2000 Formula One Technical Regulations
Last update May 2000


SUMMARY

ARTICLE 1 : DEFINITIONS


1.1 Formula One Car
1.2 Automobile
1.3 Land Vehicle
1.4 Bodywork
1.5 Wheel
1.6 Complete wheel
1.7 Automobile Make
1.8 Event
1.9 Weight
1.10 Racing weight
1.11 Cubic capacity
1.12 Supercharging
1.13 Cockpit
1.14 Sprung suspension
1.15 Survival cell
1.16 Camera
1.17 Camera housing
1.18 Cockpit padding
1.19 Brake caliper
1.20 Automatic gearbox

ARTICLE 2 : GENERAL PRINCIPLES

2.1 Role of the FIA
2.2 Amendments to the regulations
2.3 Dangerous construction
2.4 Compliance with the regulations
2.5 Measurements
2.6 Driving
2.7 Duty of competitor

ARTICLE 3 : BODYWORK AND DIMENSIONS

3.1 Wheel centre line
3.2 Height measurements
3.3 Overall width
3.4 Width ahead of the rear wheel centre line
3.5 Width behind the rear wheel centre line
3.6 Overall height
3.7 Front bodywork height
3.8 Height in front of the rear wheels
3.9 Height between the rear wheels
3.10 Height behind the rear wheel centre line
3.11 Bodywork around the front wheels
3.12 Bodywork facing the ground
3.13 Skid block
3.14 Overhangs
3.15 Aerodynamic influence
3.16 Upper bodywork

ARTICLE 4 : WEIGHT

4.1 Minimum weight
4.2 Ballast
4.3 Adding during the race

ARTICLE 5 : ENGINE

5.1 Engine specification
5.2 Other means of propulsion
5.3 Temperature of the charge
5.4 Exhaust system
5.5 Engine materials
5.6 Starting the engine
5.7 Throttle control
5.8 Engine control
5.9 Stall prevention
5.10 Engine rev limiters
5.11 Car speed limiter

ARTICLE 6 : FUEL SYSTEM

6.1 Fuel tanks
6.2 Fittings and piping
6.3 Crushable structure
6.4 Tank fillers
6.5 Refuelling
6.6 Fuel sampling

ARTICLE 7 : OIL AND COOLANT SYSTEMS

7.1 Location of oil tanks
7.2 Longitudinal location of oil system
7.3 Catch tank
7.4 Transversal location of oil system
7.5 Oil replenishment
7.6 Coolant header tank
7.7 Cooling systems
7.8 Oil and coolant lines

ARTICLE 8 : ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

8.1 Cockpit controls
8.2 Software validation
8.3 Fault or error detection
8.4 Accident data recorders
8.5 Marshal information display

ARTICLE 9 : TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

9.1 Transmission types
9.2 Propulsion
9.3 Clutch control
9.4 Gear changing
9.5 Gear ratios
9.6 Reverse gear
9.7 Electronically controlled differentials

ARTICLE 10 : SUSPENSION AND STEERING SYSTEMS

10.1 Sprung suspension
10.2 Suspension geometry
10.3 Suspension members
10.4 Steering

ARTICLE 11 : BRAKE SYSTEM

11.1 Brake circuits and pressure distribution
11.2 Brake calipers
11.3 Brake discs
11.4 Air ducts
11.5 Brake pressure modulation
11.6 Liquid cooling

ARTICLE 12 : WHEELS AND TYRES

12.1 Location
12.2 Number of wheels
12.3 Wheel material
12.4 Wheel dimensions

ARTICLE 13 : COCKPIT

13.1 Cockpit opening
13.2 Steering wheel
13.3 Internal cross section

ARTICLE 14 : SAFETY EQUIPMENT

14.1 Fire extinguishers
14.2 Master switch
14.3 Rear view mirrors
14.4 Safety belts
14.5 Rear light
14.6 Headrest and head protection
14.7 Wheel retention
14.8 Seat fixing and removal

ARTICLE 15 : SAFETY STRUCTURES

15.1 Materials
15.2 Roll structures
15.3 Structure behind the driver
15.4 Survival cell specifications
15.5 Survival cell safety requirements

ARTICLE 16 : IMPACT TESTING

16.1 Conditions applicable to all impact tests
16.2 Frontal test
16.3 Side test
16.4 Rear test
16.5 Steering column test

ARTICLE 17 : ROLL STRUCTURE TESTING

17.1 Conditions applicable to both roll structure tests
17.2 Principal roll structure test
17.3 Second roll structure test

ARTICLE 18 : STATIC LOAD TESTING

18.1 Conditions applicable to all static tests
18.2 Survival cell side tests
18.3 Fuel tank floor test
18.4 Cockpit rim test
18.5 Nose push off test

ARTICLE 19 : FUEL

19.1 Purpose of Article 19
19.2 Definitions
19.3 Properties
19.4 Composition of the fuel
19.5 Air
19.6 Safety
19.7 Fuel approval
19.8 Sampling and testing
19.9 Amendments to Article 19

ARTICLE 20 : TELEVISION CAMERAS

20.1 Presence of cameras and camera housings
20.2 Location of camera housings
20.3 Location of camera and equipment
20.4 Timing transponders

ARTICLE 21 : CHANGES FOR 2001

21.1 Changes to Article 15.1.2
21.2 Changes to Article 15.5.2
21.3 Changes to Article 16.3

ARTICLE 22 : FINAL TEXT


ARTICLE 1: DEFINITIONS

1.1 Formula One Car :

An automobile designed solely for speed races on circuits or closed courses.

1.2 Automobile :

A land vehicle running on at least four non-aligned complete wheels, of which at least two are used for steering and at least two for propulsion.

1.3 Land vehicle :

A locomotive device propelled by its own means, moving by constantly taking real support on the earth's surface, of which the propulsion and steering are under the control of a driver aboard the vehicle.

1.4 Bodywork :

All entirely sprung parts of the car in contact with the external air stream, except cameras and the parts definitely associated with the mechanical functioning of the engine, transmission and running gear. Airboxes, radiators and engine exhausts are considered to be part of the bodywork.

1.5 Wheel :

Flange and rim.

1.6 Complete wheel :

Wheel and inflated tyre.

1.7 Automobile Make :

In the case of Formula racing cars, an automobile make is a complete car. When the car manufacturer fits an engine which it does not manufacture, the car shall be considered a hybrid and the name of the engine manufacturer shall be associated with that of the car manufacturer. The name of the car manufacturer must always precede that of the engine manufacturer. Should a hybrid car win a Championship Title, Cup or Trophy, this will be awarded to the manufacturer of the car.

1.8 Event :

An event shall consist of official practice and the race.

1.9 Weight :

Is the weight of the car with the driver, wearing his complete racing apparel, at all times during the event.

1.10 Racing weight :

Is the weight of the car in running order with the driver aboard and all fuel tanks full.

1.11 Cubic capacity :

The volume swept in the cylinders of the engine by the movement of the pistons. This volume shall be expressed in cubic centimetres. In calculating engine cubic capacity, the number Pi shall be 3.1416.

1.12 Supercharging :

Increasing the weight of the charge of the fuel/air mixture in the combustion chamber (over the weight induced by normal atmospheric pressure, ram effect and dynamic effects in the intake and/or exhaust system) by any means whatsoever. The injection of fuel under pressure is not considered to be supercharging.

1.13 Cockpit :

The volume which accommodates the driver.

1.14 Sprung suspension :

The means whereby all complete wheels are suspended from the body/chassis unit by a spring medium.

1.15 Survival cell :

A continuous closed structure containing the fuel tank and the cockpit.

1.16 Camera :

Television cameras the dimensions of which are defined in Fig.6 of Appendix 1.

1.17 Camera housing :

A device which is identical in shape and weight to a camera and which is supplied by the relevant Competitor for fitting to his car in lieu of a camera.

1.18 Cockpit padding :

Non-structural parts placed within the cockpit for the sole purpose of improving driver comfort and safety. All such material must be quickly removable without the use of tools.

1.19 Brake caliper :

All parts of the braking system outside the survival cell, other than brake discs, brake pads, caliper pistons, brake hoses and fittings, which are stressed when subjected to the braking pressure. Bolts or studs which are used for attachment are not considered to be part of the braking system.

1.20 Automatic gearbox :

One in which gears may be changed and used without each one being requested by the driver.

ARTICLE 2 : GENERAL PRINCIPLES

2.1 Role of the FIA :

The following technical regulations for Formula 1 cars are issued by the FIA.

2.2 Amendments to the regulations :

Amendments to these regulations will be made in accordance with the Concorde agreement.

2.3 Dangerous construction :

The stewards of the meeting may exclude a vehicle whose construction is deemed to be dangerous.

2.4 Compliance with the regulations :

Automobiles must comply with these regulations in their entirety at all times during an Event.

Should a competitor feel that any aspect of these regulations is unclear, clarification may be sought from the FIA Formula One Technical Department. If clarification relates to any new design or system, correspondence must include :

- a full description of the design or system ;

- drawings or schematics where appropriate ;

- the Competitor's opinion concerning the immediate implications on other parts of the car of any proposed new design ;

- the Competitor's opinion concerning any possible long term consequences or new developments which may come from using any such new designs or systems ;

- the precise way or ways in which the Competitor feels the new design or system will enhance the performance of the car.

