JICARILLA APACHE
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE CODE

Chapter 5. Domestic Violence.

 

Section 1. Statement of Purpose.
Section 2. Definitions.
Section 3. Crime of Domestic Violence.
Section 4. Mandatory Arrest.
Section 5. Special Court Rules.
Section 6. Civil Remedy -- Order of Protection.
Section 7. Service of Order of Protection.
Section 8. Assistance of Police Department in Service or Execution of Order of Protection.
Section 9. Right to Apply for Relief.
Section 10. Copy to Law Enforcement Agency.
Section 11. Violation of Court Orders -- Mandatory Arrest.
Section 12. Reporting Domestic Violence.
Section 13. Liability.
Section 14. Severability.
Section 15. Violations by Minors.

 

Section 1. Statement of Purpose.

It is the purpose of this Chapter to stop all family violence on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation and to promote the healing of families where possible. Domestic violence is a serious crime against society and this Chapter seeks to guarantee to the victim of domestic violence the maximum protection from abuse which the law can provide.

It is the intent of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Council that the official response to cases of domestic violence shall be that violent behavior is not to be tolerated or excused, whether or not the abuser is intoxicated. The elders, adults, and children of our Tribe, and of the entire community residing on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation, are to be cherished and treated with respect.

 

Section 2. Definitions.

As used in this Chapter the following terms shall have the meanings given below:

(A) "Abuse" means the infliction of physical harm, bodily injury or sexual assault or the infliction of the fear of imminent physical harm, bodily injury or sexual assault, and includes but is not limited to assault and assault and battery as defined in the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code.

(B) "Court" means the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Court.

(C) "Domestic Violence" means an act of abuse by a perpetrator on a family member or household member of the perpetrator.

(D) "Elderly person" means a person 55 or more years old.

(E) "Family member or household member" of a person means a spouse, a former spouse, a person related by blood, a person related by an existing or prior marriage, a person who resides or formerly resided with the person, or a person with whom the person has a child in common regardless of whether the parents of the child have been married or have lived together at any time.

(F) "Mandatory Arrest" means that the victim need not sign a complaint for an arrest to occur. A police officer shall arrest if there is probable cause to believe the person to be arrested has committed an offense as defined by this chapter even though the arrest may be against the expressed wishes of the victim.

(G) "Order of Protection" means a court order granted for the protection of victims of domestic violence.

(H) "Perpetrator" means the person who has committed an act of abuse on his or her family member or household member.

(I) "Police Officer" means a member of the Jicarilla Apache Police Department.

(J) "Probable Cause" for arrest means that the police officer, acting as a person of reasonable caution, has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed an offense as defined by this Chapter, based on all the facts known to the officer, including the officer's personal observations, statements made by parties involved in the incident, statements made by witnesses if any, and any other reliable information.

 

Section 3. Crime of Domestic Violence.

(A) Any person who shall knowingly commit an act of domestic violence as defined by Section 2 of this Chapter shall be deemed guilty of the offense of domestic violence and upon conviction thereof shall be sentenced to confinement not to exceed six months and/or to a fine not to exceed Five Hundred Dollars ($500) or to both such confinement and fine.

(B) In addition to or in lieu of the imposition of such confinement and/or fine, the court shall order the person convicted of the offense of domestic violence to participate in a domestic violence treatment program, as provided in Section 5 of this Chapter.

(C) Prosecution for the offense of domestic violence shall not preclude prosecution for any other offense under the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code arising from the same circumstances.

 

Section 4. Mandatory Arrest.

(A) A police officer shall arrest an alleged perpetrator of domestic violence of any age, if an arrest warrant has been issued, or without a warrant if the offense occurs in the presence of the officer or if the officer has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed domestic violence, without regard to any other requirements imposed by Title 2 Chapter 1 Section 4 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code. If the conditions for arrest established by this Section are present, the officer shall arrest the alleged perpetrator of domestic violence whether or not the alleged victim signs a complaint and whether or not the arrest is against the expressed wishes of the alleged victim.

(B) Whenever a police officer investigates an allegation of domestic violence, whether or not an arrest is made, the officer shall make a written incident report of the alleged abuse and submit that report to the Domestic Violence Program within 48 hours for purposes of program coordination.

(C) In all domestic violence arrests, after notifying the alleged perpetrator of his/her rights, if the alleged perpetrator consents, a police officer or criminal investigator shall interview the alleged perpetrator within 24 hours after the arrest.

(D) Immediately following a domestic violence arrest, the police officer shall advise all known victims of the availability of Domestic Violence Treatment Programs and shall give the victims cards describing their legal rights and available services. Upon request of the victim, the police officer shall provide or arrange for transportation of the victim to a medical facility or a place of shelter.

