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Draft for comment V0.6 2 May 2000 Comments to: tom.worthington@dewrsb.gov.au

Note: This is a working draft. Comments and corrections are welcome.


Internet Payments for Government Agencies

 Contents

·        Introduction

·        How Payment Systems Work

o       Payment Instruments

o       Payment Clearing Systems

·        How A Payment is Made Using a Credit Card

o       Card-Present (Face-to-Face) transactions

o       Card-Not-Present transactions

o       How Credit-Cards work on the Internet

·        Direct Entry (Direct Debit)

·        Types of Internet Payment Products and Services

·        Internet Payments Panel For Government Agencies

·        Acknowledgements & more information

Introduction

The Internet has the potential to make it easier for Australian businesses to deal with government. The facsimile, post and telephone were important business innovations, but the Internet offers new possibilities for access to current information on a wide range of government assistance programs and services, and business information on topics such as taxation, record-keeping, superannuation, occupational health and safety, Customs, intellectual property protection and workplace relations. It creates the opportunity for Government cost-effectively meet business needs.

One major problem with the Internet, though, is how to get paid. Some Government services require payment. One technique that is in widespread use on the Internet is credit cards. However, other options are available and may better suit business requirements.

Products and Services

There are many purposes for which government may require Internet-based payment services. They include:

o       the sale of government products, such as publications;

o       the provision of services, such as inspections; and

o       collection of funds, such as business licence fees.

Clients that will typically use government services can be grouped into two broad categories:

o       the general public, including individual business owners.  This group is expected to require an easy-to-use client system (eg browser-based) and to be less likely to accept complex or costly authentication systems, (eg smart cards or add-on hardware or software); or

o       closed user groups, such as agents or association members, for whom a more sophisticated authentication system may be quite acceptable.

To enable business to pay over the Internet, your agency needs to have an understanding of the process that's involved and the options. You need to select services, software and perhaps hardware and establish the appropriate arrangements with a financial institution.

The range of transaction sizes and total dollar volumes should be considered and an appropriate payment method selected.

Additionally, an ability to vary merchant and customer fees according to the risk associated with a transaction type is desirable. For example, small dollar value sales for publications would typically carry a lower risk than items or services with high dollar value sales.

Similarly, revokable government products such as licences carry less risk of dishonoured transactions and therefore may attract lower merchant and/or customer fees.

This document provides you with information to get you started. However, you will need to obtain your own financial, technical and legal advice.

How Payment Systems Work

Payment clearing is the exchange of payment instruction, represented by Payment Instruments, such as cheques, for value between providers of payment services. Clearers provide the means for individuals and businesses to transfer value, one to the other, regardless of where particular accounts are held. Clearers accept throughout each day open-ended obligations drawn on like institutions, as a matter of course. A high level of mutual confidence is needed between clearers for the payments system to operate effectively.

The system used for conventional paper cheques is discussed first, then the available electronic systems. While there are differences in the detail between the systems, the principles of payment clearing broadly apply to all systems.

Payment Instruments

·        Cheques

·        Direct entry (DE)

·        Credit / Debit cards

·        Electronic Funds at Point of Sale (EFTPOS)

·        Stored value cards (SMART cards, etc.)

Cheques

A cheque is a written instruction to a financial institution made by its customer to pay a third party. Cheque facilities are provided to their customers by banks, building societies and credit unions. Some banks are direct clearers. They process cheques and then exchange them with other direct clearers at regional exchange centres. Other banks, building societies and credit unions use a direct clearer to process and exchange cheques for them.

Issuance of cheques in Australia is governed by the Cheques Act 1986. Procedural and practical issues governing the clearance of cheques and payment orders are specifically covered by Australian Payments Clearing Association rules.

Electronic transmission of cheque particulars and electronic dishonours came into effect on 30 April 1999. These procedures shortened the time taken to clear cheques. This system is for bank, building society and credit union members of the clearance system. However, cheques themselves remain in paper format.