2.5 Measurements :

All measurements must be made while the car is stationary on a flat horizontal surface.

2.6 Driving :

The driver must drive the car alone and unaided.

2.7 Duty of Competitor :

It is the duty of each Competitor to satisfy the FIA technical delegate and the Stewards of the Meeting that his automobile complies with these regulations in their entirety at all times during an Event.

ARTICLE 3 : BODYWORK AND DIMENSIONS

3.1 Wheel centre line :

The centre line of any wheel shall be deemed to be half way between two straight edges, perpendicular to the surface on which the car is standing, placed against opposite sides of the complete wheel at the centre of the tyre tread.

3.2 Height measurements :

All height measurements will be taken normal to and from the reference plane.

3.3 Overall width :

The overall width of the car, including complete wheels, must not exceed 180cm with the steered wheels in the straight ahead position.

3.4 Width ahead of the rear wheel centre line :

3.4.1) Bodywork width ahead of the rear wheel centre line must not exceed 140cm.

3.4.2 ) No lateral extremity of any bodywork forward of the front wheels may deflect more than 5mm vertically when a 50kg mass is placed on it. During such a test the centre of area of the mass will be placed 700mm forward of the front wheel centre line with its outer edge 700mm from the car centre line.

The precise dimensions of the mass which will be used are available from the FIA Technical Department.

3.4.3) In order to prevent tyre damage to other cars, the top and forward edges of the lateral extremities of any bodywork forward of the front wheels must be at least 10mm thick with a radius of at least 5mm.

3.5 Width behind the rear wheel centre line :

Bodywork width behind the rear wheel centre line must not exceed 100cm.

3.6 Overall height :

No part of the bodywork may be more than 95cm above the reference plane.

3.7 Front bodywork height :

All bodywork situated forward of a point lying 33cm behind the front wheel centre line, and more than 25cm from the centre line of the car, must be no less than 5cm and no more than 25cm above the reference plane.

3.8 Height in front of the rear wheels :

3.8.1) No bodywork situated more than 33cm behind the front wheel centre line and more than 33cm forward of the rear wheel centre line, which is more than 60cm above the reference plane, may be more than 30cm from the centre line of the car.

3.8.2) No bodywork between the rear wheel centre line and a line 80cm forward of the rear wheel centre line, which is more than 50cm from the centre line of the car, may be more than 50cm above the reference plane.

3.8.3) No bodywork between the rear wheel centre line and a line 40cm forward of the rear wheel centre line, which is more than 50cm from the centre line of the car, may be more than 30cm above the reference plane.

3.9 Height between the rear wheels :

No bodywork situated between points lying 33cm forward of and 15cm behind the rear wheel centre line may be more than 60cm above the reference plane.

3.10 Height behind the rear wheel centre line :

Any part of the car more than 15cm behind the centre line of the rear wheels must not be more than 80cm above the reference plane.

No bodywork behind the centre line of the rear wheels, and more than 15cm each side of the longitudinal centre line of the car, may be less than 30cm above the reference plane.

Furthermore, any bodywork behind the rear wheel centre line which is more than 50cm above the reference plane, when projected to a plane perpendicular to the ground and the centre line of the car, must not occupy a surface greater than 70% of the area of a rectangle whose edges are 50cm either side of the car centre line and 50cm and 80cm above the reference plane.

3.11 Bodywork around the front wheels :

With the exception of brake cooling ducts, in plan view, there must be no bodywork in the area formed by two longitudinal lines parallel to and 40cm and 90cm from the car centre line and two transversal lines, one 35cm forward of and one 80cm behind the front wheel centre line.

3.12 Bodywork facing the ground :

3.12.1) All sprung parts of the car situated more than 33cm behind the front wheel centre line and more than 33cm forward of the rear wheel centre line, and which are visible from underneath, must form surfaces which lie on one of two parallel planes, the reference plane or the step plane. This does not apply to any parts of rear view mirrors which are visible, provided each of these areas does not exceed 90cm² when projected to a horizontal plane above the car. The step plane must be 50mm above the reference plane.

3.12.2) The surface formed by all parts lying on the reference plane must extend from a point lying 33cm behind the front wheel centre line to the centre line of the rear wheels, have minimum and maximum widths of 30cm and 50cm respectively and must be symmetrical about the centre line of the car.

3.12.3) The surface lying on the reference plane must be joined at its extremities to the surfaces lying on the step plane by a vertical transition. If there is no surface visible on the step plane vertically above any point around the extremity of the reference plane, this transition is not necessary.

3.12.4) The peripheries of the surfaces lying on the reference and step planes may be curved upwards with maximum radii of 25 and 50mm respectively. Where the vertical transition meets the surfaces on the step plane a radius, no greater than 25mm, is permitted.

A radius in this context will be considered as an arc applied perpendicular to the periphery and tangential to both surfaces.

The surface lying on the reference plane, the surfaces lying on the step plane and the vertical transitions between them, must first be fully defined before any radius can be applied or the skid block fitted. Any radius applied is still considered part of the relevant surface.

3.12.5) All parts lying on the reference and step planes, in addition to the transition between the two planes, must produce uniform, solid, hard, continuous, rigid (no degree of freedom in relation to the body/chassis unit), impervious surfaces under all circumstances.

Fully enclosed holes are permitted in these surfaces provided no part of the car is visible through them when viewed from directly below.

3.12.6) To help overcome any possible manufacturing problems, and not to permit any design which may contravene any part of these regulations, dimensional tolerances are permitted on bodywork situated between a point lying 330 mm behind the front wheel centre line and the rear wheel centre line. A vertical tolerance of +/- 5mm is permissible across the surfaces lying on the reference and step planes and a horizontal tolerance of +/- 5 mm is permitted when assessing whether a surface is visible from beneath the car.

3.12.7) All sprung parts of the car situated behind a point lying 33cm forward of the rear wheel centre line, which are visible from underneath and are more than 25cm from the centre line of the car, must be at least 50mm above the reference plane.

3.13 Skid block :

3.13.1) Beneath the surface formed by all parts lying on the reference plane, a rectangular skid block must be fitted. This skid block may comprise more than one piece but must :

a) extend longitudinally from a point lying 33cm behind the front wheel centre line to the centre line of the rear wheels.

b) be made from an homogeneous material with a specific gravity between 1.3 and 1.45.

c) have a width of 30cm with a tolerance of +/- 2mm.

d) have a thickness of 10mm with a tolerance of +/- 1mm.

e) have a uniform thickness when new.

f) have no holes or cut outs other than those necessary to fit the fasteners permitted by 3.13.2 or those holes specifically mentioned in g) below.

g) have six precisely placed holes in order that it's thickness can be measured at any time. These holes must be 50mm in diameter and must be placed in the positions detailed in Fig.1 of Appendix 1. In order to establish the conformity of the skid block after use, it's thickness will only be measured in these holes.

h) be fixed symmetrically about the centre line of the car in such a way that no air may pass between it and the surface formed by the parts lying on the reference plane.

3.13.2) Fasteners used to attach the skid block to the car must :

a) have a total area no greater than 400cm² when viewed from directly beneath the car ;

b) be no greater than 20cm² in area individually when viewed from directly beneath the car ;

c) be fitted in order that their entire lower surfaces are visible from directly beneath the car .

Ten of the fasteners may be flush with the lower surface of the skid block but the remainder may be no more than 8mm below the reference plane .

3.13.3) The lower edge of the periphery of the skid block may be chamfered at an angle of 30° to a depth of 8mm, the trailing edge however may be chamfered over a distance of 200mm to a depth of 8mm.

3.14 Overhangs :

No part of the car shall be more than 50cm behind the centre line of the rear wheels or more than 120cm in front of the centre line of the front wheels.

No part of the bodywork more than 20cm from the centre line of the car may be more than 90cm in front of the front wheel centre line.

All overhang measurements will be taken parallel to the reference plane.

3.15 Aerodynamic influence :

Any specific part of the car influencing its aerodynamic performance (with the exception of the cover described in Article 6.5.2 in the pit lane only) :

- Must comply with the rules relating to bodywork.

- Must be rigidly secured to the entirely sprung part of the car (rigidly secured means not having any degree of freedom).

- Must remain immobile in relation to the sprung part of the car.

In order to ensure that this requirement is respected, the FIA reserves the right to introduce load/deflection tests on any part of the bodywork which appears to be (or is suspected of), moving whilst the car is in motion.

Any device or construction that is designed to bridge the gap between the sprung part of the car and the ground is prohibited under all circumstances.

No part having an aerodynamic influence and no part of the bodywork, with the exception of the skid block in 3.13 above, may under any circumstances be located below the reference plane.

3.16 Upper bodywork :

3.16.1 ) When viewed from the side, the car must have bodywork in the triangle formed by three lines, one vertical passing 133cm forward of the rear wheel centre line, one horizontal 55cm above the reference plane and one diagonal which intersects the vertical at a point 94cm above the reference plane and the horizontal 33cm forward of the rear wheel centre line.

The bodywork over the whole of this area must be arranged symmetrically about the car centre line and must be at least 20cm wide when measured at any point along a second diagonal line parallel to and 20cm vertically below the first.

Furthermore, over the whole area between the two diagonal lines, the bodywork must be wider than a vertical isosceles triangle lying on a lateral plane which has a base 20cm wide lying on the second diagonal line.