(E) Upon an arrest of an alleged perpetrator under this section, the arresting police officer shall forthwith file with the court a criminal complaint and an affidavit or a written report of the alleged abuse.

(F) Whether or not the alleged perpetrator has been arrested, the Clerk of Courts or the Prosecutor shall assist the alleged victim or other appropriate person in the preparation and filing of a criminal complaint under this section and/or a petition under Section 6 of this Chapter.

(G) The Jicarilla Apache Police Department shall develop and maintain a protocol for implementation of its obligations under this Chapter.

(H) Any alleged perpetrator arrested under this section shall be held in custody for a period not less than twelve (12) hours, or such longer period as is necessary to conduct a commitment hearing or as determined by the Court, as a mandatory "cooling off' period. Prior to the commitment hearing, the alleged perpetrator shall not be released on bail or on his/her own recognizance.

 

Section 5. Special Court Rules.

In addition to the rules of court generally applicable to criminal proceedings, the Court is authorized to take the following actions in a proceeding involving alleged domestic violence offenses.

(A) At the commitment hearing, if the alleged perpetrator is to be released from custody, the Court, in its discretion and as a condition of release, may issue an order for protection temporarily excluding the alleged perpetrator from the home of the alleged victim and restraining the alleged perpetrator from any contact with the alleged victim.

(B) If the alleged perpetrator pleads guilty, a pre-sentence report may be ordered at the discretion of the court prior to sentencing.

(C) If it appears to the Court that alcohol or drugs played a part in the abuse, a chemical dependency evaluation with a treatment plan may be ordered, at the discretion of the court, prior to sentencing.

(D) Upon a guilty plea or conviction, the perpetrator shall be ordered to participate in an appropriate domestic violence program consisting of at least the following:

(1) The perpetrator shall attend and cooperate in an intake session for evaluation.

(2) The evaluation shall be completed by the domestic violence program not later than 10 calendar days after entry of the order requiring evaluation, unless the Court extends that time period.

(3) A copy of the evaluation and recommended treatment plan shall be provided to the Court.

(4) In the discretion of the Court, the perpetrator's participation in treatment sessions based on the domestic violence program's treatment plan may be in lieu of confinement and/or fine, or the execution of any such penalty may be suspended pending completion of the treatment ordered by the Court.

(5) The domestic violence program or other service provider shall submit progress reports to the Court at least every six (6) calendar weeks.

(E) Willful failure or refusal to comply with a Court order requiring a perpetrator to attend and cooperate in evaluation and/or to undergo treatment as described in a treatment plan shall constitute contempt of court punishable as provided in Title 2 Chapter 9 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code. If the Court has suspended execution of any penalty imposed under Section 3 of this Chapter on the condition that the perpetrator undergo court-ordered evaluation and/or treatment, the Court may also order execution of any such suspended sentence.

(F) Any written statement made by the alleged victim under oath and signed by the victim which describes the alleged acts of domestic violence shall not be considered inadmissible hearsay evidence, but shall be admissible in any proceeding related to a prosecution under Section 3 of this Chapter.

 

Section 6. Civil Remedy -- Order of Protection.

(A) Availability of Petition.

(1) A petition to obtain an order of protection under this Section may be filed by:

a. Any person claiming to be the victim of domestic violence,

b. Any family member or household member of a person claimed to be the victim of domestic violence, on behalf of the alleged victim, or

c. The Tribal Prosecutor.

(2) A petition shall allege the existence of domestic violence, and shall be verified or supported by an affidavit made under oath stating the specific facts and circumstances justifying the requested order.

(3) A petition may be filed regardless of the pendency of any other civil or criminal proceeding related to the allegations in the petition.

(4) No filing fee shall be required for the filing of a petition under this section. If an alleged perpetrator has been arrested for the offense of domestic violence, the Court or the arresting police officer shall advise the alleged victim of the right to file a petition under this section without cost.

(5) The petitioner, or the victim on whose behalf a petition has been filed, is not required to file for annulment, separation, or divorce as a prerequisite to obtaining an order of protection; but the petition shall state whether any other action is pending between the petitioner or victim and the respondent.

(6) Standard, simplified petition forms with instructions for completion shall be available to persons not represented by counsel. The Jicarilla Apache Police Department and the Tribal Court shall keep such forms and make them available upon request to victims of domestic violence.

