Psychology 712 Influences on Social Development
Fall 2000


Class Meetings:            PAS 4005 - Tuesdays, 9:30AM - 12:00 AM

Instructor

Al Cheyne 

Office:        PAS 4006 
Phone        ext.   3054 
e-mail:       acheyne@watarts.uwaterloo.ca

 Course Description:
 
This year we will be broadly reviewing both classic and recent studies of the formative processes of social development. The fundamental question to be addressed is: How did we become the persons we are and what will shape the persons we will become tomorrow? We will be rounding up the usual suspects: genes, parents, peers, and social institutions. To provide some continuity, and provocative arguments to stimulate discussion, we will be reading The nurture assumption by Judith Harris along with original studies and reviews. We will review the methods and findings of behavior genetic and molecular genetics studies, studies of parenting and family influences, peer relations and group dynamics, and larger social structures such as schools, neighborhoods, and other larger social structures such as rural-urban and cross-cultural differences. To conclude we will consider alternative theoretical frameworks, such as epigenetic and dynamical systems approaches, in terms of their potential to resolve some to the tensions between these different domains of potential influence.
 
Assignments: 

Readings will be assigned at each meeting. Members of the class should be prepared to discuss the readings. Each class member will prepare questions for discussion at the meeting. One class member will be responsible for guiding discussion each week. A successful meeting depends, of course, on the full participation of all class members. 

A written response to one or more of the readings is to be submitted at the end of each meeting. Feel free to critique, extend, or defend positions or claims made in any of the readings. Each response should be approximately 500- 1000 words in length. There will be no final exam, major seminar presentations, or major essays. 

Evaluation: 

50% on written materials, and 50% on general class participation. 

Tentative Schedule of Meetings
 
Week 1 (Sept 12) 

Organization and Overview 

Week 2 (Sept 17)  

Harris, J. R. The Nurture Assumption (TNA). Gibran poem, Pinker Foreword, Harris Preface & Ch. 1: "Nurture" is not the same as "Environment" 

Aries, P. (1962). The Discovery of Childhood. In P. Aries Centuries of Childhood. R. Baldrick (Trans.), New York: Vintage. Original published in 1060.) (pp. 33- 49). 

Thomas, R. M. (1985). The puritan's sinful child and Rousseau's moral child. In Comparing theories of child development.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. 

Bonner, K. (1999). Power and parenting: A hermeneutic of of the human condition. Chapter 1 

Vulnerability and Resilience 
Rutter, M. et al. (1998). Developmental catch-up, the deficit, following adoption after severe global early privation. In S. J. Ceci & W. M. Williams (Eds., The nature-nurture debate. Oxford: Blackwell. (pp. 108-134) 

Clarke, A. & Clarke, A. (1998). Early experience and the life path. In S. J. Ceci & W. M. Williams (Eds., The nature-nurture debate. Oxford: Blackwell. (pp. 136-146) 
 

Week 3: (Sept 26) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch. 2: The Nature (and Nurture) of the Evidence 

Campbell, A. & Muncer, S. (1998) Something happened: Fission and fusion in developmental psychology. In A. Campbell & S. Muncer (Eds), The Social Child. Hove: East Essex: Psychology press. (pp. 3-20) 

Plomin, R. DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & Rutter, M. (1997). Personality and personality disorders. In R. Plomin et al. Behavior Genetics (Third Edition). New York Freeman. (pp. 195-216) 

Bouchard, T. J. Jr. (1994). Genes, environment, and personality. Science, 264, 1700-1701 

Zahn-Waxler, et al. (1996). Behavior problems in 5-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins: Genetic and environmental influences, patterns of regulation, and internalization of control. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 103 -122. 
 

Week 4: (October 2, 4) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch. 3 Nature, Nurture, and None of the Above & Appendix 1 Personality and Birth Order (pp. 365-378). 

Scarr, S. (1992). Developmental theories for the 1990s: Development and individual differences. Child Development, 63, 1-19. 

Baumrind, D. (1993). The average expectable environment is not good enough: A response to Scarr. Child Development, 64, 1299-1317. 

Plomin, R. & Rutter, M, (1998). Child development, Molecular genetics, and what to do with genes once they are found. Child Development, 69, 1223-1242. 

Braungart-Rieker, J. et al. (1995). Genetic mediation of longitudinal associations between family environment and childhood behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 233-245. 
 
Depue, R. A. et al. (1994). Dopamine and the structure of personality: Relation of agonist-induced dopamine activity to positive emotionality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 485-498. 
 
 

Week 5: (October 11) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch. 4: Separate worlds  & Ch. 5: Other Times, Other Places 

Fein, G. G. & Fryer, M. G. (1995). Maternal Contributions to early symbolic play competence. Developmental Review, 15, 367-381. 

Kochanska, G., Murray, K., Jacques, T. Y., Koenig, A. L., Vandegeest, K. A. (1996). Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67, 490-507. 