3.16.2) When viewed from the side, the car must have no bodywork in the triangle formed by three lines, one vertical 33cm forward of the rear wheel centre line, one horizontal 95cm above the reference plane, and one diagonal which intersects the vertical at a point 60cm above the reference plane and the horizontal at a point 103cm forward of the rear wheel centre line.

3.16.3) The second rollover structure must be designed to provide a clearly visible unobstructed opening in order that a strap whose section measures 6cm x 3cm can pass through it to lift the car.

ARTICLE 4 : WEIGHT

4.1 Minimum weight :

The weight of the car must not be less than 600kg.

4.2 Ballast :

Ballast can be used provided it is secured in such a way that tools are required for its removal. It must be possible to fix seals if deemed necessary by the FIA technical delegate.

4.3 Adding during the race :

With the exception of fuel, nitrogen and compressed air, no substance may be added to the car during the race. If it becomes necessary to replace any part of the car during the race, the new part must not weigh any more than the original part.

ARTICLE 5 : ENGINE

5.1 Engine specification :

5.1.1) Only 4-stroke engines with reciprocating pistons are permitted.

5.1.2) Engine capacity must not exceed 3000 cc.

5.1.3) Supercharging is forbidden.

5.1.4) All engines must have 10 cylinders and the normal section of each cylinder must be circular.

5.1.5) Engines may have no more than 5 valves per cylinder.

5.2 Other means of propulsion :

5.2.1) The use of any device, other than the 3 litre, four stroke engine described in 5.1 above, to power the car, is not permitted.

5.2.2) The total amount of recoverable energy stored on the car must not exceed 300kJ, any which may be recovered at a rate greater than 2kW must not exceed 20kJ.

5.3 Temperature and pressure of the charge :

5.3.1) Any device, system, procedure, construction or design the purpose and/or effect of which is any decrease whatsoever of the temperature of the intake air and/or of the charge (air and/or fuel) of the engine is forbidden.

5.3.2) Internal and/or external spraying of water or any substance whatsoever is forbidden (other than fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine).

5.4 Exhaust system :

Variable geometric length exhaust systems are forbidden.

5.5 Engine materials :

5.5.1 ) The basic structure of the crankshaft and camshafts must be made from steel or cast iron.

5.5.2 ) Pistons, cylinder heads and cylinder blocks may not be composite structures which use carbon or aramid fibre reinforcing materials.

5.6 Starting the engine :

A supplementary device temporarily connected to the car may be used to start the engine both on the grid and in the pits.

5.7 Throttle control :

5.7.1 ) Other than the specific exceptions mentioned below in 5.7.2, there must be a fixed relationship between the position of the throttle pedal and the engine throttles. This relationship need not be linear but the position of the engine throttles may not be influenced by anything other than movement of the throttle pedal when operated by the driver.

This relationship must remain fixed whilst the car is in motion subject only to Article 8.3.

5.7.2) The relationship between the throttle pedal and engine throttles may alter during one or more of the following operations :

- idle control ;

- stall prevention ;

- gear changing ;

- car speed limiting.

5.8 Engine control :

Ignition and fuel settings must maintain the same relationship with engine speed and throttle position whilst the car is in motion, with the following specific exceptions :

- compensation for throttle acceleration ;

- driver adjustable fuel mixture control with a maximum of three settings ;

- compensation for changes in engine intake air temperature and pressure, engine pressures or engine temperatures ;

- open or closed loop detonation and lambda control.

No engine parameter may be altered so as to diminish the degree of control the driver has over the propulsion system.

5.9 Stall prevention systems :

5.9.1) The sole purpose of such systems is to prevent the engine stalling when a driver loses control of the car.

5.9.2 ) Each time such a system is activated the clutch must be fully dis-engaged and must remain so until the driver de-activates the system by manually operating the clutch with the normal proportional request.

5.9.3 ) To avoid the possibility of a car involved in an accident being left with the engine running, all such systems must be configured to stop the engine no more than ten seconds after activation.

5.10 Engine rev limiters :

With the exception of the car speed limiter below and subject to Article 8.3, engine rev limits may vary for differing conditions provided all are significantly above the peak of the engine power curve.

5.11 Car speed limiter :

5.11.1 ) The purpose of the speed limiter is to improve safety by ensuring a driver is less likely to exceed the pit lane speed limit.

5.11.2 ) The car speed limiter may be operated only by the driver when he needs it and must be de-activated by him at the time it is no longer required.

5.11.3 ) Car speed limiters may only operate in first, second and third gears and may only be activated in the pit lane.

ARTICLE 6 : FUEL SYSTEM

6.1 Fuel tanks :

6.1.1) The fuel tank must be a single rubber bladder conforming to or exceeding the specifications of FIA/FT5-1999 , the fitting of foam within the tank however is not mandatory.

6.1.2) All the fuel stored on board the car must be situated between the front face of the engine and the driver's back when viewed in lateral projection. When establishing the front face of the engine, no parts of the fuel, oil, water or electrical systems will be considered .

Furthermore, no fuel can be stored more than 30cm forward of the highest point at which the driver's back makes contact with his seat. However, a maximum of 2 litres of fuel may be kept outside the survival cell, but only that which is necessary for the normal running of the engine.

6.1.3) Fuel must not be stored more than 40cm from the longitudinal axis of the car.

6.1.4) All rubber bladders must be made by manufacturers recognised by the FIA. In order to obtain the agreement of the FIA, the manufacturer must prove the compliance of his product with the specifications approved by the FIA. These manufacturers must undertake to deliver to their customers exclusively tanks complying to the approved standards.

A list of approved manufacturers is available from the FIA.

6.1.5) All rubber bladders shall be printed with the name of the manufacturer, the specifications to which the tank has been manufactured and the date of manufacture.

6.1.6) No rubber bladders shall be used more than 5 years after the date of manufacture.

6.2 Fittings and piping :

6.2.1) All apertures in the fuel tank must be closed by

hatches or fittings which are secured to metallic or composite bolt rings bonded to the inside of the bladder.

Bolt hole edges must be no less than 5mm from the edge of the bolt ring, hatch or fitting.

6.2.2) All fuel lines between the fuel tank and the engine must have a self sealing breakaway valve. This valve must separate at less than 50% of the load required to break the fuel line fitting or to pull it out of the fuel tank.

6.2.3) No lines containing fuel may pass through the cockpit.

6.2.4) All lines must be fitted in such a way that any leakage cannot result in the accumulation of fuel in the cockpit.

6.3 Crushable structure :

The fuel tank must be completely surrounded by a crushable structure, which is an integral part of the survival cell and must be able to withstand the loads required by the tests in Articles 18.2.1 and 18.3.

6.4 Fuel tank fillers :

Fuel tank fillers must not protrude beyond the bodywork. Any breather pipe connecting the fuel tank to the atmosphere must be designed to avoid liquid leakage when the car is running and its outlet must not be less than 25cm from the cockpit opening.

All fuel tank fillers and breathers must be designed to ensure an efficient locking action which reduces the risk of an accidental opening following a crash impact or incomplete locking after refuelling.

6.5 Refuelling :

6.5.1) All refuelling during the race must be carried out using equipment which has been supplied by the FIA designated manufacturer. This manufacturer will be required to supply identical refuelling systems, the complete specification of which will be available from the FIA no later than one month prior to the first Championship Event.

Any modifications to the manufacturer's specification may only be made following written consent from the FIA.

6.5.2) A cover must be fitted over the car connector at all times when the car is running on the track. The cover and it's attachments must be sufficiently strong to avoid accidental opening in the event of an accident.

6.5.3) Before refuelling commences, the car connector must be connected electrically to earth.

All metal parts of the refuelling system from the coupling to the supply tank must also be connected to earth.

6.5.4) Refuelling the car on the grid may only be carried out by using an unpressurised container which is no more than 2 metres above the ground.

6.5.5) Any storage of fuel on board the car at a temperature more than ten degrees centigrade below ambient temperature is forbidden.

6.5.6) The use of any specific device, whether on board or not, to decrease the temperature of the fuel below the ambient temperature is forbidden.

6.6 Fuel sampling :

6.6.1) Competitors must ensure that a one litre sample of fuel may be taken from the car at any time during the Event.

6.6.2 ) All cars must be fitted with a -2 'Symetrics' male fitting in order to facilitate fuel sampling. If an electric pump on board the car cannot be used to remove the fuel an externally connected one may be used provided it is evident that a representative fuel sample is being taken. If an external pump is used it must be possible to connect the FIA sampling hose to it and any hose between the car and pump must be -3 in diameter and not exceed 2m in length.

6.6.3 ) The sampling procedure must not necessitate starting the engine or the removal of bodywork (other than the cover over the refuelling connector).

ARTICLE 7 : OIL AND COOLANT SYSTEMS

7.1 Location of oil tanks :

All oil storage tanks must be situated between the front wheel axis and the rearmost gearbox casing longitudinally, and must be no further than the lateral extremities of the survival cell are from the longitudinal axis of the car.

7.2 Longitudinal location of oil system :

No other part of the car containing oil may be situated behind the complete rear wheels.

7.3 Catch tank :

In order to avoid the possibility of oil being deposited on the track, the engine sump breather must vent into the main engine air intake system.

