvM; Joseph Stromber, Center for Libertarian Studies; Joseph Sobran, syndicated columnist; and Eugene B. Sledge, Univ. of Montevallo.

    April 7th to 9th 1995 it held a symposium on "Secession, State, and Economy" in Charleston, South Carolina. Speakers were former member of Congress Ron Paul, Clyde Wilson, Hans-Hermann Hoppe, Yuri Maltsev, Joseph Salerno, and Dr. David Gordern. Its flyer states:

    Secession!

    From Staten Island to Quebec, Scotland to California, Chechnya to Texas, secession is in the air. ...

    What a better place to meet? Charleston-hotbed of America's two great secessions, …

    That's what the l0th Amendment movement is really all about.

    Today, thanks to the centralizing of Lincoln, Wilson, FDR, and LBJ - not to speak of other presidential betrayers of the Constitution ...

    ... then adjourn for an optional lunch with Ron Paul on the "once and future Republic of Texas."

    Besides being a roster of prominent conservatives, the conferences show that interpreting the historical meaning of the Civil War and Reconstruction is a source of their ideas and an integral part of them. In the 1994 yearbook, seven University of Auburn professors are listed as either officers, faculty or adjunct faculty. Professor Mark Thornton is listed as the Auburn University Academic Coordinator.

    Thomas Fleming, was the founding editor of Southern Partisan and is now the editor of Chronicles, a publication of the Rockford Institute, in Rockford, Illinois. Chronicles has many of the same writers as Southern Partisan, and persons involved the with Ludwig von Mises Institute, John Shelton Reed is a Corresponding Editor. Chronicle's Managing Editor Theodore Pappas has published, "The Martin Luther King, Jr. Plagiarism Story," which they advertise and have an 800 number for you to call. Typical cover topics are: Feb. 1994, "90's Men: Pushy Queers, Tough Jews, and Sensitized Wasps," with the lead article "on the Syphilization of American Manhood"; May 1994, "I Don't Hate The South," lead article by M.E. Bradford, former Texas head of the George Wallace presidential campaign; Oct. 1994, "Revolutions in Law," with the lead article, "The Tyranny of Human Rights,"

    In conjunction with the Southern Partisan they supported a lengthy attack on Maya Angelou, a famous poet, accusing her of plagiarism. They managed to get these attacks reprinted in the New York Post and the Guardian in Manchester, England. The neo- confederate press engages in continuing character assassinations of African Americans from Jesse Jackson and Martin Luther King to Spike Lee (The name, "40 Acres and a Mule Film Company," is a Reconstruction reference).

    Chronicles does not use Confederate symbols, but the magazine and its staff promote neo-Confederate ideas. The publisher Allan C. Carson made a presentation at the Ludwig von Mises April 1994, conference, as did Thomas Fleming on neo-Confederate topics.

    Chronicles is the home of the new secession movement, the Southern League, The name is based on and the concept derived from the Italian secessionist movement the Northern League. On the board of directors are Thomas Fleming and Clyde Wilson, frequent writers for Southern Partisan in its early years. In its March 1995 issue, Michael Hill, the president of the Southern League, has an article. In the same issue is an article by Ronin Colman about the Tenth Amendment movement and the state sovereignty movement giving the address for the Southern League and a Montana secessionist group.

    Chronicles has been promoting secession for at least since the January 1991 issue. That issue had a cover with a picture of group of faces fractured with the word, "S*E*C*E*S*S*I*O*N" along the length of the cover illustration. In it Thomas Fleming had a lead article on the Italian Northern League with whom he personally met and discussed their ideas. In the same issue, there is an article about the benefits of the secession of upstate New York, Incidentally Lou Reed, composer of "Walk on the Wild Side," is quoted admiringly as a conservative. Evidently he is now walking on the tame side.

    Many issues discuss what nationalism and national identity is. The conclusion is that national identity must be culturally monolithic and relentlessly conformist to a single set of ideas. Diversity, multiculturalism or pluralism is supposed to lead to an American Bosnia,

    The idea of secession is an on going theme in Chronicles and a subject of increasing attention. The Feb. 1993 issue cover theme is, "The Days of Empire - Come and Gone?" Thomas Fleming again has an article about the Italian League subtitled, "Lessons from Lombardia." He openly advocates a division of the United States of America writing:

    There are only two alternatives for this continental empire that has never been a real nation: either we find the means to decentralize decision-making and restore authority to the old institutions of family and town and country (and even state), or else we lapse into a multifacted civil war of blacks against Hispanics against whites against blacks against Jews ... It is too late for a man on horseback leading a militia of populist rednecks. There aren't enough rednecks to go around ....

    In an article following in the same issue America is characterized as another empire like the Soviet Union. In an article following that we read, "Genuine democracy in multiethnic countries, such as the former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, India, or America is therefore impossible to achieve." In the Nov. 1993 issue again there are two articles on secession, one by Thomas Fleming again about the Italian league.

    Chronicles has a continuing emphasis on neo-Confederate ideas. John Shelton Reed is a regular columnist writing about Virginia cavaliers. March 1992, Clyde Wilson reviews Marshal DeRosa's book, "The Confederate Constitution of 1861," a book among several in a growing movement to portray the Confederate Constitution as a progressive good government movement. Dec. 1991, M.E. Bradford attacks James M. McPherson's book, "Abraham Lincoln and the Second Revolution." In an issue devoted to the perceived perils of immigration, the title is "Rebirth of a Nation."