Hetherington, E. M., Clingempeel, W. G., et al. (1992). Coping with marital transitions: A family systems perspective. Monographs for the Society for Child Development, 57(2-3) Serial No. 227) 

Week 6: (October 17) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch. 6: Human Nature. 

Bjorklund, D. F. (1996). Parental investment theory and gender differences in the evolution of inhibition mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 163-188. 

Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (n.d.,) Evolutionary Psychology: A primer. http://cogweb.english.ucsb.edu/EP/EP-primer_contents.html 

MacDonald, K. (1998). Evolution and development. In A. Campbell & S. Muncer (Eds), The Social Child. Hove: East Essex: Psychology press. (pp. 21-49) 
 
 

Of related interest : Web site: Chimpanzee cultures 

http://chimp.st-and.ac.uk/cultures/intro.htm Week 7: (October 24) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch. 7: Us and Them 

Sherif, M., Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W. R., Sherif, C. W. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The robber's cave experiment. Norman OK: Institute of group Relations. Ch. 5 & 6: Intergroup relations. (pp. 96 - 116 & 117 -149) 

Goodall, J. (1990). Through a Window. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  Ch. 10: War (pp. 98-111) 

Aberson, C. L., Healy, M., & Romero, V. (2000). In-group bias and self-esteem: a meta-analysis. Personality and social Psychology Review, 4, 157-173. 

You might also be interested in this recent New York Times Book Review of: Hines, T. (1999). The rise and fall of the american teen-ager. New York: Bard/Avon. 
 

Week 8: (October 31) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Chapter 8: In the Company of Children 

Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at School: What we know and what we can do. (Part 1: pp.  7-60). Oxford: Blackwell. 

Bukowski, W. M., Pizzamiglio, M. T., Newcomb, A. F., & Hoza, B. (1996). Popularity as an affordance for friendship: The link between group and dyadic experience. Social Development, 5, 189-202. 

Crick, N. R. & Grotpeter, J. K. (1996). Children's treatment by peers: Victims of relational and overt aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 367-380. 

Sutton, J., Smith, P. K. , & Swettenham, J. (1999a). Bullying and 'theory of Mind': A critique of the 'social skills deficit' view of anti-social behavior. Social Development, 8, 117-127. 

Crick, N. R. & Dodge, K. (1999). 'Superiority' is in the eye of the beholder: A comment on Sutton, Smith, Swettenham. Social Development, 8, 128-131. 

Sutton, J., Smith, P. K. , & Swettenham, J. (1999b). Socially undesirable need not be incompetent: A response to Crick and Dodge. Social Development, 8, 132-134. 

Rodkin, P. C., Farmer, T. W., Pearl, R., & Van Acker, R. (2000). Heterogeneity of popular boys: Antisocial and prosocial configurations. Developmental psychology, 36, 14-24. 

Galen, B. R. & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 589-600. 

Gottesman, I., Goldsmith, H. H., & Carey, G. (1997). A developmental and a genetic perspective on aggression. In N. L. Segal, G. E. Weisfeld, & C. C. Weisfeld (Eds.), Uniting psychology and biology: Integrating perspectives on human development (pp. 107-144). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 

 Keenan, K., Loeber, R., Zhang, Q., Stouthamer-Loeber, M. & van Kammen, W. B. (1995). The influence of deviant peers on the development of boys' disruptive and delinquent behavior: A temporal analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 715-726. 
 

Week 9: (November 10) 

Harris, J. R. TNA.  Ch. 9: The Transmission of Culture 

Jahoda, G. (1998) Cultural influences on development. In A. Campbell & S. Muncer (Eds), The Social Child. Hove: East Essex: Psychology press. (pp 85- 110) 

Bickerton, D. (1983, July). Creole languages. Scientific American, 249, 116-122. 

Fry, D. P. (1988). Intercommunity differences in aggression among Zapotec children. Child Development, 59, 1008-1019. 

Harris, J. R. (1995). Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review, 102, 458-489. 

Loehlin, J. C. (1997). A test of J. R. Harris's theory of peer influences on personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1197-1201. 

Hacking, I. (1999). Kind-making: The case of child abuse. In I. Hacking, The social construction of what? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Goode, E. (2000). How culture molds habits of thought. New York times, August 8. 

http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/health/080800hth-behavior-culture.html 

Chimp Culture Recognized (ABC Science News) June 16, 1999 

http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/chimpanzees990616.html 

Week 10 (November 14) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch 10: Gender Rules 

Maccoby, E. E. (1990). Gender and Relationships: A developmental account. American Psychologist, 45, 513-520. 

Diamond, M. & Sigmundson, H. K. (1998). Sex reassignment at birth. In S. J. Ceci & W. M. Williams (Eds., The nature-nurture debate. Oxford: Blackwell. (pp. 57-75) 

Imperato-McGinley,  J., Peterson, R. E., Stoller, R., & Goodwin, W. E. (1998) Gender change with puberty. In S. J. Ceci & W. M. Williams (Eds., The nature-nurture debate. Oxford: Blackwell. (pp. 76-80) 

Draper, P. (1997). Institutional, evolutionary, and demographic contexts of gender roles: A case study of !Kung bushmen. In M. E. Morbeck, A. Galloway, & A. L. Zihlman (Eds,), The evolving female: A life-history perspective. (pp. 220-232). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 

Draper, P. & Cashdan, E. (1988). Technological change and child behavior among the !Kung. Ethology, 27, 339-365. 