7.4 Transversal location of oil system :

No part of the car containing oil may be more than 70cm from the longitudinal centre line of the car.

7.5 Oil replenishment :

No oil replenishment is allowed during a race.

7.6 Coolant header tank :

The coolant header tank on the car must be fitted with an FIA approved pressure relief valve which is set to a maximum of 3.75 bar gauge pressure. If the car is not fitted with a header tank, an alternative position must be approved by the FIA.

7.7 Cooling systems :

The cooling systems of the engine must not intentionally make use of the latent heat of vaporisation of any fluid.

7.8 Oil and coolant lines :

7.8.1) No lines containing coolant or lubricating oil may pass through the cockpit.

7.8.2) All lines must be fitted in such a way that any leakage cannot result in the accumulation of fluid in the cockpit.

7.8.3) No hydraulic fluid lines may have removable connectors inside the cockpit.

ARTICLE 8 : ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

8.1 Cockpit controls :

8.1.1) With the exception of the car speed limiter described in Article 5.11, the cover referred to in Article 6.5.2 and during gear changes, no driver operated cockpit control may carry out more than one function at any one time.

8.1.2) There must be no significant delay between a driver requested action and the associated actuation .

8.2 Software validation :

8.2.1) Prior to the start of each season the complete electrical system on the car must be examined and all on board and communications software must be validated by the FIA Technical Department.

The FIA must be notified of any changes prior to the Event at which such changes are intended to be implemented .

8.2.2) All microprocessors and their enclosures will be classified as either :

- Sealed and not re-programmable via any external connector ;

- Re-programmable via a direct connection but limited by an approved mechanism .

- Not re-programmable at an Event. This classification will be given if the microprocessor has no direct communication link to the external connectors of the unit that are capable of being used for re-programming during an Event.

8.2.3) All re-programmable microprocessors must have a mechanism that allows the FIA to accurately identify the software version loaded .

8.2.4) Reprogramming of electronic units during an event will be restricted by an approved mechanism that has been established before the electronic unit is first used at an event .

8.2.5) All set up and calibration data stored in microprocessor memory must be off-loadable by the FIA at any time. Appropriate communications equipment, software and analysis tools must be supplied by the team for FIA use .

8.2.6) The FIA will seal and identify all electronic units on the car that contain a programmable device .

8.2.7) All sealed units must be presented for inspection at the end of an Event .

8.2.8) No version of software will be approved for use at an Event if it is found to be capable of controlling any system on the car in a manner inconsistent with these technical regulations, even if the relevant control software may be disabled.

8.3 Fault or error detection :

If faults or errors are detected by the driver or by on-board software, back-up sensors may be used and different settings may be manually or automatically selected. However, any back-up sensor or new setting chosen in this way must not enhance the performance of the car and the original setting may only be restored when the car is stationary in the pits.

8.4 Accident data recorders :

The recorder must be fitted :

- symmetrically about the car centre line and with its top facing upwards ;

- with each of its 12 edges parallel to an axis of the car ;

- less than 50mm above the reference plane ;

- in a position which is normally accessible at the start and finish of an Event ;

- in order that the entire unit lies between 40% and 60% of the wheelbase of the car ;

- with its main connector facing forwards ;

- in order that its status light is visible when the driver is in the cockpit ;

- in order that the download connector is easily accessible without the need to remove bodywork.

8.5 Marshal information display :

All cars must be fitted with cockpit lights to give drivers information concerning track signals or conditions. The precise specification of the lights and related components are available from the FIA Technical Department.

ARTICLE 9 : TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

9.1 Transmission types :

9.1.1) No transmission system may permit more than two wheels to be driven.

9.1.2) Automatic gearboxes are forbidden.

9.2 Propulsion :

9.2.1) No car may be equipped with a system or device which is capable of preventing the driven wheels from spinning under power or of compensating for excessive throttle demand by the driver.

9.2.2) Any device or system which notifies the driver of the onset of wheel spin is not permitted.

9.3 Clutch control :

9.3.1 ) A system which compensates for clutch wear is permissible provided it is clear that this is its sole function.

9.3.2 ) Except during gear changes and stall prevention, or as a result of compensation for wear, the amount by which the clutch is engaged must be controlled solely and directly by the driver at all times.

The way in which the clutch is re-engaged during gear changes must be such that it is clear Article 9.2 cannot be contravened.

9.3.3 ) Other than wear compensation, or if a fault condition is detected (see Article 8.3), the relationship between the clutch operating device in the cockpit and the amount of clutch engagement may be non-linear but must remain fixed whilst the engine is running.

9.3.4 ) Partial clutch re-engagement is permitted during gear changes sequences described under 9.4.3 below.

9.3.5) All cars must be fitted with a means of disengaging the clutch for a minimum of fifteen minutes in the event of the car coming to rest with the engine stopped. This system must be in working order throughout the Event even if the main hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical systems on the car have failed.

In order that the driver or a marshal may activate the system in less than five seconds the switch or button which operates it must:

- face upwards and be positioned on the survival cell no more than 150 mm from the car centre line;

- be less than 150 mm from the front of the cockpit opening.

- be marked with a letter "N" in red inside a white circle of at least 50 mm diameter with a red edge.

9.4 Gear changing :

9.4.1) For the purposes of, and only during gear changing, the clutch and throttle need not be under the control of the driver.

9.4.2) Each individual gear change must be initiated by the driver and, within the mechanical constraints of the gearbox, the requested gear must be engaged immediately unless over-rev protection is used.

9.4.3 ) Multiple gear changes may be made following one driver request provided they are not made before he needs the destination gear and that the car is not driven by any of the intermediate gears during the sequence. If for any reason the sequence cannot be completed the car must be left in neutral or the original gear.

9.4.4 ) If a gear change fails for mechanical reasons (as opposed to the predicted engine revs in the target gear being too high), further attempts to engage the gear may be made automatically without the driver having to make a new request.

9.4.5 ) If an over-rev protection strategy is used this may only prevent engagement of the target gear, it must not induce any significant delay. If a gear change is refused in this way, engagement may only follow a new and separate request made by the driver.

9.5 Gear ratios :

The minimum number of forward gear ratios is 4 and the maximum is 7.

9.6 Reverse gear :

All cars must have a reverse gear operable any time during the Event by the driver when the engine is running.

9.7 Electronically controlled differentials :

9.7.1) The design and control of the differential may not permit a greater ratio of torque distribution than the ratio of grip between the inner and outer driven wheels.

9.7.2) If a differential is controlled electronically it may only use instantaneous values of one or more of the following parameters for control purposes :

- measured and/or derived input torque ;

- the difference between the rear wheel speeds ;

- the difference between the output shaft torque.

In the case of measured and/or derived input torque, only measured engine torque, gear ratio, engine speed and throttle position may be used, it must also be clear that this figure is a genuine representation of the input torque.

9.7.3 ) Subject to Article 8.3, the driver may only make changes to the set-up of an electronically controlled differential whilst the car is stationary.

ARTICLE 10 : SUSPENSION AND STEERING SYSTEMS

10.1 Sprung suspension :

Cars must be fitted with sprung suspension. The springing medium must not consist solely of bolts located through flexible bushes or mountings.

There must be movement of the wheels to give suspension travel in excess of any flexibility in the attachments.

The suspension system must be so arranged that its response is consistent at all times and results only from changes in vertical load applied to the wheels save only for movement permitted by inherent and fixed physical properties.

10.2 Suspension geometry :

Suspension geometry must remain fixed at all times.

10.3 Suspension members :

10.3.1) Each member of every suspension component must be made from material whose cross section has an aspect ratio no greater than 3.5:1. All suspension components may however have sections with an aspect ratio greater than 3.5:1 provided these are adjacent to their inner and outer attachments and form no more than 25% of the total distance between the attachments of the relevant member.

All measurements will be made perpendicular to a line drawn between the inner and outer attachments of the relevant member.

10.3.2) No major axis of a cross section of a suspension member may subtend an angle greater than 5° to the reference plane when measured parallel to the centre line of the car.

10.3.3) Non-structural parts of suspension members are considered bodywork.

10.3.4 ) In order to prevent a wheel becoming separated in the event of all suspension members connecting it to the car failing, cables must be fitted which connect each wheel/upright assembly to the main structure of the car. Under such circumstances, the design of the cable and it's attachments must be such that no wheel may make contact with the driver's head.

The length of each cable should be no longer than that required to allow normal suspension movement .

Each complete cable restraint system, including its attachments, must have a minimum tensile strength of 50kN and the cables must be flexible with a minimum diameter of 8mm.

10.4 Steering :

10.4.1) Any steering system which permits the re-alignment of more than two wheels is not permitted.

10.4.2) Power assisted steering systems are permitted but may not carry out any function other than reduce the physical effort required to steer the car.

If an electronically controlled power steering system is used the only permissible inputs are steering torque, steering angle and car speed. Additionally, other than under Article 8.3, the settings may not be changed whilst the car is in motion.

10.4.3) No part of the steering wheel or column, nor any part fitted to them, may be closer to the driver than a plane formed by the entire rear edge of the steering wheel rim.

10.4.4 ) The steering wheel, steering column and steering rack assembly must pass an impact test, details of the test procedure may be found in Article 16.5.