    The Southern League, an organization advocating secession if their view of the American constitution is not adopted, brings together leading neo-Confederates. The president is Michael Hill, professor of history at the University of Alabama. The board of directors are: Thomas Fleming; Grady McWhiney, professor at Texas Christian University, member Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Confederate History and frequent speaker at the Confederate Research Center in Hillsboro, Texas; Steve Wilkens, pastor of the Auburn Avenue Presbyterian Church in Monroe, Louisiana; and Clyde Wilson, history professor at University of South Carolina. Designated as "Founding and Charter members" are: Otto Scott, publisher of the Compass newsletter, and producer of neo-Confederate videos; Llewellyn Rockwell, president of the Mises Institute; Jeffery Tucker, Director of Research at the Mises Institute; and the Kennedy brothers, publishers of a book, widely read by neo-Confederates and praised by their organizations, "The South Was Right!". In short, the gang is all here.

    It is not difficult to show that there is a major branch of conservatism that is neo-Confederate and who are not marginal. Search the congressional record on the Internet and you will find many of the names in this article. Review of conservative writing shows that the neo-Confederates have become a major source for modern Conservative thought.

    Go to the newsstand, pick up most any conservative magazine, or your local religious right newspaper, you will find a full page advertisement by the Conservative Book Club. When they are not promoting the latest conservative best seller such as, "The Bell Curve," or one of Thomas Sowell's books, they are promoting, "Basic American Government," by Clarence B. Carson, The advertisement for Carson's states that the it will explain how the civil war was unconstitutional. Carson's explanation of the causes of the Civil War would get an "A" from the United Daughters of the Confederacy. In Carson's book it wasn't slavery, it was economics and states' rights that caused the Civil War. Furthermore he holds that freeing the slaves was unconstitutional and he calls the 14th amendment illegitimate. Reconstruction he believes was unconstitutional, especially in any matter which gave civil rights to African Americans.

    The Conservative Book Club is an excellent source of conservative books with neo-Confederate roots or elements. For example books by M.E. Bradford, former officer of the SCV, has written many books in which he defines the American Revolution and the original intent of the founders from a Confederate view point. Another offering is the, "A Constitutional History of the United States," by Forrest McDonald. This book states that slavery was not the cause of the Civil War and that Abraham Lincoln acted unconstitutionally. His view of Reconstruction is of that of the "Lost Cause" and "Birth of a Nation." In the final chapter, titled "Breakdown," Civil Rights is portrayed as a destroyer of the constitution.

    Another major conservative book, with endorsements from The Wall Street Journal, George Gilder (of supply side curve fame), Malcolm S. Forbes Jr., and is, "For Good and Evil: The Impact of Taxes on the Course of Civilization." It was written by Charles Adams, who also goes to Ludwig von Mises' symposiums and was a featured selection of the Conservative Book Club. In it we are told that it is a "myth" that "the Civil War was started over slavery," In the 1st Quarter 1994 issue of SP he has a lengthy article on this view of the Civil War.

    If your public library even has a modest collection of conservative books, you can find several neo-Confederate authors, Robert W. Whitaker, a regular writer for Southern Partisan, in 1982 published, "The New Right Papers," by St. Martin Press with contributions by Samuel T. Francis, Clyde Wilson, Thomas Fleming, and himself. Samuel Francis is the author of "Beautiful Losers: Essays on the Failure of American Conservatism," University of Missouri Press, 1993. Paul Gottfried and Thomas Fleming are authors of "The Conservative Movement," 1988, by Twayne Publishers, as part of their academic social movement series.

    More and more neo-Confederates are defining the historical memory of the conservatives in this country and the conservative movement.


    Other conservative movements have neo-Confederate origins. The book, "Saving our Constitution from the New World Order," by Joseph Strumph is the book on which the 10th Amendment movement, which has been praised by Walter Williams, is based. (Chapter one is introduced with an essay by J. Bracken Lee, former governor of Utah.) It is a states' rights movement, in which the 10th Amendment is invoked. Distributed by the Committee of the 50 States, which has members and chapters across the nation, it advocates secession of all 50 states. It again has the standard neo-Confederate version of Civil War history.

    The inside cover ad in the 3rd Quarter 1993 Southern Partisan has a full page ad for the book, "Nobility: and Analogous Traditional Elites in the Allocutions of Pius XII," published by a Catholic group, The American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family, and Property. The ad includes the endorsement, "A book that is a masterful compendium of the principals that true Southerners believe in. - Hon. Richard T. Hines, chairman of the Confederate Memorial Committee of the District of Columbia." He is listed as a Senior Advisor of the Southern Partisan on the masthead in the same issue. The book is endorsed on its dust jacket by Paul M. Weyrich as the President of the Free Congress Foundation. Perhaps he should change his organization's name to the Free House of Lords.

    This book has pictures of plantations. Antebellum southern life is portrayed to be that of great aristocrats living in a feudal fantasy. On page 270 a heading is, "b. The Constitution: a step backward." The consequence of the Civil War is seen as the terrible destruction of an aristocratic class.

    The entry of neo-Confederate ideas into the conservative movement is not a recent phenomenon. Southern conservatives always were neo-Confederates. Indeed, both labels are one and the same. The entry of neo-Confederate ideas into the national conservative movement is not recent either. It starts with Russell Kirk.