Direct Entry (DE)

The direct entry system, available to organisations, including government agencies, for making payments to, or receiving payments from, large numbers of their employees and clients, is a development and refinement of long-standing pre-authorised payments arrangements. The Reserve Bank is a major participant in the direct entry system, processing social security and other government payments.

The direct entry system allows approved organisations to make arrangements with their financial institution to debit and/or credit large numbers of customer accounts on a regular basis. Organisations can be credit users in the system, making payments (direct credits), or debit users receiving payments (direct debits).

The most common examples of credit users are those businesses that credit their employees' accounts with the amount of their salaries. Other less common examples of direct credits made to accounts by credit users are for payment of interest and dividends, rent and commissions.

Businesses and organisations use direct debits to draw funds from their customers' accounts for the value of, for example, insurance premiums, utility bills, repayments of debt and the like. Direct debiting of these accounts is carried out under an authority signed by each customer.

A single counterpart cover payment in the form of an offsetting debit or credit, as the case may be, is made to the organization’s account corresponding to the sum of the credits or debits made to their employees'/customers'/debtors' etc. accounts. Credits to accounts are irrevocable in nature and cannot be reversed. Debits, on the other hand, are provisional and can be dishonoured in similar fashion to cheques.

Prior to 31 March 2000, a customer wishing to pay recurring amounts by direct debit arranged to have the payments made automatically by signing a standard paper form. From 31 March 2000 electronic forms have been accepted. There is a Direct Debit Logo and style guide for branding transactions using the system.

Credit / Debit cards

Australian financial institutions issue their own proprietary debit cards, which can be used in ATMs and for EFTPOS transactions. They also issue three combined function credit/debit cards: Bankcard, Visa and MasterCard. All three cards can be used in ATMs and are widely accepted in retail establishments for credit and EFTPOS transactions.

The Bankcard Association, which has nine member banks, determines policy in respect of Bankcard. Their respective international bodies establish the rules governing participation in Visa and MasterCard schemes.

Some members of Visa International issue a Visa credit card with the supporting account being a deposit (or debit account). However, in general, credit card transactions are supported by an extension of credit by the issuer of the card to its cardholder customer.

Charge cards, e.g., American Express and Diners' Club, are issued directly by the card companies themselves. These companies deal directly with both cardholders and merchants in a "closed system". Accordingly, no cross-financial institution clearing obligations are engendered by the use of these charge cards.

Some card transactions are still recorded on paper vouchers. But, for the most part, card transactions are now processed electronically from the point of capture, with cardholder accounts debited, on line, in real time.

Electronic Funds at Point of Sale (EFTPOS)

EFTPOS provides customers with a payment mechanism for the supply of goods and services at the point of sale. Payment is made through an on-line debit of the customer's savings or cheque account, with a resultant credit to the merchant's account overnight. This transaction, like the ATM transaction, uses a plastic card with a magnetic stripe and a PIN to identify the customer.

EFTPOS terminals are owned either by the merchant or by its financial institution. While the service offered by EFTPOS is principally a substitute for cash and cheque payments, some merchants also offer "cash out" services, where the customer's savings or cheque account is debited in return for the provision of cash by the merchant.

The interchange arrangements between financial institutions in the Australian EFTPOS system are fully linked, allowing all EFTPOS-capable cards, regardless of financial institution issuer, to transact at all terminals.

Stored value cards

Cards which store "rechargeable" value (and other information) in a computer chip - "rechargeable stored value", "smart cards" or "electronic purses" - come with various characteristics and degrees of sophistication.

Some organisations in Australia are issuing "non-rechargeable" stored value cards built around magnetic stripe technology. However, these cards can only be used for a very restricted range of purposes (for example, some cards can only be used for making telephone calls, others only for travel on public transport) and because of this do not give rise to the need for clearing and settling.