ARTICLE 11 : BRAKE SYSTEM

11.1 Brake circuits and pressure distribution :

11.1.1) All cars must be equipped with one brake system which has two separate hydraulic circuits operated by one pedal, one circuit operating on the two front wheels and the other on the two rear wheels. This system must be designed so that if a failure occurs in one circuit the pedal will still operate the brakes in the other.

11.1.2) The brake system must be designed in order that brake caliper pressures in each circuit are the same at all times.

11.1.3) Any powered device which is capable of altering the configuration of the brake system whilst it is under pressure is forbidden.

11.1.4) Any change to, or modulation of, the brake system whilst the car is moving must be made by the drivers direct physical input, may not be pre-set and must be under his complete control at all times.

11.2 Brake calipers :

11.2.1) All brake calipers must be made from aluminium materials with a modulus of elasticity no greater than 80Gpa.

11.2.2) No more than two attachments may be used to secure each brake caliper to the car.

11.2.3) No more than one caliper, with a maximum of six pistons, is permitted on each wheel.

11.2.4) The section of each caliper piston must be circular.

11.3 Brake discs :

11.3.1) No more than one brake disc is permitted on each wheel.

11.3.2) All discs must have a maximum thickness of 28mm and a maximum outside diameter of 278mm.

11.3.3) No more than two brake pads are permitted on each wheel.

11.4 Air ducts :

Air ducts for the purpose of cooling the front and rear brakes shall not protrude beyond :

- a plane parallel to the ground situated at a distance of 140mm above the horizontal centre line of the wheel ;

- a plane parallel to the ground situated at a distance of 140mm below the horizontal centre line of the centre line of the car ;

- a vertical plane parallel to the inner face of the wheel rim and displaced from it by 120mm toward the centre line of the car.

Furthermore, when viewed from the side the ducts must not protrude forwards beyond the periphery of the tyre or backwards beyond the wheel rim.

11.5 Brake pressure modulation :

11.5.1 ) No braking system may be designed to prevent wheels from locking when the driver applies pressure to the brake pedal.

11.5.2 ) No braking system may be designed to increase the pressure in the brake calipers above that achievable by the driver applying pressure to the pedal under static conditions.

11.6 Liquid cooling :

Liquid cooling of the brakes is forbidden.

ARTICLE 12 : WHEELS AND TYRES

12.1 Location :

Wheels must be external to the bodywork in plan view, with the rear aerodynamic device removed.

12.2 Number of wheels :

The number of wheels is fixed at four.

12.3 Wheel material :

All wheels must be made from an homogeneous metallic material.

12.4 Wheel dimensions :

12.4.1)

Maximum complete rear wheel width : 380mm
Minimum complete front wheel width : 305mm
Maximum complete front wheel width : 355mm
Minimum complete rear wheel width : 365mm
Maximum complete wheel diameter : 660mm
Wheel bead diameter : 330mm (+/-2.5mm)

12.4.2) These measurements will be taken horizontally at axle height.

ARTICLE 13 : COCKPIT

13.1 Cockpit opening :

13.1.1) In order to ensure that the opening giving access to the cockpit is of adequate size the template shown in Fig. 2 of Appendix 1 will be inserted into the survival cell and bodywork.

During this test the steering wheel, steering column, seat and all padding (including fixings), may be removed and the template must :

- be held horizontal and lowered vertically from above the car until its lower edge is 525mm above the reference plane ;

- be no less than 625mm behind the front wheel centre line .

Any measurements made from the cockpit entry template (when referred to in Articles 15.2.2, 15.4.5, 15.4.6, 15.5.4, 16.3 and 18.4), must also be made whilst the template is held in this position .

13.1.2) The forward extremity of the cockpit opening, even if structural and part of the survival cell, must be at least 5cm in front of the steering wheel.

13.1.3) The driver must be able to enter and get out of the cockpit without it being necessary to open a door or remove any part of the car other than the steering wheel or cockpit padding. Sitting at his steering wheel, the driver must be facing forward.

13.1.4) From his normal seating position, with all seat belts fastened and whilst wearing his usual driving equipment, the driver must be able to remove the steering wheel and get out of the car within 5 seconds and then replace the steering wheel in a total of 10 seconds.

For this test, the position of the steered wheels will be determined by the FIA technical delegate and after the steering wheel has been replaced steering control must be maintained.

13.2 Steering wheel :

The steering wheel must be fitted with a quick release mechanism operated by pulling a concentric flange installed on the steering column behind the wheel.

13.3 Internal cross section :

The internal cross section of the cockpit from the soles of the driver's feet to behind his seat shall at no point be less than 900cm².

A free vertical cross section which allows the template shown in Fig.3 of Appendix 1 to be passed vertically through the cockpit, must be maintained over its entire length.

The only things that can encroach on these two areas are the steering wheel and padding.

The driver, seated normally with his seat belts fastened and with the steering wheel removed must be able to raise both legs together so that his knees are past the plane of the steering wheel in the rearward direction. This action must not be obstructed by any part of the car.

ARTICLE 14 : SAFETY EQUIPMENT

14.1 Fire extinguishers :

14.1.1) All cars must be fitted with a fire extinguishing system which will discharge into the cockpit and into the engine compartment.

14.1.2) Any AFFF which has been specifically approved by the FIA is permitted.

14.1.3) The quantity of extinguishant may vary according to the type of AFFF used, a list is available from the FIA.

14.1.4) When operated, the fire extinguishing system must discharge 95% of its contents at a constant pressure in no less than 10 seconds and no more than 30 seconds.

If more than one container with extinguishant is fitted, they must be released simultaneously.

14.1.5) Each pressure vessel must be equipped with a means of checking its pressure which may vary according to the type of AFFF used. A list is available from the FIA.

14.1.6) The following information must be visible on each container with extinguishant :

a) Type of extinguishant

b) Weight or volume of the extinguishant

c) Date the container must be checked which must be no more than two years after the date of filling.

14.1.7) All parts of the extinguishing system must be situated within the survival cell and all extinguishing equipment must withstand fire.

14.1.8) Any triggering system having its own source of energy is permitted, provided it is possible to operate all extinguishers should the main electrical circuits of the car fail.

The driver must be able to trigger the extinguishing system manually when seated normally with his safety belts fastened and the steering wheel in place.

Furthermore, a means of triggering from the outside must be combined with the circuit breaker switch described in Article 14.2.2. It must be marked with a letter "E" in red inside a white circle of at least 10cm diameter with a red edge.

14.1.9) The system must work in any position, even when the car is inverted.

14.1.10) All extinguisher nozzles must be suitable for the extinguishant and be installed in such a way that they are not directly pointed at the driver.

14.2 Master switch :

14.2.1) The driver, when seated normally with the safety belts fastened and the steering wheel in place, must be able to cut off the electrical circuits to the ignition, all fuel pumps and the rear light by means of a spark proof circuit breaker switch.

This switch must be located on the dashboard and must be clearly marked by a symbol showing a red spark in a white edged blue triangle.

14.2.2 ) There must also be an exterior switch, with a horizontal handle, which is capable of being operated from a distance by a hook. This switch must be situated at the base of the main roll over structure on the right hand side.

14.3 Rear view mirrors :

All cars must have at least two mirrors mounted so that the driver has visibility to the rear and both sides of the car.

The reflective surface of each mirror must be at least 12cm wide, this being maintained over a height of at least 5cm. Additionally, each corner may have a radius no greater than 1cm.

The FIA technical delegate must be satisfied by a practical demonstration that the driver, when seated normally, can clearly define following vehicles.

For this purpose, the driver shall be required to identify any letter or number, 15cm high and 10cm wide, placed anywhere on boards behind the car, the positions of which are detailed below :

Height : From 40cm to 100cm from the ground.

Width : 200cm either side of the centre line of the car.

Position : 10m behind the rear axle line of the car.

14.4 Safety belts :

It is mandatory to wear two shoulder straps, one abdominal strap and two straps between the legs. These straps must be securely fixed to the car and must comply with FIA standard 8853/98.

14.5 Rear light :

All cars must have a red light in working order throughout the Event which :

- has been manufactured as specified by the FIA ;

- faces rearwards at 90 degrees to the car centre line and the reference plane ;

- is clearly visible from the rear ;

- is not mounted more than 10cm from the car centre line ;

- is at least 35cm above the reference plane ;

- is no less than 45cm behind the rear wheel centre line measured parallel to the reference plane ;

- can be switched on by the driver when seated normally in the car.

The three measurements above will be taken to the centre of the rear face of the light unit .

14.6 Headrests and head protection :

14.6.1) All cars must be equipped with three headrest areas which :

- are so arranged that they can be removed from the car as one part ;

- are located by two horizontal pegs behind the driver' head and two fixings, which are clearly indicated and easily removable without tools, at the front corners ;

- are made from a material specified by the FIA ;

- are fitted with a cover manufactured from 60-240gsm materials which use suitable thermo-setting resin systems ;

- are positioned so as to be the first point of contact for the driver's helmet in the event of an impact projecting his head towards them during an accident.

14.6.2) The first headrest must be positioned behind the driver's head and must be at least 75mm thick over an area of at least 400cm².

14.6.3) Two further headrests must be positioned directly alongside each side of the driver's helmet. The upper surfaces of these headrests must be at least as high as the survival cell over their entire length .