    Russell Kirk supported the Southern Partisan by lending his tremendous prestige in the American conservative movement to it and contributing articles and book reviews since 1981, At that time the magazine was new, crudely produced and just barely making it financially. Using the many articles and the final eulogies about Kirk in the SP his "southern" views can be reconstructed.

    Kirk describes as a formative event, when 20 years old, he read the book "Attack of the Leviathan," by Donald Davidson. Davidson, was one of the original 12 Southern Agrarians writers in the book, "I Will Take My Stand," in 1930, a reactionary defense of the South. Kirk later stated that he thought that, "The book was so good that I assumed all intelligent Americans, or almost all, were reading it." only a few hundred copies were sold.

    For the rest of his life, Kirk promoted the values of southern conservatism and ultimately the neo-Confederates, In one of his last articles in the SP he wrote about how gratified he was that students who came to study with him in Mecosta, Michigan, read, "I'll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition," while staying with him.

    Kirk brought the book "Leviathan" back to life, In 1956 American Scholar asked him to name some books which were wrongly neglected. With strong praise he mentioned "Leviathan." Over the years he wrote about it three times in National Review. Finally, in 1992, he published a new edition, titled, "Regionalism and Nationalism in the United States: The Attack on the Leviathan." (This book was also republished in 1991 by Transaction Press of Rutgers University which seems to be a focal point of neo-Confederate publishing.)

    Over the years Kirk did other activities to promote the Southern Agrarians. He called himself a "Northern Agrarian." In his book, "The Conservative Mind," 1953, which established his reputation as one of the preeminent conservatives in America, the Antebellum south is portrayed the abode of true conservative thought, with his two heroes, John Calhoun and Randolph of Roanoke, The defeat of the Confederacy is supposed to bring on vulgarism, and he titles chapter ten, "Conservatism Frustrated: America 1865-1918."

    At the beginning of the Civil Rights movement, in 1958, he dedicated an entire issue of Modern Age to defending the South as it was. His master thesis was on Randolph of Roanoke, an antebellum state's rights advocate from Virginia, and 10 years later it was published as a book in 1951 by University of Chicago Press.

    When in 1982, Penguin books published, "The Portable Conservative Reader," edited by Kirk, again there was a section included on southern conservatism, He also was the publisher of the Library of Conservative Thought and in 1992 Clyde N. Wilson's, "The Essential Calhoun," became a volume in it.

    Russell Kirk was not the only famous conservative that either praised the antebellum south, the confederacy or both. Egerton with his book, "Speak Now Against the Day," 1994, Knopf, tells how Franklin Roosevelt and his New Deal ultimately ran up against the Bourbon South and how they were able to resist him and start turning the tide against him. For conservatives in the rest of the nation outside the South, this must have arrested their attention. Indeed the impact of the Republican party would have been little for decades without the one-party southern states in alliance with them. As for Kirk, the values of southern conservatism and admiration for the Confederacy, became accepted and not peripheral, not sectional for conservatism.

    It must be noted that George Will, nationally syndicated conservative columnist, rejects the Lost Cause in his comments in both his columns and on broadcast media. Angry columns in the neo-Confederate press condemn him. I admire his courage since he stands alone remembering that the Republican is the party of Abraham Lincoln. {He may have gone over to the other side, I may have to delete this part.}

    Since the neo-Confederates regard the recent elections as a victory, some are now in Congress, some are in leadership positions, and many are state and local officials, it would be useful to review where neo-Confederates stand. It is a gallery of horrors:

    Gays & Lesbians - The neo-Confederates give considerable time and thought to attacking and demeaning gays and Lesbians, At the 1994 Southern League convention, Southern League president Hill, after calling Camp Sister Spirit an invasion of the south, jokes that the camp is appropriately a pig farm since it is run by Lesbians.

    They are supportive of violence against gays and Lesbians. On March 27, 1993, in Baltimore, Maryland, three men assaulted gay bar patrons using a baseball bat and a pipe. One downed gay man was repeatedly kicked. The thugs, escaping from the scene drove their car weaving to hit the assembled crowed, striking one person, running over another and leaving one in a pool of blood on the roadway. The jury convicted them of all charges of assault, battery, intent to maim, and intent to kill. Hate crimes legislation was not involved. (As reported in the Baltimore Sun, and the Baltimore Alternative courtesy of the latter.)

    This is how the Southern Partisan reported it:

    MARYLAND

    Gay Ole Time

    If you want to know how "Hate Crimes" legislation will work in practice, then here's a good example. Three men from Dundalk were convicted of beating up some homosexuals outside a bar in Baltimore.

    In Maryland, homosexuals are protected by politicians and coddled by the law. Crimes against these sensitive folks received special handling. Ordinarily such an incident would have been punished by a fine or a night in jail. In this case, the punishments were beyond all reason. One man was sentenced to two years in prison. A second received one year in prison. A third received 60 days.

    Lawyer Donald Daneman insisted (to no avail) that the incident was not a "hate crime." He said the whole thing started when one of the homosexuals grabbed his client's buttocks. (SP, 3rd Quarter, 1993, pp. 17)

    Concerning a murder of a gay man in Dallas where the Judge stated that he considered the sexual orientation in the sentencing of the murderer:

    For a while it looked as if the city limits of San Francisco extended all the way to Dallas, but in the end everything turned out all right. A Special Master's Report cleared Judge Jack Hampton of bias, and Texas is Texas after all.