Payment Clearing Systems

Institutions, quite simply, would be unwilling to accept open-ended obligations drawn on institutions in which they did not have a very high degree of confidence. Without this mutual confidence between clearers the payments system could not operate effectively. Each clearing system has a set of regulations and procedures setting out rules of participation.

Four Australian clearing systems are:

·        Australian Paper Clearing System (APCS) for cheques, payment orders and other paper based payment instructions;

·        Bulk Electronic Clearing System (BECS) for recurring electronic debit and credit payment instructions;

·        Consumer Electronic Clearing System (CECS) for proprietary card based ATM and EFTPOS transactions; and

·        High Value Clearing System (HVCS) for high value electronic payment instructions.

Australian Paper Clearing System (APCS) / Clearing System 1 (CS 1)

The Australian Paper Clearing System (APCS) or Clearing System 1 (CS 1) was established in December 1993. This system has the role of co-ordinating, managing and ensuring the implementation and operation of policies and procedures for the conduct and settlement of exchanges of paper-based payment instructions, i.e. primarily cheques, between its participating members. It is responsible for preservation of the integrity and efficiency of such exchanges.

Members can participate in three capacities according to whether they directly clear and directly settle to the system for their own obligations, or appoint a representative to clear and settle on their behalf (i.e. indirectly clear and settle), or appoint a representative to clear on their behalf while settling directly.

Members, which settle directly to the system, have agreed to provide liquidity support and ultimately to share any residual settlement shortfall if a member fails to settle.

Bulk Electronic Clearing System (BECS) / Clearing System 2 (CS 2)

The Bulk Electronic Clearing System (BECS) or Clearing System 2 (CS 2) was established in December 1994. This system has the role of managing the conduct of the exchange and settlement of bulk electronic low value transactions in similar fashion to that applying to paper-based payment instructions in the APCS. Similar rules are in place in respect to failure to settle.

BECS currently covers direct entry payments and might cover other types of payment instructions in the future, in so far as it provides a framework to encompass large volumes of individual payments, which are batched for delivery between financial institutions. Members can participate in two capacities: either as direct clearers and settlers or as indirect clearers and settlers.

Consumer Electronic Clearing System (CECS) / Clearing System 3 (CS 3)

The Consumer Electronic Clearing System (CECS) or Clearing Stream 3 (CS 3) is yet to be established. In CECS the management of clearing will primarily involve setting minimum interchange standards to protect and enhance the security, integrity and efficiency of exchanges of consumer electronic payment messages. Initially, CECS will cover ATM interchanges and EFTPOS only. Providers of credit cards (Visa, MasterCard and Bankcard) have set their own rules for participation in their respective schemes, and for clearing where it arises (discussed further below).

High Value Clearing System (HVCS) / Clearing System 4 (CS4)

The High Value Clearing System (HVCS or CS4) was established in 1997 as part of the more general development of Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) in Australia. It provides a secure electronic payment mechanism for the Australian finance industry.

The mechanism for HVCS participating members exchanging payments with each other is the SWIFT Payment Delivery System (PDS). The SWIFT PDS uses SWIFT's FIN-Copy product (configured in Y mode) to exchange payment messages between its participating members. FIN-Copy is a service built on SWIFT's worldwide financial application network, which allows financial institutions to exchange domestic payment messages in a closed user group.

All members settle directly for their own transactions. Consequently, there is only one category of member in the HVCS - a direct clearer/direct settler. Participating members in the HVCS comprise all parties, which hold exchange settlement accounts with the Reserve Bank, as well as the Reserve Bank.

Large value payments and payments which are time critical have substantially shifted to the HVCS.

How A Payment is Made Using a Credit Card

Obtaining payment is much the same process for cheques, direct debit and credit cards. Cheques are currently limited to paper based transactions and so are not discussed further in this document. Credit cards are the most common form of electronic payment on the Internet for consumer transactions and so will be used to illustrate the process. Direct debit offers particular advantages for payments typically received by Government agencies and will be discussed last.