Each headrest must be at least 75mm thick over an area of at least 250cm² and may have a radius of 10mm along it's upper inboard edge . When calculating their area, any part which is greater than 75mm thick and which lies between the front face of the rear headrest and the forward most part of the driver's helmet whilst he is seated normally, will be taken into account (area 'B' in Fig. 4 of Appendix 1). The thickness will be measured perpendicular to the car centre line.

14.6.4) Forward of the side headrests further cockpit padding must be provided on each side of the cockpit rim. The purpose of the additional padding is to afford protection to the driver's head in the event of an oblique frontal impact and must therefore be made from the same material as the headrests.

These extensions must :

- be symmetrically positioned about the car centre line and a continuation of the side headrests ;

- be positioned with their upper surfaces at least as high as the survival cell over their entire length;

- have a radius on their upper inboard edge no greater than 10mm ;

- be positioned in order that the distance between the two is no less than 360mm ;

- be as high as practicable within the constraints of driver comfort.

14.6.5) All headrests and cockpit head protection must be so installed that if movement of the driver's head, in any expected trajectory during an accident, were to compress the foam fully at any point, his helmet would not make contact with any structural part of the car.

Furthermore, for the benefit of rescue crews all headrests and cockpit head protection must be installed using the FIA approved system. The method of removal must also be clearly indicated.

14.6.6) No part of the headrests or cockpit head protection may obscure sight of any part of the driver's helmet when he is seated normally and viewed from directly above the car.

14.7 Wheel retention :

All cars, whilst under their own power, must be fitted with devices which will retain any wheel in the event of it coming loose.

After the wheel nut is fastened, these devices must be manually fitted in a separate action to that of securing the wheel nut.

14.8 Seat fixing and removal :

In order that an injured driver may be removed from the car in his seat following an accident, all cars must be fitted with a seat which is secured with no more than two bolts. If bolts are used they must :

- be easily accessible to rescue crews ;

- be fitted vertically ;

- be removable with the tool that is issued to rescue crews .

Furthermore, the seat must be equipped with receptacles which permit the fitting of belts to secure the driver and one which will permit the fitting of a neck support.

Details of the tool referred to above, the belt receptacles and the neck support are available from the FIA Technical Department .

ARTICLE 15 : SAFETY STRUCTURES

15.1 Materials :

15.1.1) The use of magnesium sheet less than 3mm thick is forbidden.

15.1.2) With the exception of internal engine parts, no parts of the car may be made from metallic materials which have a specific modulus of elasticity greater than 40 GPa / (g/cm3).

15.2 Roll structures :

15.2.1) The basic purpose of these structures is to protect the driver. This purpose is the primary design consideration.

15.2.2) All cars must have two roll structures.

The principal structure must be at least 94cm above the reference plane at a point 30mm behind the cockpit entry template . The second structure must be in front of the steering wheel but no more than 25cm forward of the top of the steering wheel rim in any position.

The two roll structures must be of sufficient height to ensure the driver's helmet and his steering wheel are at least 70mm and 50mm respectively below a line drawn between their highest points at all times.

15.2.3) The principal structure must pass a static load test details of which may be found in Article 17.2.

15.2.4) The second structure must pass a static load test details of which may be found in Article 17.3.

15.2.5) Both roll structures must have minimum structural cross sections of 100cm², in vertical projection, across a horizontal plane 50mm below the their highest points.

15.3 Structure behind the driver :

All cars must have a structure immediately behind the driver's seat which is wider than and extends above his shoulders when he is seated normally with his seat belts fastened. This structure must be capable of sustaining a lateral load of 1.5w applied to its top, w being 780kg.

15.4 Survival cell specifications :

15.4.1) Every survival cell must incorporate three FIA supplied transponders for identification purposes. These transponders must be a permanent part of the survival cell, be positioned in accordance with Fig.7 of Appendix 1 and must be accessible for verification at any time.

15.4.2)The survival cell must extend from behind the fuel tank in a rearward direction to a point at least 30cm in front of the driver's feet, with his feet resting on the pedals and the pedals in the inoperative position.

The survival cell must have an opening for the driver, the minimum dimensions of which are given in Article 13.1. Any other openings in the survival cell must be of the minimum size to allow access to mechanical components.

The safety structures described in Articles 15.2.2 and 15.3 must be a part of the survival cell or solidly attached to it.

15.4.3) When he is seated normally, the soles of the driver's feet, resting on the pedals in the inoperative position, must not be situated in front of the vertical plane passing through the centre line of the front wheels. Should the car not be fitted with pedals, the driver's feet at their maximum forward extension must not be situated in front of the above mentioned vertical plane.

15.4.4) An impact absorbing structure must be fitted in front of the survival cell. This structure need not be an integral part of the survival cell but must be solidly attached to it.

Furthermore, it must have a minimum external cross section, in horizontal projection, of 90cm² at a point 50mm behind its forward-most point.

15.4.5) Referring to Fig. 5 of Appendix 1 :

The external width of the survival cell between the line C-C and the rear of the cockpit opening template must be no less than 450mm and must be at least 60mm per side wider than the cockpit opening when measured normal to the inside of the cockpit aperture. These minimum dimensions must be maintained over a height of at least 350mm.

The width of the survival cell may taper forward of the line C-C but, if this is the case, it must do so at a linear rate to a minimum of 350mm at the line B-B. At this point it may continue to taper at the same rate to the line A-A.

Between the lines A-A and C-C the width of the survival cell must be greater than the width defined by the two lines b-c. This minimum width must be arranged symmetrically about the car centre line, must be maintained over a height of at least 350mm at the line C-C and may taper at a linear rate to 250mm at the line A-A.

The minimum height of the survival cell between the lines A-A and C-C need not be arranged symmetrically about the horizontal centre line of the relevant section but must be maintained over its entire width.

The minimum height of the survival cell between the lines C-C and D-D is 550mm.

15.4.6) When the test referred to in Article 13.1.1 is carried out and the template is in position with its lower edge 525mm above the reference plane, the shape of the survival cell must be such that no part of it is visible when viewed from either side of the car .

The parts of the survival cell which are situated each side of the driver's helmet must be no more than 550mm apart and, in order to maintain good lateral visibility the driver, when seated normally with his seat belts fastened and looking straight ahead, must have his eyes above the sides of the survival cell.

15.4.7) In order to give additional protection to the driver in the event of a side impact, the outer skin laminates of the survival cell, over the areas described below, must be at least 3.5mm thick and must incorporate panels as specified in a) - e) below.

Referring to Fig. 5 in Appendix 1, the outer skin laminates must :

- be at least 250mm high at line A-A ;

- taper at a linear rate to at least 350mm high at line C-C and remain at this height to the rear of the survival cell ;

- be no less than 100mm above the reference plane between the line C-C and the rear of the survival cell .

Any openings or cut outs in the laminates must be of the minimum size to allow access to mechanical components .

Each panel within the outer skin laminates must be at least 2mm thick and be constructed (and have features) as follows :

a) each ply must consist of continuous aramid fibres reinforcing an epoxy matrix with a resin density between 1.20 - 1.40 g/m³ and resin content between 47% - 53% ;

b) the basic fibre properties must meet or exceed the following :

- axial tensile strength 2.6 GPa

- axial tensile modulus 114 GPa

- axial tensile strain-to-failure 2.3 %

c) each ply of material must feature the aramid fibres specified above woven in the following style :

- DuPont style 285 (160-180 g/m², 4-harness satin) giving a panel nominal thickness of 0.25mm

d) the laminate must consist of at least 8 consecutive plies of the aramid/epoxy material specified above ;

e) the laminate must have its plies oriented to give quasi-isotropic in-plane properties, at least four being arranged at 0°/90° and at least four at 45°/45° .

15.5 Survival cell safety requirements :

15.5.1 ) The survival cell and frontal absorbing structure must pass an impact test against a solid vertical barrier placed at right angles to the centre line of the car, details of the test procedure may be found in Article 16.2.

15.5.2) Between the front and rear roll structures, on each side of the survival cell, identical impact absorbing structures must be fitted and must be solidly attached to it.

The survival cell and one of these impact absorbing structures must pass an impact test, details of the test procedure may be found in Article 16.3.

15.5.3) An impact absorbing structure must be fitted behind the gearbox symmetrically about the car centre line with its rearmost point no less than 48cm behind the rear wheel centre line. It must also have a minimum external cross section, in horizontal projection, of 90cm² at a point 50mm forward of its rearmost point. When calculating this area only those parts situated less than 10cm from the car centre line may be considered and the cross section may not diminish forward of this point .

This structure must pass an impact test and must be constructed from materials which will not be substantially affected by the temperatures it is likely to be subjected to during use. Details of the test procedure may be found in Article 16.4.

15.5.4) The survival cell must also be subjected to five separate static load tests :

1) on a vertical plane passing through the centre of the fuel tank ;

2) on a vertical plane passing through the rearmost point at which the outer end of the front wheel tether would make contact with the survival cell when swung about the inner attachment ;

3) on a vertical plane 375mm forward of the rear edge of the cockpit entry template ;

4) from beneath the fuel tank ;

5) on each side of the cockpit opening.

Details of the test procedures may be found in Article 18.2.

15.5.5 ) To test the attachments of the frontal impact absorbing structure to the survival cell, a static side load test must be carried out . Details of the test procedure may be found in Article 18.5.