    You may recall that Judge Hampton, in determining a murder sentence, had suggested that he'd taken into consideration the fact that the victims were homosexuals soliciting sex, and therefore like prostitutes. The local "gay rights" activists went into a mad tarantella, demanding that Judge Hampton be removed, sliced into tiny pieces, and fed to the gerbils.

    So an investigation was conducted and Judge Hampton was acquitted of the charge of bias -- which led to more demonstrations, more foot Stampings, and more threats. Indeed the local leadership has warned Judge Hampton that they will retaliate at the next election.

    What do you bet that Judge Hampton is returned to the bench by a whopping majority next time he runs? What do you bet he gets the largest vote of any judge in the race? What do you bet he ends up on the Texas Supreme Court? [SP, 4th Qtr. 1989, note Hampton was later defeated at the polls and no longer has a judicial career.]

    Not surprisingly, neo-Confederates are opposed to all hate crimes legislation. Samuel Francis in the 2nd Quarter SP has an article calling the 1993 Supreme Court decision to uphold the hate crime law of Wisconsin a "Dangerous Legacy." (For some reason this wasn't called a victory for state's rights.)

    The Heritage Preservation Association (HPA), which is the leading organization in defending the Georgia state flag, is opposed to hate crimes laws. Joining members receive a flyer which states that HPA members receive a 20% discount on the book, "Crying Wolf: Hate Crimes Hoaxes in America," by Laird Wilcox. The flyer states, "... and the responsibility of special interest groups and the media in perpetuating the myth of a massive wave of hate crimes against minorities."

    Otto Scott's review of the movie "Philadelphia" starring Tom Hanks illustrates neo-Confederate attitudes towards AIDS.

    [Excerpts from a review of "Philadelphia," Compass, 3/l/94]

    The falsity of this movie, ... is worth analysis. The nature of the homosexual-lesbian defiance of the reality of biology goes farther than even the obvious, and twists the psyche into dark and dangerous path. ... The connection between aberrant sex and violence are far from hidden.

    Richard Hoskins recently cited "Violence and Homosexuality" by Dr., Paul Cameron,

    Facts show that the top US mail serial killers were all homosexuals: [he then describes a long list of mass murders such as John Wayne Gacy and Jeffery Dahmer and the grisly details. A few Lesbians are also mentioned also.] ... The nexus between homosexuality and violence is notorious. ... Hitler rose on the backs of the 'Storm Troopers' led from the top by a gang of homosexuals ... The facade of homosexual acceptance in the U.S. was itself, the result of force, when large crowds of menacing homosexuals frighten the nation's psychiatrists, ...

    Philadelphia, a film that tries to perfume a stench, is the first major Hollywood effort to make homosexuality and its lethal disease acceptable.

    Later in the March 1, 1995 issue of the Compass, Otto Scott wants his readers to know that 43 of the 53 gay actors who were hired for the film had died. He titles the article "Endings in the 'Gay' Life" with thinly disguised glee.

    Reid Buckley writes the following concerning AIDS on pp. 64 SP Winter 1986, in an article titled, "Rock Hudson":

    And whereas the acts of sodomy are probably the most repulsive desecration's in the sexual order, they are by no means so hideous as formal sins of the mind in their highest degree, such as the intellectual pride that leads to denial of Christ, ...

    Having said as much, it was the carnal transgressions of Sodom and Gommorrah that singled them out for destruction.

    The secular press simply will not mention what is going on, unless with a smirk of condescension. But the terrible swift sword of the dread AIDs disease is surely what in other ages would be acknowledged a sign of God's wrath. It is only the least subtle notice of divine displeasure with the swinishness of our age.

    … we should agree that there are things that are plain bad. There are "unnatural" acts. There are ugly and perverted passions. It is as evil to indulge illicit sexual cravings as it is to give in to the homicidal passions. [The article proceeded to decry television, rock music, etc. for breaking down society and the absence of religious values.]

    The Democratic party is constantly being criticized in the SP for supporting gay rights and its demise for doing so is constantly predicted.

    The SP is not the only neo-Confederate magazine with such sentiments. The following are a selection of quotes from Southern Heritage magazine,

    [Editorial May/June 1993, pp. 7, J.F. Cummings III, Editor-in- Chief] It is going to be down right impossible to steer off politics in this magazine. Not possible when we see this country turning into a 3,615,211 square mile freak show. ... Not when homosexuality parades down our nation's main avenue to the tune of "I'm OK, You're OK." ... When the decay of moral fiber in this country Turning rampant and our youth corrupted by constant displays of degenerate behavior, who can sit silent?

    [Article by Kay Moxley Black, July/Aug. 1993, pp. 38] ... Where along our "progressive society did a beautiful word like "gay" become so debauched? ... [She reviews a current Thesaurus for the word homosexual and finds the words "queen," 'fruit," "pansy," etc.] I., Look how many of those words were good, pure, beautiful words before "they" decided to change our culture! Today our language is as sick as our society, ... [She concludes that the reader find hope in the poems of Confederate Chaplain Father Ryan, a Lost Cause poet of the 19th century.]

    [Sept./Oct. 1993 editorial] Greetings from the land of Rodham and Gomorrah. President Clinton's road to socialist utopia barely got is first coat of asphalt ...