The most common examples of credit cards are those bearing the Bankcard, Visa and MasterCard brands and issued by Australian financial institutions. American Express and Diners' Club charge cards operate in a similar manner.

A credit-card transaction is an instruction by your customer for funds to be transferred into your account and charged against theirs. The customer gives the instruction directly to you. Later, the customer will have to make a payment to their financial institution, typically once each month, to settle all recent transactions.

While the details vary, the process is similar with debit payments.

Card-Present (Face-to-Face) transactions

Face-to-face credit-card payments are referred to as 'card-present' transactions. The authority to charge is provided in person, and the cardholder signs a docket to evidence their agreement to the transaction. The data is captured, typically by making an impression from the card onto a voucher and writing in the transactions details.

If the value of the transaction is above the business's `floor-limit', the merchant phones their financial institution, which checks the status of the card and the availability of funds. Alternatively, the data may be captured, and the checking performed, using an EFT/POS terminal. This `authorisation' process addresses the risks that the card may have been stolen or the customer does not have credit available.

Card-Not-Present transactions

A range of additional, 'card-not-present' uses of credit cards has arisen. Card details may be provided by mail, fax or telephone, and hence such transactions are referred to as MOTO (mail-order/telephone-order) transactions. With mail and fax transmissions, a signature is provided, but it isn't written in view of the payee. With telephone transmissions there is no signature at all. It is a standard requirement that authorisation be sought for every card-not-present transaction. The risk remains that the person initiating the transaction might not be the cardholder.

Since the mid-1990s, credit-card transactions have also been conducted over the Internet. The customer sends the credit-card details as data rather than by voice. A slightly different set of risks arises.

How Credit-Cards work on the Internet

The customer visits the web site, and selects one or more of your products or services. Customers must then be shown how to place an order and to make a payment.

When the customer is ready to initiate payment, the system must present a form for them to key in their credit-card details into a web-form. Those details include the type of card (e.g. Bankcard, MasterCard or Visa), their credit-card number, the card's expiry date, and the name as displayed on their credit card. The form used may be provided from your web site or that of the payment service provider.

The web server receives those details across the Internet. There are then two ways in which the next step can be performed:

·        Manual. The web server can pass the credit-card details directly to you. You then need to process these details as a standard MOTO transaction, by gaining telephone authorisation and completing a voucher which you send to your financial institution, or by using a terminal connected to the EFT/POS network; or

·        Automatic. The web server can pass the credit-card details on to your financial institution, electronically. The financial institution checks the card's status and the availability of funds.

The financial institution then arranges for the funds to be transferred into your account.

If the goods or service can be delivered electronically, then the web server may be able to deliver the product automatically. For physical goods and services, the web server will need to communicate to you the goods that are to be despatched, and the delivery address they are to be sent to. If the payment is for a service already invoiced, an invoice number can be used to match the online payment with the invoice.

There is a risk that the cardholder may later revoke the transaction, in which case the funds will be removed from your account. This risk is much the same as it is with credit-card sales by mail and telephone.

Risks

Accepting credit-card payments over the Internet involves risk. It is important that you appreciate these risks, manage your business in such a way as to minimise them, and review allowances for bad debts.

Use of stolen or bogus Credit Card details

The card-owner is permitted to contest any entry that appears on their statement. If they do so credibly, then the financial institution will credit their account, and make a so-called 'charge back' to the merchant, with the result that the merchant loses the money. This can arise if someone has acquired a valid set of card-details, and uses them fraudulently to get delivery of goods and services with costs charged against a  card-owner's account. The perpetrator might be a card-thief, a member of the same household as the cardholder, perhaps a hacker who breaks into a computer that stores card-details, or even a hacker who intercepts transactions while they are in transit. Alternatively a fraudster may invent a plausible-sounding set of details.

