PCP (phencyclidine) was developed in the 1950s as an intravenous
anesthetic. Use of PCP in humans was discontinued in 1965, because it was found
that patients often became agitated, delusional, and irrational while
recovering from its anesthetic effects. PCP is illegally manufactured in
laboratories and is sold on the street by such names as "angel dust," "ozone,"
"wack," and "rocket fuel." "Killer joints" and "crystal supergrass" are names
that refer to PCP combined with marijuana. The variety of street names for PCP
reflects its bizarre and volatile effects.
PCP is a white
crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water or alcohol. It has a
distinctive bitter chemical taste. PCP can be mixed easily with dyes and turns
up on the illicit drug market in a variety of tablets, capsules, and colored
powders. It is normally used in one of three ways: snorted, smoked, or eaten.
For smoking, PCP is often applied to a leafy material such as mint, parsley,
oregano, or marijuana.
PCP is addicting; that is, its use often leads to psychological
dependence, craving, and compulsive PCP-seeking behavior. It was first
introduced as a street drug in the 1960s and quickly gained a reputation as a
drug that could cause bad reactions and was not worth the risk. Many people,
after using the drug once, will not knowingly use it again. Yet others use it
consistently and regularly. Some persist in using PCP because of its addicting
properties. Others cite feelings of strength, power, invulnerability and a
numbing effect on the mind as reasons for their continued PCP use.
Many PCP users are brought to emergency rooms because of PCP's
unpleasant psychological effects or because of overdoses. In a hospital or
detention setting, they often become violent or suicidal, and are very
dangerous to themselves and to others. They should be kept in a calm setting
and should not be left alone.
At low to moderate doses, physiological effects of PCP include a
slight increase in breathing rate and a more pronounced rise in blood pressure
and pulse rate. Respiration becomes shallow, and flushing and profuse sweating
occur. Generalized numbness of the extremities and muscular incoordination also
may occur. Psychological effects include distinct changes in body awareness,
similar to those associated with alcohol intoxication. Use of PCP among
adolescents may interfere with hormones related to normal growth and
development as well as with the learning process.
At high doses of PCP, there is a drop in blood pressure, pulse rate,
and respiration. This may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, blurred vision,
flicking up and down of the eyes, drooling, loss of balance, and dizziness.
High doses of PCP can also cause seizures, coma, and death (though death more
often results from accidental injury or suicide during PCP intoxication).
Psychological effects at high doses include illusions and hallucinations. PCP
can cause effects that mimic the full range of symptoms of schizophrenia, such
as delusions, paranoia, disordered thinking, a sensation of distance from one's
environment, and catatonia. Speech is often sparse and garbled.
People who use PCP for long periods report memory loss, difficulties
with speech and thinking, depression, and weight loss. These symptoms can
persist up to a year after cessation of PCP use. Mood disorders also have been
reported. PCP has sedative effects, and interactions with other central nervous
system depressants, such as alcohol and benzodiazepines, can lead to coma or
Extent of Use
Monitoring the Future Study (MTF)
NIDA's 1997 MTF shows that use of PCP by high school seniors has
declined steadily since 1979, when 7.0 percent of seniors had used PCP in the
year preceding the survey. In 1997, however, 2.3 percent of seniors used PCP at
least once in the past year, up from a low of 1.2 percent in 1990. Past month
use among seniors decreased from 1.3 percent in 1996 to 0.7 percent in
Percentage of 12th-graders who have used PCP:
the Future Study
|Used in Past Year
|Used in Past Month
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
According to the 1996 NHSDA, 3.2 percent of the population aged 12 and
older have used PCP at least once. Lifetime use of PCP was higher among those
aged 26 through 34 (4.2 percent) than for those 18 through 25 (2.3 percent) and
those 12 through 17 (1.2 percent).