Altermatt, E. R., Jovanovic, J., & Perry, M. (1998). Bias or responsivity: Sex and achievement-level effects on teachers' classroom questioning  practice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 516-527. 

News Item: Girls Less Confident Than Boys In Science Classes, Researcher Finds 

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/11/981104075118.htm 
http://www.admin.uiuc.edu/NB/98.11/gendertip.html
Week 11 (November 21) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch. 11: Schools of Children and Ch. 12 (Growing up - to p. 173) 

Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613-629. 

Zahn-Waxler, C. (1993). Warriors and worriers: Gender and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 79-89. 

Hamalainen, M. & Pulkkinen, L. (1996). Problem behavior as a precursor of male criminality. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 443-445. 

Moffitt & Henry. Antisocial behavior and executive function. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 105. 

Kindermann, T. A. (1993). Natural peer groups as contexts for individual development: The case for children's motivation in school. Developmental Psychology, 29, 970-977. 
 

Week 12 (Nov 28) 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch 12 (p. 174 - to end): Growing up and Chapter 13: Dysfunctional Families. 

Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674-701. 

Asendorpf, J. (1994). The malleability of behavioral inhibition: a study of behavioral inhibition. Developmental Psychology, 30, 912-919. 

Caspi, A., Elder, G. H. Jr., & Bem, D. J. (1988). Moving away the world: Life-course patterns of shy children. Developmental Psychology, 24, 824-831. 

Caspi, A., Elder, G. H. Jr. (1987). Moving against the world: Life-course patterns of explosive children. Developmental Psychology, 23, 308-313. 

Kerr, M., Lambert, W. W., Stattin, H., & Klackenberg-Larsson, I. (1994). Stability of inhibition in a Swedish longitudinal sample. Child Development, 65, 138-146. 

Kagan, J. (1997). Temperament and the reactions to unfamiliarity. Child Development, 68, 139-143. 

Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1988). Biological basis of childhood shyness. Science, 240, 167-171. 

Kerr, M., Lambert, W. W., & Bem, D. J. (1996). Life course sequelae of childhood shyness in Sweden: Comparison with the United States. Developmental Psychology, 32, 1100-1105. 

Ge, X., Conger, R. D., Cadoret, R. J., Neiderhiser, J. M., Yates, W., Troughton, E., & Stewart, M. A. (1996). The developmental interface between nature and nurture: A mutual influence model of child antisocial behavior and parent behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32, 574-589. 

Denham, S. A., Workman, E., Cole, P. M., Weissbrod, C., Kendziora, K. T., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2000). Prediction of externalizing behavior problems from early to middle childhood: The role of parental socialization and emotional expression. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 23-45. 

Jacobson, K. C., & Rowe, D. C. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent mood: Sex differences. Developmental Psychology, 35, 926-939. 

Cadoret, et al. (1995). Gene-environment interaction in the genesis of aggressivity and conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 916-924. 

Mednick, S. A., Gabrielli, W.F., & Hutchings, B. (1984). Genetic factors in criminal behavior: Evidence from an Adoption Cohort. Science, 224, 891-893. 

Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1988). Evolutionary social psychology and family homicide. Science, 242, 519-524. 

Controversial News Item: The abortion-crime rate puzzle. The Chicago Tribune. August 8, 1999 

http://www.freep.com/news/nw/qabort9.htm 
http://chicagotribune.com/news/metro/chicago/article/0,2669,2-32656,FF.html 
An alternative view: 
http://www.freep.com/news/nw/qabox9.htm
Week 13: Dec 5 

Harris, J. R. TNA. Ch. 14: What parents can do, Ch. 15: The nurture assumption on trial, Appendix 2: Testing theories of child development 

Reiss, D. (1997). Mechanisms linking genetic and social influences in adolescent development: Beginning a collaborative search. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 100- 105. 

Bertenthal, B. I. (1991) A systems view of behavioral canalization: Theory and commentary. Developmental Psychology, 27, 4-13. 

Goldsmith et al. (1997). Epigenetic approaches to developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 365-387. 

Gotlieb, G. (1996). Developmental psychobiological theory. In R. B. Cairns, G. H. Elder, & E. J. Costello (Eds.) Developmental Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Oyama, S. (1989). Ontogeny and the central dogma: Do we need the concept of genetic programming in order to have an evolutionary perspective? In M. Gunnar & E. Thelen (Eds.), Systems and development: The Minnesotta symposia on Child Development. (Vol. 22). Hillsdale, New Jersy. (pp. 1 - 34) 

Lytton, H. Toward a model of family-environment and child-biological influences on development. Developmental Review, 20, 150-179.