To address this risk, your financial institution will require you to get authorisation from it for every Internet transaction you conduct, using either an EFTPOS terminal, your ISP, or the telephone. For fraudulent transactions conducted during the time between the theft of the card-details, and the card being stopped, you, the merchant are likely to be the one who will bear the loss. This is much the same kind of risk as arises with mail order and telephone-order (MOTO) transactions.

Renege by the customer

It is possible for a cardholder to authorise a payment, but later deny it. If the merchant is unable to tender a signed credit card docket, they will bear the loss. This kind of loss may be avoided, provided that the merchant can show the financial institution evidence that the cardholder confirmed the order, and took delivery of the goods.

Direct Entry (Direct Debit)

Credit cards are widely accepted in retail establishments for credit and EFTPOS transactions. This makes credit card payments online a suitable way for agencies to accept low value one-off payments. However, many payments to agencies are at a higher value and involve an on-going relationship between the client and the agency. This provides the opportunity for using the direct entry payment method, in preference to credit cards.

The direct entry system is available to organisations, including government agencies, for making payments to, or receiving payments from clients. Agencies already make use of this system for payments to employees and it is a development and refinement of long-standing pre-authorised payments arrangements.

The direct entry system allows approved organisations to make arrangements with their financial institution to debit and/or credit large numbers of customer accounts on a regular basis. Organisations can be credit users in the system, making payments (direct credits), or debit users receiving payments (direct debits).

Credits to accounts are irrevocable in nature and cannot be reversed. Debits, on the other hand, are provisional and can be dishonoured in similar fashion to cheques.

Direct debiting of these accounts is carried out under an authority signed by each customer. Prior to 31 March 2000, a customer wishing to pay recurring amounts by direct debit arranged to have the payments made automatically by signing a standard paper form. From 31 March 2000 electronic forms have been accepted. There is a Direct Debit Logo and style guide for branding transactions using the system.

Some Internet based payments systems have been expanded to include direct entry (and specialised systems such as BPAY developed). However, it also may be possible for an agency to use the direct entry system via their existing Financial Management Information Systems (FMIS).

No special registration is required to accept Direct Entry; it is automatically available for any Australian financial institution account, via the Bulk Electronic Clearing System. You need to provide clients with your account name, account number and Bank State Branch (BSB) number, if they are to initiate the payment. However, reconciliation of the payment with the payer and invoice can be difficult. Agencies may wish to format invoice numbers to include a check digit to detect transcription errors and ask clients to include the number in the description field of their direct entry transaction. BPAY overcomes many of these problems by including a standard biller, client and invoice code, but at a possibly higher transaction charge.

BPAY

BPAY is an electronic bill payment service offered by a number of financial institutions using the Bulk Electronic Clearing System. Customers arrange payment through their financial institution’s credit card, savings or cheque account, by phone or the Internet. Special registration with the financial institution is required for BPAY and conditions apply to information on bills or invoices to be paid.

In this instance your agency would apply for a BPAY account, be issued with a biller code and need to adhere to the BPAY requirements for the format of invoice numbers. Customers then select the BPAY option from their web browser and enter the biller code, invoice number and amount to be paid.

Types of Internet Payment Products and Services

The following is provided only as a guide. Each intending Agency commencing their payments service development project will need to identify actual service requirements; approach potential suppliers and make their own assessment of the best for their needs.

The main components of a typical Internet based payment service are:

o       a Client System, from which customers will order products and services;

o       a Merchant Server, from which Agencies will offer products and services; and

o       a Payments Server that processes payment transactions;

Client Authentication and Client System Requirements

Clients that will typically use government services can be grouped into two broad categories:

o       the general public, including individual business owners.  This group is expected to require an easy-to-use client system (eg browser-based) and to be less likely to accept complex or costly authentication systems, (eg smart cards or add-on hardware or software); or

o       closed user groups, such as agents or association members, for whom a more sophisticated authentication system may be quite acceptable.

Commonly available desktop hardware and software is likely to be a feature of all Client environments for the foreseeable future.