    A 1993 readership survey in the SH, Jan./Feb. 1994, pp. 19, showed that 59 percent of the readers were members of the SCV or UDC,

    The examples could go on and on, in the SP alone by 1993, I had counted at least three dozen. However, the whole 2nd Quarter 1993, SP issue seemed to be a special anti-gay issue. (The first two quotes in this article are from it.) In fact more space was devoted to anti-gay tirades than to Senator Moseley-Braun's blocking of the renewal of the United Daughters of the Confederacy's design patent, An article denouncing Bill Clinton and the idea of gays and Lesbians in the military, got the same column space. An article denouncing a gay and Lesbian course at the University of South Carolina alone was roughly 2/3 as long. Hating gays is fairly high up on their priority list.

    One other development should be noted. In the Jan. 1993, SH, Kay Moxley Black has a long article arguing that the Confederate Battle flag is not just a national symbol, but a Christian symbol as since it is based on the Cross of St. Andrew. Thus the Confederate flag is a sacred Christian Right symbol.

    The theme over and over in neo-Confederate writing is that the Confederacy was and is an Orthodox Christian nation and the Confederate army was a Christian army, The idea that the Civil War was a religious conflict is also frequently mentioned. The neo-Confederate movement is a religious right movement.

    Anglo-Saxonism

    melting pot - an instrument by which distinct forms of distinct material are melted into a common sludge. (From the Partisan Dictionary, SP, Spring/Summer 1981 many neo-Confederates denigrate melting pot Americans.)

    * * *

    ... The critical tilt in favor of republican idealism ceased to be renewed. Then, in the latter half of the 19th century, the tides of immigration turned negative: were characterized by the losers of political history, such as the Italians and the Irish, by the dull spirited and pagan, such as the Scandinavians (they were the very last to be baptized by Charlemagne's sword, and it never really took) and by peoples to whom the tenets of our republic were altogether alien, such as the hieratic Jews...

    … Negroes, Asians and Orientals (is Japan the exception?); Hispanics, Latins, and Eastern Europeans; have no temperament for democracy, never had, and probably never will ...

    ...As the frontier experience slips into the irrecoverable past, ceasing to instruct the national character, and as the genetic racial pool in the United States from which the democratic government originally derived is dissipated in successive tides of immigration, our country is being overwhelmed .... (SP, Summer 1984, Buckley Reid, in article titled "Camp of the Saints.")

    * * *

    ... and I saw that these students were all Germanic, and all looked just alike. Worse, they were completely, hair, faces, hands - the color of the institutionally beige wall behind them. (SP, Summer 1985, article by a Cecile Gray a Texan who teaches in Ohio.)

    * * *

    ... I have respect for other races who feel the same way about themselves because only a clown can be loyal to a melting pot. By definition, a melting pot is nothing specific. Anyone who can be deeply loyal to nothing specific is in urgent need of psychiatric help, (SP, Fall '86/Winter 87, Robert Whitaker in an article titled, "Why I Will Not Denounce Southern Racism or American Imperialism." He is also sympathetic to why some people join the Klan.)

    * * *

    ... I was in for a few mild shocks. Newly arrived in New York City, I puzzled, 'Where are the Americans?" for I only met Italians, Jews, Puerto Ricans. ...

    … All my life, it seems, I've been listening to praises of America the melting pot the nation of immigrants. The true American, I've been given to understand, is either (a) a mongrel, so much "everything" he's no longer really anything, or (b) an "ethnic," the more exotic the better say, a "Lower Slobbovian."

    ...Still Americans are, ... wary and resentful of alien cultures" intruding into and diluting their own: of unmowed lawns and unsavory cooking odors. All are welcome in -- provided they'll park their "culture" on the doorstep! (SP, 2nd Quarter 1991, Patrick Bophy, curator of the Bushwacker Museum (Confederate) Nevada, Missouri)

    Hispanics - Much of the sentiment against Hispanics is grouped along with Italians and Eastern Europeans in the Anglo-Saxonist sentiments like those already mentioned. However, the neo-Confederates never fail to support ballot measures like the 1994 Initiative 187 in California, forbidding any government benefits to illegal aliens, and work to promote fears over immigrations as leading to the dissolution of the U.S. The following is typical of neo-Confederate attitudes towards Hispanics in America:

    ... The members of the social organization known as a nation must be able to recognize one another as fellow citizens and be able to communicate with each other, and that depends on such intra-social glues as common race, common religion, ...

    ... Albuquerque is 34% Mexican, with the state of New Mexico (oh, unfortunate name) is 40% Hispanic.

    If the problem could somehow be contained in the Southwest, then the South and other regions might have no fears, and we could relax into "cultural pluralism." That aspiration is a complete pipedream. If the national border is failing to restrain the tide how can regional or state boundaries do so? What Southerner feels at home in Miami these days, a city 56% Spanish-speaking that includes not only Cubans but numbers of cocaine-pushing trigger-happy Columbians.

    If Yankees and Southerners sometimes squabble, we do so in a common tongue. Ours is an internal rivalry, and when a threat appears from without, we must know no Mason-Dixon line. (SP, Summer 1982, Dr. Allan D. Charles of Univ. of South Carolina)

    African Americans - on African-Americans the campaign against them is too extensive to even begin to detail. They are against any and all civil rights laws. They are against Martin Luther King day, and slander campaigns are started against many African American leaders.

    The neo-Confederates strongly supported South African apartheid in both the SP and the Citizen Informer of the Council of Conservative Citizens. An article in the July - Aug. 1994 issue of Confederate Veteran, titled, "Home is the Sailor," shows how the pro-Apartheid South Africans and neo-Confederates regard each other as kindred movements. There was a Confederate sailor buried in South Africa. In the last few weeks of the old regime, SCV in cooperation with the government, had his body was disinterred, and sent back to the United States. A picture in the article shows the South African Naval Honor guard and a SCV official at a send off ceremony in Capetown "with full military honors."