(B) Procedure for Issuance of an Order of Protection. Upon the filing of a petition for order of protection, the Court shall:

(1) Immediately grant an ex-parte order of protection without bond if, based on the specific facts stated in the affidavit or the verified petition, the Court has probable cause to believe that the petitioner or the person on whose behalf the petition has been filed is the victim of an act of domestic violence committed by the respondent, and issuance of the ex-parte order is necessary to protect the victim from further abuse.

(2) Cause an ex-parte order of protection, together with notice of hearing, to be served immediately on the respondent. Service must be made by posted notice if personal service cannot be completed within twenty-four (24) hours.

(3) Within fifteen (15) days after the granting of the ex-parte order of protection, hold a hearing to determine whether the order should be vacated, extended for an additional fifteen (15) days, or modified in any respect.

(4) If an ex-parte order is not granted, serve notice to appear upon both parties and hold a hearing on the petition for order of protection within seventy-two (72) hours after the filing of the petition; Provided that, if notice of hearing cannot be personally served within twenty four (24) hours, the parties shall be served by posted notice, and the court shall hold a hearing on the petition within fifteen (15) days after the filing of the petition.

(C) Contents of an Order of Protection. An ex-parte order of protection or an order of protection entered after notice and hearing shall, when deemed appropriate by the Court, include provisions:

(1) Restraining the respondent from committing any acts of domestic violence.

(2) Excluding the respondent from the residence of the victim, whether or not the respondent and the victim share that residence.

(3) Restraining the respondent from any contact with the victim.

(4) Awarding temporary custody or establishing temporary visitation rights with regard to minor children of the respondent on a basis which gives primary consideration to the safety of the claimed victim of domestic violence and the minor children.

a. If the court finds that the safety of the claimed victim or the minor children will be jeopardized by unsupervised or unrestricted visitation, the court shall set forth conditions or restrict visitation as to the time, place, duration, or supervision, or deny visitation entirely, as needed, to guard the safety of the claimed victim and the minor children.

b. Any temporary custody order shall provide for child support and temporary support for the person having custody of the children, in amounts deemed proper by the Court.

(5) Ordering temporary guardianship with regard to an elderly or handicapped victim of domestic violence if necessary for the safety of the elderly or handicapped person.

(6) Awarding temporary use and possession of property of the respondent.

(7) Restraining one or both parties from transferring, encumbering, concealing, or disposing of property except as authorized by the Court and requiring that an accounting shall be made to the Court for all such transfers, encumbrances, dispositions, and expenditures.

(8) Ordering the respondent to timely pay any existing debts of the respondent, including mortgage or rental payments, necessary to maintain the claimed victim in his/her residence.

(9) Describing any prior orders of the Court relating to domestic matters which are superseded or altered by the order of protection.

(10) Notifying the parties that the willful violation of any provision of the order constitutes contempt of court punishable by a fine or imprisonment or both and constitutes a violation of this Chapter for which civil penalties may be assessed.

(11) Ordering, in the Court's discretion, any other lawful relief as it deems necessary for the protection of any claimed or potential victim of domestic violence, including orders or directives to the Jicarilla Apache Police Department.

(D) Duration and Modification of Order of Protection.

(1) The provisions of the order shall remain in effect for the period of time stated in the order, not to exceed six (6) months unless extended by the Court at the request of any party or at the request of the Domestic Violence Program.

(2) Either party or the Domestic Violence Program may request a hearing to modify an order of protection, but the Court shall conduct hearings to review the order every ninety (90) days or sooner as necessary.

 

Section 7. Service of Order of Protection.

Orders of protection are to be served personally upon the respondent by a police officer. If the respondent cannot be located, the order will be mailed by certified mail to the respondent's last known address and upon application with the Court, notice will be posted.

 

Section 8. Assistance of Police Department in Service or Execution of Order of Protection.

When an order of protection is issued, upon request of the petitioner, the Court shall order the police to accompany and assist any claimed victim of domestic violence in taking possession of the claimed victim's residence or otherwise to assist in execution of the order.

 

Section 9. Right to Apply for Relief.

A person's right to apply for relief under Section 6 of this Chapter or to file a criminal complaint under Section 3 of this Chapter shall not be affected by his/her leaving the residence or household to avoid abuse.

 

Section 10. Copy to Law Enforcement Agency.

Each order of protection granted pursuant to Section 6 of this Chapter and each order issued under Section 5(A) of this Chapter shall be forwarded by the Clerk of Courts immediately to the Jicarilla Apache Police Department. The Police Department shall make available to each officer information as to the existence and status of any such orders.

 

Section 11. Violation of Court Orders -- Mandatory Arrest.

(A) Willful violation of an order issued under Section 5(A) or Section 6 of this Chapter shall constitute contempt of court punishable as provided in Title 2 Chapter 9 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code. (B) A police officer shall arrest without a warrant and take into custody any person who the police officer has probable cause to believe has willfully violated an order issued under Section 5(A) or Section 6 of this Chapter.