Separate installable applications (eg a SET wallet) or applets can be used by government agencies. However, there is potential client resistance to such applications, although clients who deal more frequently with a government agency may be more inclined to use separate installable applications.  Furthermore, many organisations ban applets from passing through their firewalls.

Description of the Merchant Server

The Merchant Server provides the ability for clients to select a desired product or service via a cataloguing function. Accumulation of client charges and preparation for entering financial transaction detail is accommodated via Electronic Cash Register functionality. Once an order has been completed, the Merchant Server prompts the client for their preferred payment type and engages the Payment Server for transaction approval and completion.

Individual Agencies may have a limited range of transactions. Some Merchant Server sites will be characterised by a large number of small transactions, whilst others will have fewer, but larger transactions. Some sites will have a relatively stable daily volume throughout the year; other sites will have low or zero volumes at some times of the year, but very high volumes at others; for example, approaching payment deadlines.

Automated transaction clearance with the major card service suppliers and a wide range of banking organisations is usual. Agencies may need to open a trading account with the acquiring bank with same-day deposit of funds, or transaction return, for transactions in which the client’s bank is the same as the acquiring bank.  Alternatively the Agency may appoint one of the major trading banks as the “trading bank”, with a third party “acquiring bank”.  At least next day deposit of funds, or transaction return, would be typical for such a system.

A mechanism for authenticating clients is required. For credit card and stored value card transactions, a mechanism for authenticating clients for the Payment Service Supplier is required. For direct debit and direct credit transactions, client authentication is required. For EFT, bank authentication and approval is required. An authentication method is also required to identify authorised clients and frequent visitors, and for the storage of profile detail. A registration mechanism typically will be utilised.

With payments to government, a mechanism for authenticating clients is required which matches the transaction type and associated risk.  In some cases, such as the sale of publications, it may be perfectly acceptable from a government agency perspective that the client remain anonymous, however for a payment to be made from an electronic wallet, we need to be able to authenticate the electronic token (or the client) back with the payment service supplier as protection against fraud.  In some cases, government agencies may want higher levels of authentication and will wish to know how (if at all) that might be accommodated.

The Payments System should include a reconciliation facility able to provide a report on all transactions on an as-required basis. The report would have transaction details, how and whether settled since the previous reconciliation report, and provision for a merchant-provided audit number against each transaction. The following financial and operational reports may be required by Agencies periodically:

o       Payments by customer identifier, transaction type and receipt number;

o       Log of faults and resolution;

o       Customer statistics; and

o       Incomplete transactions attempted.

Many Agencies will want the Internet payment system to be available to customers 24 hours per day and 7 days a week. The extent to which a product or service can meet this expectation should be indicated. The payment system is to be readily accessible by clients of an Agency.  In some cases this may allow use of only the latest versions of Browsers; in other cases it is likely that Agencies would need to provide for older versions of Browsers. Respondents are to identify the client system requirements necessary to utilise the payment system.

Access to the payment system should not be inhibited for customers who elect to prohibit executables such as Java applets on client systems.

Costs

One-off costs

o       Merchant Server

o       Software

o       Hardware

o       Payment Server

o       Software

o       Hardware

o       Application Development

o       Participation Fees

o       Installation

o       Other fees

Recurrent costs

o       Maintenance

o       Software

o       Other fees

o       Transaction Costs

o       Payment Server Fees

o       Merchant Bank Fees

o       Other fees

o       Consulting/Installation Services

o       Other Costs

There are some specialist electronic commerce providers, some with an information technology and telecommunications background and some from the financial sector. All of the end-to-end solutions require the involvement of two or more organisations in a consortium of some sort, normally a financial institution doing the acquiring and clearance, and the other partner doing the rest.

Internet Payments Panel For Government Agencies

The Commonwealth Government’s “More Time for Business” initiatives were announced on 24 March 1997. They acknowledged the need for governments throughout Australia to simplify the range of on-line business access points, reduce the number of compliance forms, improve information services to business, streamline licensing and approvals processes, and collect statistical data in a more efficient manner.