    The book, "The Bell Curve," is promoted in SP 3rd 1994. To them Reconstruction was and always will be a period of "Negro misrule." That is why so many neo-Confederates as national conservative columnists lead the campaign against the U.S. going into Haiti, They think that blacks cannot rule themselves in a democracy.

    Perhaps the best way to show their attitude towards blacks is a nostalgia piece from the 4th Quarter 1989 SP, titled, "Images From Another Time," by Francis Springer. One story is titled, "Old Aunt Mary," the other, "Popo." Aunt Mary is a former slave who visits, " the scattered descendants of those she once knew as 'Massa,' 'Misses,' her 'own folks' with stronger ties than legal yokes." She laughs and laughs as she relates old tales of the plantation. Popo is the name of another ex-slave who saved his owner's life during the Civil War by distracting his captors with his dancing. The grateful owner takes care of Popo, Of Popo we are told:

    And some ex-slaves are still here too, like Popo there who greeted you. His given name? "Napoleon," a mouthful he could not chew on; his Mammy, though, would laugh and scoff, "He worked so hard the Nap rubbed off!" Of course, the rascal never worked. Unlike the others, Popo shirked,

    Sketches show Old Aunt Mary as worthy of a syrup bottle, and Popo with a top hat dancing and happy go lucky.

    Religion - The neo-Confederates regard the Unitarians with intense hostility. The neo-Confederate view is that the Confederacy was an Orthodox Christian nation, The neo-Confederates have largely if not entirely Religious Right views. Christians who do not have their views are regularly attacked in the Southern Partisan. Any degree of tolerance of gays and Lesbians is always mentioned as a reason for condemnation.

    Women - Women in the neo-Confederate movement are largely in charge of monument care taking and promoting the "Lost Cause" mythology. They are in either the United Daughters of the Confederacy or the newly created SCV auxiliary Confederate Rose. When a Confederate myth or monument or symbol is threatened, their job is to effloresce romantic myths and apologetics before legislators. However, they should not be dismissed as "little old ladies." The management of cultural symbols and the historical consciousness of a community does not require heavy lifting. They provide the foundation for which everything else in the neo-Confederate movement is made possible. They are shrewd and have a long record of getting their way from the state and Federal governments and major corporations.

    There are few women in leadership positions in the CofCC, none in the SP, perhaps one or two elsewhere in the neo-Confederate movements

    The neo-Confederates are not sympathetic to feminism of any type, but women are not made to be "others." As militant heterosexuals they do or plan to live with women. They do not focus on women's issues, though in passing, when writing on other subjects, mention will be made. However, the following is a an example of their attitudes.

    [From, "Her Teeth Were Like Stars," by Bill Young, Sept. - Oct. 1994, Confederate Veteran, pp. 50. In this story Bill Young relates a story from his youth when he went to a Boy Scout convention in Pennsylvania and at an evening dance he was paired with a girl he considered unattractive.]

    The girls began to arrive. ... I stole a glance at a couple of chicks up close. They were cute as speckled pups. ...The sweetie pies lined up on the right side of the gym; the swains on the left. I was number seven up front. "I carefully counted back seven. My heart skipped a beat when I saw who my partner was going to be. I counted again to make sure. I started to sweat. ... I considered ducking out of line and making a run for it. ...it was too late.

    [Young goes on and on how awful she looks, an example:] "Honey, when you need a new pair of shoes, I'll bet your daddy doesn't take you to the shoe store to be fitted. He takes you to the stable to be shod."

    [Concluding his story] I was stuck with Godzilla from the word go. My only chance was to tough it out to the bitter end. I kept saying to myself over and over. "Remember, you're a Southern gentleman. Remember, you're a Southern gentleman." [italic in the text] There are limits to what even a Southern gentleman can endure, but I hung on grimly to Gladys and my frozen smile ...More than a hundred years ago, my great-grandfather came to Pennsylvania with Lee's army. He was shot down ... I came to Pennsylvania ... I was shot down ... by old Gladys.

    [Talking to his father when he got home about how bad it was.] "Well, okay. Let me put it this way Dad. I went to the dance and my girl was a PIG." "You mean, 'P-I-G' as in pretty Intelligent Girl'?" He asked. "No, Dad. I mean 'PIG' as in oink, oink!" Dad paused for a moment and then said, "You better stick to Southern girls, son." It was good advice.

    Klu Klux Klan - The neo-Confederates make a great deal of the fact that they supposedly don't approve of the KKK and the KKK's use of the Confederate flag. However, they are somewhat contradictory on this. The Confederate Veteran, the Citizen Informer, Confederate Embassy News of the Confederate Memorial Hall in Washington D.C. and SP gave overwhelming approval of the book, "Southern By the Grace of God," by Michael Grissom. In this book the KKK in both the 19th and 20th century is strongly praised and a lynching is described as an example of community strength in the South. The UDC also gave this book promotion in their magazine.

    Grissom has also written, "The Last Rebel Yell," and "When The South Was Southern." The "The Last Rebel Yell" is unbelievably racist, and the other book shows Klan robes as valued southern heritage. Grissom is a prominent member of the Heritage Preservation Association whose slogan is "Heritage Not Hate,"

    The SP also had articles denouncing criticism of David Duke, former Klansman and nearly elected candidate for the governor of Louisiana in 1989. The SP asserted that he represented the true feelings of ordinary people.