(C) All provisions of an order issued under Section 5(A) or Section 6 of this Chapter shall remain in full force and effect until the order terminates or is modified by the Court. Violation of the order, including any prohibition against entering a residence, is not excused by the consent or permission of the alleged victim or any other person.

(D) Any person who knowingly violates an order issued under Section 6 of this Chapter may, after notice and hearing, be assessed a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $500.

 

Section 12. Reporting Domestic Violence.

(A) Any physician, nurse, school teacher, psychologist, social worker, probation officer, community health representative, or any other person knowing or suspecting that domestic violence is occurring or has occurred shall report the matter orally and immediately by telephone or otherwise to the Jicarilla Apache Police Department Dispatcher.

(B) Any person, including individuals, corporations, governmental entities and their agents, who in good faith makes or participates in the making of a report pursuant to this section shall have immunity from any liability, civil or criminal, which might otherwise arise from making that report, and shall have the same immunity with respect to participation in any court proceeding resulting from such a report.

(C) Any person who shall make a report of domestic violence knowing that the facts reported are false or misleading, and the report causes the arrest of the person identified in the report, shall be deemed guilty of an offense, and upon conviction thereof shall be sentenced to confinement not to exceed six months and/or to a fine not to exceed $500 or to both such confinement and fine.

(D) Any person who shall make a report of domestic violence knowing that the facts reported are false or misleading may, after notice and hearing, be assessed a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $500.

(E) Any person who fails, neglects, or refuses to report acts of domestic violence known to him/her may, after notice and hearing, be assessed a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $500.

 

Section 13. Liability.

No police officer shall be held criminally or civilly liable for making an arrest authorized by this Chapter, provided he/she acted in good faith and without malice.

 

Section 14. Severability.

If any part or parts, or the application of any part, of this Chapter is held invalid, such holding shall not affect the validity of the remaining parts of this Chapter. The Tribal Council hereby declares that it would have passed the remaining parts of this Chapter even if it had known that such part or parts of application of any part thereof would be declared invalid.

 

CERTIFICATION

The foregoing Ordinance No. 92-0-349-4 was enacted by the Tribal Council of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe on the 2nd day of April, 1992, by a vote of 8 for, 0 against, and 0 abstaining, at a duly called meeting at which a quorum of the Tribal Council members was present.

 

ORDINANCE OF THE TRIBAL COUNCIL

 

Ordinance No. 93-0-020-7

 

Re: Amendment to Domestic Violence Code (Ordinance No. 92-0-349-4)

WHEREAS, the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Council is authorized by Article XI, Section 1 of the Revised Constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe to enact ordinances to promote the health and general welfare of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe; and

WHEREAS, on April 2,1992 the Tribal Council adopted Ordinance No. 92-0-349-4, enacting a Domestic Violence Code; and

WHEREAS, questions have been raised concerning application of the recently enacted Domestic Violence Code and the existing Juvenile Code (Title 5 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code) when a minor commits an act of domestic violence; and

WHEREAS, the Tribal Council has determined that it is in the best interests of the Tribe to clarify the effect of the Domestic Violence Code on the existing Juvenile Code.

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ORDAINED that the Tribal Council of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe hereby adopts the following ordinance as an amendment to Tribal Council Ordinance No. 92-0-349-4, to be codified as Title 3, Chapter 5, Section 15 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code:

 

Title 3, Chapter 5:

Section 15. Violations by Minors.

(A) Whenever a police officer has grounds under Section 4 or Section 11 of this Chapter to arrest a person who is a minor, the officer shall arrest the minor as provided in this Chapter, and the provisions of this Chapter shall govern the arrest and all subsequent proceedings. The following provisions of the Juvenile Code, Title 5 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code, shall not apply to the arrest, detention and prosecution of a minor for violation of this Chapter:

(1) Title 5, Chapter 5 (Temporary Custody; Tribal Police Officer; Warrant).

(2) Title 5, Chapter 6 (Juvenile Officer Investigation; Release).

(3) Title 5, Chapter 7, Section 1 (Detention--Petition and Notice of Hearing).

(4) Title 5, Chapter 7, Section 2 (Detention--Hearing).

(5) Title 5, Chapter 8 (Release of Minor to Home Supervision).

(B) A minor held in custody under this Chapter shall be held in any of the following places:

(1) BIA dormitory.
(2) Juvenile Halfway Home.
(3) Any foster home approved by BIA Social Services.
(4) Any other suitable place.