The Commonwealth Government has demonstrated its commitment to those initiatives through the staged implementation of a single ‘whole of government’ Business Entry Point (BEP) which can be accessed at http://www.business.gov.au. The Commonwealth, as represented by the Department of Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business through its Business Entry Point Management Branch (BEP MB), is responsible for developing and implementing the BEP initiative. Other background information to the BEP initiative is available on the stakeholder website: http://about.business.gov.au/

In line with its responsibilities, the BEP MB has established a Standing Offer Panel to supply Internet payment products and related services to Australian Governments.  The Panel currently has more than 30 organisations as members.  Details are available at: http://www.about.business.gov.au/ipp

Agencies approach Panel members with their requirements and seek competitive solutions from the range of products and services offered through the Panel arrangements. It is confined to Internet-based, online payment products and related services. Access to, and provision of, Agency services for which these payments are made is beyond the scope of the panel. In most situations Internet payment products and related services exist in parallel with other methods of payment to Agencies.

Definitions

Australian Governments

This term includes Australian Federal, State, Territory and local governments, their departments and Agencies.

Agency

Means a department or an Agency of an Australian Government

Browser

A piece of software eg Netscape 4, or Microsoft Internet Explorer 4, used for accessing resources such as web pages.

Client

Businesses or individuals who interact with Government Agencies.

Client System

The input system into which a customer of an Agency enters a purchase request.

EFT

Electronic funds transfer

Electronic Purse

The mechanism by which stored value is employed for the payment of goods and services.

Electronic Cash Register

A facility provided by a Merchant Server that includes:

o       calculating the payment required for a customer’s transaction;

o       passing transaction detail to a Payments Server;

o       managing the approval or denial of a transaction.

 

Merchant

The Agency using the payment service to sell products or services, and/or receive payments over the Internet.

Merchant Server

The server providing a catalogue and/or electronic cash register facility to a Client System.

Payments Server

A computer system providing functionality for a Merchant Server.

Payment Facility or Payment Service may include:

o       Authorisation of credit card transactions, or confirmation of debit card or electronic funds transfer details to allow a Merchant Server to release the products or services being ordered;

o       Funds transfer from a customer’s financial institution to a Merchant’s bank;

o       Reconciliation reporting;

o       Funds transfer through stored value systems.

Reconciliation Report

Periodic reports, to provide an audit trail of transactions; also to assist in reconciliation of the Merchant’s accounts and of transactions that have occurred in a specified period.

SET

Secure Electronic Transfer – a developing security standard for electronic payment transactions

SSL

Secure Socket Layer

 

Acknowledgements

BEP acknowledges the assistance of the Australian Information Industry Association, Australian Payments Clearing Association and of the National Office of the Information Economy in the preparation of this document

 

Production information

This is Version 0.2 of 10 April 200.

This Guide was prepared for the Business Entry Point by Tom Worthington. It is based on Getting Paid on the Internet, prepared for the AIIA in 1999 by Roger Clarke and used by permission. Material one the Payment clearing systems was added from APCA's Web site.

© Commonwealth of Australia 2000

This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organization. All other rights are reserved. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to:

 

The Assistant Secretary
Business Entry Point Management Branch
Office of Small Business
Department of Employment,
Workplace Relations and Small Business
GPO Box 9879
Canberra ACT 2601
Australia

Fax: 02-6121 7359

For more information

This document is available at: http://about.business.gov.au/ipp/ipga.html

Questionnaire Promotion of Internet Payments Panel: http://about.business.gov.au/ipp/ippqstns.html

Internet Payments Panel home page: http://about.business.gov.au/ipp

PowerPoint Presentation on Internet payments: http://about.business.gov.au/ipp/ipppr.ppt

Business Entry Point background: http://about.business.gov.au/

 

 



This page was last updated: July 8, 2000

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