    A series of articles in 1993-94 best illustrates the relationship of the neo-Confederate movement to the Klan. In the city of Vidor, in East Texas, the KKK had kept public housing segregated through a campaign of intimidation with the helpful inaction of the local public housing authority. It got national attention. Henry Cisneros, then U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) took vigorous action and integrated the public housing in Vidor. The town had a long history of using violence to keep blacks out.

    In the May/June 1993, Texas Republic, Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., President of the Ludwig von Mises Institute, has an article titled, "The Assault on Vidor," where Cisneros actions are denounced as an attack on freedom.

    In the March/April 1994, Texas Republic, Merrill Matthews, Jr., health policy director of the National Center for Policy Analysis, a major conservative policy organization located in Dallas, has another article attacking Cisneros actions in Vidor. The theme of the article titled, "Human Experimentation," was concern for the safety of blacks sent there. It claimed that they were not informed of the risks. This is a highly dubious claim since the towns reputation among blacks had been in existence for generations, and the problems had been highly publicized in almost every news outlet imaginable. There is a cunning in this article that is chilling.

    Finally the 4th Qtr. 1993 SP has an article by Christopher Prawdzik, who also writes for the Texas Republic, and is listed as an editorial assistant with The New Republic, writes a long article attacking all the Southerners in Bill Clinton's administration as scalawags. Cisneros is singled out for his actions in Vidor which are called an attack on personal liberty.

    The neo-Confederates don't endorse directly the Klan, they don't have to. Like the southern senators who filibustered and blocked proposed Federal anti-lynching legislation decade after decade in the name of states rights, they strive to block any effective action against the Klan in the name of individual liberty. Neither the Klan or the neo-Confederates need have any discussion to coordinate their activities, since they both know exactly their roles. The neo-Confederates can even act shocked and piously condemn the Klan, yet make sure nothing is done about them. With the recent elections one can only wonder how safe the South will be.

    Democracy

    The neo-confederates' policy of endless division of the American public and setting it against itself, serves their ultimate purpose. That purpose is to terminate the American democratic experience. John C. Calhoun, the 19th century antebellum Southerner and paternalist, is their hero, Indeed, they are part of a political faction that can trace itself all the way back to Calhoun and his fellow anti-democratic paternalists and slavocrats. The neo-Confederates are hostile to American democracy. The following are a few examples:

    [From an regular column in the SP, by Tom Landess, also a contributor for Texas Republic, titled, "The Statue of liberty is falling to pieces, and I'm glad. Summer 1984] I don't like the thing. I hate what it stands for, and I respect the givers even less ...

    My chief objection to the Statue is not to its vulgarity ... nor to the pietistic doggerel associated with it. Bad art has its uses ...

    The problem with the Statue is the fact that it is an idol, and not in the broadest sense, but indeed the kind of idol that the Israelites were warned against by a more hard-headed God than the one we believe in today ...

    Most of what is bad in the American Founding can be traced to the influence of the French Enlightenment, and the trouble we find ourselves in today can in turn be attributed to flaws in the Founding.

    ... If we could just get rid of the flamboyant torch, restructure here so that she had legs, and put her down on her knees ...

    * * *

    [From an article denouncing the Declaration of Independence by Robert W. Whitaker, SP, Summer 1983]

    [From the header box for the article] The Declaration of Independence was a clever work of war propaganda, never intended to be taken seriously at home...the Declaration, is a form of Orwellian Doublethink. And it all became inevitable after Appomattox.

    "...And to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity," It is difficult to find a more specific contradiction to the idea of America as a melting pot, a nation of immigrants, than these words contained in the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States.

    To modernists, the Declaration of Independence sounds like what America is all about, because it sounds exactly like what a Parisian liberal would have written. It was intended to. The Declaration of Independence, written under particular historic conditions, contains at least two deliberate lies, [emphasis mine.]

    Lie II: ... We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal ..." [referring to Lafayette and others] It was in their language that the vacuous phrase was written.

    The Declaration's signers would have been insulted by the idea that they actually believed the egalitarian nonsense in the Declaration.

    Again and again anti-democratic ideas are presented in the SP, In the Spring 1984 issue, there is an article by Sheldon Vanauken titled, "The World After the South Won." In this historical fantasy the British intervene on the side of the Confederacy and the United States surrenders from its emergency capital at Portland, Maine. The reason is given that the British wanted to support the Confederacy for several reasons, one was "The South is English, unlike the North which has become mongrel through immigration." The primary benefit of the Confederacy winning, according to Vanauken, would have been the defeat of American democratic ideas.

    This was also the theme of his book, "The Glittering Illusion," in which he proposes the idea that the failure of the British to intervene and assure Confederate victory opened the flood gates of democracy. The title of the book refers to the motivation of the British not to intervene, that they thought Robert E. Lee could not be beaten. The following quotes show his views in the article:

    "I Gladstone achieved not merely the recognition but an abiding alliance between Great Britain and the Southern States. It was an alliance destined to become even closer when the South became, somewhat later, a member of the British Commonwealth, and its President became Prime Minister, with a Royal Governor to open the Parliament at Richmond in the name of the Queen.