ARTICLE 16 : IMPACT TESTING

16.1 Conditions applicable to all impact tests :

16.1.1 ) All tests must be carried out in accordance with FIA Test Procedure 01/99, in the presence of an FIA technical delegate and by using measuring equipment which has been calibrated to the satisfaction of the FIA technical delegate.

16.1.2) Any significant modification introduced into any of the structures tested shall require that part to pass a further test.

16.2 Frontal test :

All parts which could materially affect the outcome of the test must be fitted to the test structure which must be solidly fixed to the trolley through its engine mounting points but not in such a way as to increase its impact resistance.

The fuel tank must be fitted and must be full of water.

A dummy weighing at least 75kg must be fitted with safety belts described in Article 14.4 fastened. However, with the safety belts unfastened, the dummy must be able to move forwards freely in the cockpit.

The extinguishers, as described in Article 14.1 must also be fitted.

For the purposes of this test, the total weight of the trolley and test structure shall be 780kg and the velocity of impact 14.0 metres/sec .

The resistance of the test structure must be such that during the impact :

- the average deceleration over the first 150mm of deformation does not exceed 5g ;

- the average deceleration of the trolley does not exceed 40g ;

- the peak deceleration in the chest of the dummy does not exceed 60g for more than a cumulative 3ms, this being the resultant of data from three axes .

Furthermore, there must be no damage to the survival cell or to the mountings of the safety belts or fire extinguishers.

This test must be carried out on the survival cell subjected to the higher loads in the tests described in Articles 18.2-4, and on a frontal impact absorbing structure identical to the one which was subjected to the test described in Article 18.5.

16.3 Side test :

All parts which could materially affect the outcome of the test must be fitted to the test structure which must be solidly fixed to the ground and a solid object, having a mass of 780kg and travelling at a velocity of 7m/s, will be projected into it.

The object used for this test must be flat, measure 45cm wide by 55cm high and may have a 10mm radius on all edges.

Its centre of area must strike the structure 27.5cm above the bottom of the survival cell and at a point 525mm forward of the rear edge of the cockpit opening template longitudinally.

During the test the striking object may not pivot in any axis and the survival cell may be supported in any way provided this does not increase the impact resistance of the parts being tested. The impact axis must be perpendicular to the car centre line and parallel to the ground.

The resistance of the test structure must be such that during the impact :

- the average deceleration of the object does not exceed 10g ;

- the maximum deceleration does not exceed 20g for more than a cumulative 3ms .

Furthermore , all structural damage must be contained within the impact absorbing structure.

This test must be carried out on the survival cell subjected to the higher loads in the tests described in Articles 18.2-4.

16.4 Rear test :

All parts which will be fitted behind the rear face of the engine and which could materially affect the outcome of the test must be fitted to the test structure. If suspension members are to be mounted on the structure they must be fitted for the test. The structure and the gearbox must be solidly fixed to the ground and a solid object, having a mass of 780kg and travelling at a velocity of 12m/s, will be projected into it.

The object used for this test must be flat, measure 45cm wide by 55cm high and may have a 10mm radius on all edges. Its lower edge must be at the same level as the car reference plane and must be so arranged to strike the structure vertically and at 90 to the car centre line.

During the test, the striking object may not pivot in any axis and the crash structure may be supported in any way provided this does not increase the impact resistance of the parts being tested.

The resistance of the test structure must be such that during the impact :

- the average deceleration of the object does not exceed 35g ;

- the maximum deceleration does not exceed 60g for more than 3ms.

Furthermore, all structural damage must be contained within th area behind the rear wheel centre line.

16.5 Steering column test :

The parts referred to in Article 10.4.4 must be fitted to a representative test structure, any other parts which could materially affect the outcome of the test must also be fitted. The test structure must be solidly fixed to the ground and a solid object, having a mass of 8kg and travelling at a velocity of 7m/s, will be projected into it.

The object used for this test must be hemispherical with a diameter of 165mm.

For the test, the centre of the hemisphere must strike the structure at the centre of the steering wheel along the same axis as the main part of the steering column.

During the test the striking object may not pivot in any axis and the test structure may be supported in any way provided this does not increase the impact resistance of the parts being tested.

The resistance of the test structure must be such that during the impact the peak deceleration of the object does not exceed 80g for more than a cumulative 3ms.

After the test the steering wheel quick release mechanism must still function normally.

ARTICLE 17 : ROLL STRUCTURE TESTING

17.1 Conditions applicable to both roll structure tests :

17.1.1) Rubber 3mm thick may be used between the load pads and the roll structure.

17.1.2 ) Under the load, deformation must be less than 50mm, measured along the loading axis and any structural failure limited to 100mm below the top of the rollover structure when measured vertically.

17.1.3) Any significant modification introduced into any of the structures tested shall require that part to pass a further test.

17.2 Principal roll structure :

A load equivalent to 12kN laterally, 45kN longitudinally and 60kN vertically, must be applied to the top of the structure through a rigid flat pad which is 20cm in diameter and perpendicular to the loading axis.

During the test, the roll structure must be attached to the survival cell which is supported on its underside on a flat plate, fixed to it through its engine mounting points and wedged laterally by the static load test pads described in Article 18.2.

17.3 Second roll structure :

A vertical load of 75kN must be applied to the top of the structure through a rigid flat pad which is 10cm in diameter and perpendicular to the loading axis.

During the test, the rollover structure must be attached to the survival cell which is fixed to a flat horizontal plate.

ARTICLE 18 : STATIC LOAD TESTING

18.1 Conditions applicable to all static tests :

18.1.1) All the following tests must be carried out on the survival cell subjected to the impact tests described in Article 16.

18.1.2 ) Every subsequent survival cell must also be subjected to all the following tests with peak loads reduced by 20%. During these subsequent tests (on deflections greater than 3.0mm), the deflection across the inner surfaces must not exceed 120% of the deflection obtained at 80% of the peak load during the first test.

18.1.3 ) Deflections and deformations will be measured at the centre of area of circular load pads and at the top of rectangular pads.

18.1.4 ) All peak loads must be applied in less than three minutes, through a ball jointed junction at the centre of area of the pad, and maintained for 30 seconds.

18.1.5 ) In the tests described in 18.2, 18.3 and 18.4, permanent deformation must be less than 1.0mm (0.5mm in 18.3) after the load has been released for 1 minute.

18.1.6 ) All tests must be carried out by using measuring equipment which has been calibrated to the satisfaction of the FIA technical delegate.

18.1.7 ) A radius of 3mm is permissible on the edges of all load pads and rubber 3mm thick may be placed between them and the test structure.

18.1.8) For the tests described in 18.2, 18.3 and 18.4, the survival cells must always be produced in an identical condition in order that their weights may be compared. If the weight differs by more than 5% from the one subjected to the impact tests described in Articles 16.2 and 16.3 further frontal and side impact tests and roll structure tests must be carried out.

18.1.9 ) Any significant modification introduced into any of the structures tested shall require that part to pass a further test.

18.2 Survival cell side tests :

18.2.1) For test 1 , referred to in Article 15.5.4, pads 10cm long and 30cm high, which conform to the shape of the survival cell, must be placed against the outermost sides of the survival cell with the lower edge of the pad at the lowest part of the survival cell at that section.

A constant transverse horizontal load of 25.0kN will be applied and, under the load, there must be no structural failure of the inner or outer surfaces of the survival.

On every survival cell tested after that one, the same tests must be carried out but with a load of only 20.0kN. During the tests, on deflections greater than 3.0mm only, the deflection across the inner surfaces must not exceed 120% of the deflection obtained at 20.0kN load during the first test.

18.2.2) For test 2), referred to in Article 15.5.4, pads 20cm in diameter which conform to the shape of the survival cell, must be placed against the outermost sides of the survival cell .

The centre of the pads must pass through the plane mentioned above and the mid point of the height of the structure at that section .

A constant transverse horizontal load of 30.0kN will be applied to the pads and, under the load, there must be no structural failure of the inner or outer surfaces of the survival cell and the total deflection must not exceed 15mm .

18.2.3) For test 3), referred to in Article 15.5.4, pads 20cm in diameter which conform to the shape of the survival cell, must be placed against the outermost sides of the survival cell.

The centre of the pads must be located 35cm above the reference plane and on the vertical plane mentioned in Article 15.5.4 .

A constant transverse horizontal load of 30.0kN will be applied to the pads and, under the load, there must be no structural failure of the inner or outer surfaces of the survival cell and the total deflection must not exceed 15mm .

18.3 Fuel tank floor test :

A pad of 20cm diameter must be placed in the centre of area of the fuel tank floor and a vertical upwards load of 12.5kN applied.

Under the load, there must be no structural failure of the inner or outer surfaces of the survival cell.

18.4 Cockpit rim test :

Two pads, each of which is 10cm in diameter, must be placed on both sides of the cockpit rim with their upper edges at the same height as the top of the cockpit side with their centres at a point 200mm forward of the rear edge of the cockpit opening template longitudinally.

A constant transverse horizontal load of 10.0kN will then be applied at 90° to the car centre line and, under the load, there must be no structural failure of the inner or outer surfaces of the survival cell and the total deflection must not exceed 20mm.

18.5 Nose push off test :

During the test the survival cell must be resting on a flat plate and secured to it solidly but not in a way that could increase the strength of the attachments being tested.