(C) All civil and criminal proceedings against a minor under this Chapter shall be within the jurisdiction of the Tribal Court rather than the Juvenile Court.

(D) The arrest and prosecution of a minor under this Chapter does not bar proceedings in Juvenile Court under the Juvenile Code, Title 5, Chapter 9, alleging delinquency based on the same acts committed by the minor. Any such delinquency proceeding shall be governed by the Juvenile Code, Title 5 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code.

(E) A civil petition for an order of protection under Section 6 of this Chapter may be filed against a minor who is alleged to have committed an act of domestic violence, and the provisions of this Chapter shall govern all subsequent proceedings in the action.

 

BE IT FURTHER ORDAINED that the Tribal Council of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe hereby amends Title 5, Chapter 22, Section 3 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code to increase the civil penalty for violation of Title 5, Chapter 22, Section 1 to the same level imposed by the Domestic Violence Code, so that the section shall read, as amended:

 

Title 5, Chapter 22:

 

Section 3. Penalty. Any person failing, neglecting, or refusing to report as required herein may be subject to a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed Five Hundred Dollars ($500).

 

CERTIFICATION

The foregoing Ordinance was enacted by the Tribal Council of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe on the 8th day of Ju1y 1992, by a vote of 7 for, 0 against, and 0 abstaining, at a duly called meeting at which a quorum of the Tribal Council members was present.

Jicarilla Apache Mental Health and Social Services
Domestic Violence Program

Proposed Antistalking Code for the Jicarilla Apache Tribe

Jicarilla Apache Tribe

Proposed Ordinance of The Tribal Council

RE: Antistalking Code

 

WHEREAS, the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Council is authorized by Article XI, Section 1 of the Revised Constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe to enact ordinances to promote the health, safety, and general welfare of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe; and

 

WHEREAS, the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Council has determined that stalking, harassing, and intimidation against family members has become a serious social problem on the Reservation and that the existing Domestic Violence Code (Ordinance No. 92-0-349-4) does not adequately protect victims of stalking; and

 

WHEREAS, the Domestic Violence Program in collaboration with the Domestic Violence Planning Committee has developed a draft Antistalking Code to address the deficiencies in the current laws of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe; and

 

WHEREAS, the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Council has reviewed and discussed the draft code and determined that adoption of the Antistalking code is in the best interest of all persons residing within the Jicarilla Apache Reservation.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ORDAINED that the Tribal Council of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe hereby adopts the following ordinance to the codified as Title __, Chapter __ of the Jicarilla Apache Tribal Code:

 

Section 1. Definitions

(a):"Course of Conduct" means repeatedly maintaining a visual or physical proximity to a person or repeatedly conveying verbal or written threats, or threats implied by conduct or a combination thereof directed at or toward a person;

(b):"Repeatedly" means on two or more occasion; and

(c):"Immediate family" means a spouse, parent, child, sibling, live-in partner, or any other person who regularly resides in the household or who within the past six months regularly resided in the household.

 

Section 2. Any person who:

(a) purposefully engages in a cause of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to fear bodily injury, sexual assault, or uninvited intrusion into a residence or place of employment to himself or herself or a member of his or her immediate family or to fear the death of himself or herself or a member of his or her immediate family; and

(b) has knowledge or should have knowledge that the specific person will be placed in reasonable fear of bodily injury, sexual assault, or uninvited intrusion into a residence or place of employment to himself or herself or a member of his or her immediate family or will be placed in reasonable fear of the death of himself or herself or a member of his or her immediate family; and

(c) whose acts induce fear in the specific person of bodily injury, sexual assault, or uninvited intrusion into a residence or place of employment to himself or herself or a member of his or her immediate family or induce fear in the specific person of the death of himself or herself or a member of his or her immediate family; is guilty of stalking.

 

Section 3. Crime of Stalking

(a) Any person who shall knowingly commit an act of stalking as defined by Section 2 of this Chapter shall be deemed guilty of the offense of stalking and upon conviction thereof shall be sentenced to confinement not to exceed six months and/or to a fine not to exceed Five Hundred Dollars ($500) or to both such confinement and fine.

(b) In addition to or in lieu of the imposition of such confinement and/or fine, the court shall order the person convicted of the offense of stalking to participate in a domestic violence treatment program as defined in Chapter 5, Section 5 of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe Domestic Violence Code.

(c) All provisions, mandates, and definitions as stated in Ordinance No. 92-0-349-4 (The Jicarilla Apache Tribe Domestic Violence Code), Chapter 5, Sections 1 through 14 inclusive shall be equally applied and enforced with regards to the crime of stalking as to the crime of domestic violence.

 

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