    In England one of the first effects of the victory was that John Bright and indeed the "Manchester School" lost such influence as they possessed. It was widely recognized that they had supported the brutal attempt of the United States... The decline of the "Manchester School" was but a sign of the underlying reality of the discrediting of the doctrine they had preached: the universal suffrage that must lead to that tyranny of the majority ... We today, who perceive the fatal flaw, the lack of balance, in the doctrine that three dockers should outweigh the duke and the don -- that, so to speak, the pawns should take the knights and the castles.... but it must be remembered that the United States before the War of Northern Aggression had held forth a beguiling if specious "liberty" that was, in fact, not liberty but equality.

    ... and that the sinister Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln -an invitation to the slaves to rise against their masters, or more precisely their mistresses, since the men were with the army - had no effect

    The book, "The South Was Right!," by James Ronald Kennedy and Walter Donald Kennedy, brothers, SCV members and officers, enjoys widespread neo-Confederate approval. It has been praised in the Confederate Veteran twice, in the Southern Partisan, and in the Citizen Informer, The Kennedys speak before chapters of the Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV). Walter "Donnie" Kennedy is on the board of directors of the Confederate Society of America, an executive officer of the SCV, and a regular writer for Southern Heritage magazine.

    The book is a bitter angry advocate of what they call "Southern Nationalism." It advocates a Jim Crow south from before the civil rights movement, It denounces the 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The following is an excerpt:

    [Pp. 251, section on Legitimate Voting Qualifications] The liberal concept of one man-one vote, or universal franchise is so deeply entrenched in the liberal dogma of the Yankee government that very few are willing to challenge its legitimacy. ...

    In Kennedys' book to be allowed to vote you would be required to pass a literacy test, and tests on history, geography, and mathematics. You would have to pay taxes, not a sales tax or through withholding, but a tax in a lump sum payment of which they believe you would feel the impact. You could not be on relief or have ever been through bankruptcy.

    Summary

    The American nation, faces a dangerous bigoted adversary. Though they are very hostile to gays, to minorities, their other target is the great majority of whites whom they hope to subordinate based on their lack of Anglo-Saxonism, or their class status. This adversary is fundamentally opposed to the American democratic republic, and its progress toward greater freedom and democracy.

    They have worked continuously over the decades because they understand the great political and social power in controlling historical memory. They know the house rests on the foundation you don't see. They have progressed because they have faced little opposition.

    Few people will say that history is really important to them, however almost everyone has an idea how things should be. Those ideas come from a general vague feeling of history. When questioned they may not know when or where the Thirty Years War was, but they believe in the freedom of religious belief since they know at some time in the past there were religious wars and horrible persecution. Many other beliefs come from conclusions made from popular ideas of history half forgotten.

    They have also been able to go forward since they have not had their real views brought to light. With this article I hope to present their views and alert the public.

    However, people need to realize that the Confederate symbols, holidays, monuments, are a threat to them also, not just African Americans. They are more than just racist, they are anti-democratic also. We need to come together with other groups to defend ourselves and defend our Republic by opposing the "Lost Cause," The Confederacy no longer needs to secede, it is eating up our nation from the inside and threatens to swallow it all. Frederick Douglas warned that honoring the Confederacy would present a danger in the future to the nation, his prophesy has come true.

    FOOTNOTES

    1. M.E. Bradford has written:

    "Founding Fathers: Brief Lives of the Framers of the United States Constitution," Kansas University Press 1994, original copy right 1981 by the Liberty Fund. It has ; forward by Russell Kirk. It is dedicated to the memory of John P. East, late U,S, Senator from N. Carolina. My copy comes from the Conservative Book Club.

    "Original Intentions: On The Making And Ratification Of The United States Constitution," University of Georgia Press, 1993, with a forward by Forrest McDonald.

    "Better Guide Than Reason: Studies in the American Revolution"

    "Remembering Who We Are: observations of a Southern Conservative," 1985, University of Georgia Press, This book discusses extensively the intent of the founding fathers, M,E, Bradford's view is stated in the book jacket as follows:

    Bradford in these essays exposes ,. distorted myths... that he believes have been used to undermine the nation's heritage as a confederation of independent states.

    ... The United States was not founded, Bradford argues, with the idea of creating a society dedicated to either justice or equality, and all attempts to turn America in that direction have resulted in a perversion of the nation's true origins ...

    Ironically Rick Halperin, Chairman of Amnesty International - America, has spoken to the same SCV camp who promoted this book - - and of which M.E. Bradford is a member, He gave to this group, and at least one other I have documented, speeches denigrating Abraham Lincoln.

    2. From the Southern Partisan respectively: Lott, Fall 1984; Helms, Spring 1984; Phil Gramm, Summer 1983; Dick Armey, 3rd Quarter 1990; Pat Buchanan, Spring 1986; Jerry Fallwell, Spring 1983; Pat Robertson, Winter 1986; Schlafly, Summer 1982; Rev. Donald Wildmon, 2nd Quarter 1989; Cribb, 2nd Quarter 1992; Pruden, 2nd Quarter 1993.

    FINAL NOTE

    This essay was written March 1995. Since then much has happened. The links to the Christian Reconstructionist and to the Militia movements have become steadily more apparent. Also, many leading Republicans after the 1994 Congressional elections are much less shy about appearing in the Neo-Confederate press. Neo-Confederate student chapters have organized on Southern campuses and at the University of Alabama are campaigning against the gay and black groups on that campus. ("… and it marched with a Confederate battle flag onto a campus quadrangle to erase messages written in chalk by gay and Lesbian students. " Nov. 10 1995 Chronicle of Higher Education.)

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