A constant transversal horizontal load of 40.0kN must then be applied to one side of the impact absorbing structure, using a pad identical to the ones used in the lateral tests in Article 18.2.1, at a point 55cm from the front wheel axis.

The centre of area of the pad must pass through the plane mentioned above and the mid point of the height of the structure at the relevant section. After 30 seconds of application, there must be no failure of the structure or of any attachment between the structure and the survival cell.

ARTICLE 19 : FUEL

19.1 Purpose of Article 19 :

19.1.1 ) The purpose of this Article is to ensure that the fuel used in Formula One is petrol as this term is generally understood.

19.1.2) The detailed requirements of this Article are intended to ensure the use of fuels which are predominantly composed of compounds normally found in commercial fuels and to prohibit the use of specific power-boosting chemical compounds.

19.1.3) Additionally, and in order to encourage the development of future commercial fuels, those formulated to achieve one or more of the following objectives will be permitted :

a) fuels needed to meet advanced passenger car engine designs ;

b) fuels formulated to minimise overall emissions ;

c) fuels suitable to be offered to the commercial market with some special feature permitting greater efficiency, better driveability or economy to the user ;

d) fuels developed through advances in refinery techniques and suitable for trial by the general public.

19.1.4) Any petrol which appears to have been formulated in order to subvert the purpose of this regulation will be deemed to be outside it.

19.2 Definitions :

Paraffins straight chain and branched alkanes.
Olefins straight chain and branched mono-olefins
Monocyclic mono-olefins (with five or more carbon atoms in the ring) and saturated aliphatic side chains..
Naphthenes monocyclic paraffins (with five or more carbon atoms in the ring) and saturated aliphatic side chains.
Aromatics monocyclic and bicyclic aromatic rings with and without saturated aliphatic side chains and/or fused naphthenic rings.
Oxygenates specified organic compounds containing oxygen.

19.3 Properties :

The only fuel permitted is petrol having the following characteristics:

Property Units Min Max Test Method
RON   95.0 102.0 ASTM D 2699-86
MON   85.0   ASTM D 2700-86
Oxygen %m/m   2.7 Elemental Analysis
Nitrogen %m/m   0.2 ASTM D 3228
Benzene %v/v   1.0 EN 238
RVP hPa 450 600 ASTM D 323
Lead g/l   0.005 ASTM D 3237
Density at 15°C kg/m³ 720.0 775.0 ASTM D 4052
Oxidation stability minutes 360   ASTM D 525
Existent gum mg/100ml     5.0EN 26246
Sulphur mg/kg   50 EN-ISO/DIS 14596
Copper corrosion rating   C1 ISO 2160
Electrical conductivity pS/m 200   ASTM D 2624

Distillation characteristics :

At E70°C %v/v 20.0 48.0 ISO 3405
At E100°C %v/v 46.0 71.0 ISO 3405
At E150°C %v/v 75.0   ISO 3405
Final Boiling Point °C   210 ISO 3405
Residue %v/v   2.0 ISO 3405

The fuel will be accepted or rejected according to ASTM D 3244 with a confidence limit of 95%.

19.4 Composition of the fuel :

19.4.1) The petrol must consist solely of substances defined in 19.2 and 19.4.4, and whose proportions of aromatics, olefins and di-olefins, within the total petrol sample, comply with those detailed below:

  Units Min Max Test Method
Aromatics %v/v 0* 35* ASTM D 1319
Olefins %v/v 0 18* ASTM D 1319
Total di-olefins %m/m 0 1 GCMS

*Values when corrected for fuel oxygenate content.

In addition, the fuel must contain no substance which is capable of exothermic reaction in the absence of external oxygen.

19.4.2) The total of individual hydrocarbon components present at concentrations of less than 5%m/m must be at least 30% m/m of the fuel.

19.4.3) The total concentration of each hydrocarbon group in the total fuel sample (defined by carbon number and hydrocarbon type), must not exceed the limits given in the table below:

% m/m C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9+ Unallocated
Paraffins 10 30 25 25 55 20 -
Naphthenes - 5 10 10 10 10 -
Olefins 5 20 20 15 10 10 -
Aromatics - - 1.2 35 35 30 -
Maximum 15 40 45 50 60 45 10

For the purposes of this table, a gas chromatographic technique should be employed which can classify hydrocarbons in the total fuel sample such that all those identified are allocated to the appropriate cell of the table. Hydrocarbons present at concentrations below 0.5% by mass which cannot be allocated to a particular cell may be ignored. However, the sum of the unallocated hydrocarbons must not exceed 10.0% by mass of the total fuel sample.

19.4.4) The only oxygenates permitted are :

Methanol (MeOH)
Ethanol (EtOH)
Iso-propyl alcohol (IPA)
Iso-butyl alcohol (IBA)
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)
Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE)
Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME)
Di-Isopropyl Ether (DIPE)
n-Propyl alcohol (NPA)
Tertiary Butyl Alcohol (TBA)
n-Butyl Alcohol (NBA)
Secondary Butyl Alcohol (SBA)

Compounds normally found as impurities in any of the above oxygenates are permitted at concentrations below 0.8% m/m of the total petrol sample.

19.5 Air :

Only ambient air may be mixed with the fuel as an oxidant.

19.6 Safety :

19.6.1 ) Manganese based additives are not permitted.

19.6.2 ) All competitors must be in possession of a Material Safety Data Sheet for each type of petrol used. This sheet must be made out in accordance with EC Directive 93/112/EEC and all information contained therein strictly adhered to.

19.7 Fuel approval :

19.7.1) Before any fuel may be used in an Event, two separate five litre samples, in suitable containers, must be submitted to the FIA for analysis and approval.

19.7.2) No fuel may be used in an Event without prior written approval of the FIA.

19.8 Sampling and testing :

19.8.1 ) All samples will be taken in accordance with FIA Formula One fuel sampling procedures.

19.8.2) Fuel samples taken during an Event will be checked for conformity by using densitometry and a gas chromatographic technique which will compare the sample taken with an approved fuel.

19.9 Amendments to Article 19 :

19.9.1) The physical and compositional properties of the fuel described in 19.3 and 19.4 incorporate the currently known limits for 2000, as laid out in European Fuels Directive 98/70/EC (13 October 1998).

19.9.2) When the Final Directive, as defined by the FIA, is adopted for 2005 (or such other date as the Directive may specify), the new values will replace those being used in 19.3 and 19.4 no later than one year after the figures are known.

ARTICLE 20 : TELEVISION CAMERAS

20.1 Presence of cameras and camera housings :

All cars must be fitted with either two cameras, two camera housings or one of each at all times throughout the Event.

20.2 Location of camera housings :

Camera housings, when used, must be fitted in the same location as cameras.

20.3 Location of camera equipment :

All cars must be equipped with five positions in which cameras or camera housings can be fitted. Referring to Fig. 6 of Appendix 1, all cars must carry a camera or camera housing in position 4, the position of the remaining camera or camera housing will be determined by the FIA after consultation with the relevant Competitor.

Once positions are determined in the above manner, any decision as to whether a camera or camera housing is fitted in those positions will rest solely with the relevant Competitor.

20.4 Timing transponders

All cars must be fitted with a timing transponder supplied by the officially appointed timekeepers. This transponder must be fitted in strict accordance with the instructions of the FIA.

ARTICLE 21 : CHANGES FOR 2001

21.1 Changes to Article 15.1.2 :

No parts of the car may be made from metallic materials which have a specific modulus of elasticity greater than 40 GPa / (g/cm3).

21.2 Changes to Article 15.5.2 :

Between the principle and second roll structures, on each side of the survival cell, identical impact absorbing structures must be fitted and must be solidly attached to it. The purpose of these structures is to protect the driver in the event of a lateral impact and, in order to ensure this is the case, a lateral strength test in the vicinity of the driver's seating position must be carried out successfully. Details of the test procedure may be found in Article 18.2.2 .

The survival cell and one of these impact absorbing structures must pass two separate impact tests , details of the test procedure may be found in Article 16.3.

21.3 Changes to Article 16.3 :

During both tests , all parts which could materially affect the outcome of the test must be fitted to the test structure which will be solidly fixed to the ground. The second test must be carried out immediately after the first and no work may be carried out on any part of the structure between tests.

A solid object, having a mass of 780kg and travelling at a velocity of 7m/s during the first test and 5m/s during the second , will be projected into it.

The object used for these tests must be flat, measure 30cm wide by 20cm high and may have a 10mm radius on all edges. Its centre of area must strike the structure 15cm above the reference plane during the first test, 45cm above the reference plane during the second and at a point 525mm forward of the rear edge of the cockpit opening template during both.

During either test the striking object may not pivot in any axis and the survival cell may be supported in any way provided this does not increase the impact resistance of the parts being tested. The impact axis must be perpendicular to the car centre line and parallel to the ground.

The resistance of the test structure must be such that during the either impact :

- the average deceleration of the object does not exceed 10g ;

- the maximum deceleration does not exceed 20g for more than a cumulative 3ms.

Furthermore, all structural damage must be contained within the impact absorbing structure.

These tests must be carried out on the survival cell subjected to the higher loads in the tests described in Articles 18.2-4.

ARTICLE 22 : FINAL TEXT

The final text for these regulations shall be the English version should any dispute arise over their interpretation.

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