Diamagnetism General Specifications

Whether an object will or will not levitate in a magnetic field B is defined by the balance between the magnetic force F = MnablaB and gravity mg = rhoV g where rho is the material density, V is the volume and g = 9.8m/s2. The magnetic moment M = (chi/ 0)VB so that F = (chi/0)BVnablaB = (chi/20)VnablaB2. Therefore, the vertical field gradient nablaB2 required for levitation has to be larger than 20 rhog/chi. Molecular susceptibilities chi are typically 10-5 for diamagnetics and 10-3 for paramagnetic materials and, since rho is most often a few g/cm3, their magnetic levitation requires field gradients ~1000 and 10 T2/m, respectively. Taking l = 10cm as a typical size of high-field magnets and nablaB2 ~ B2/l as an estimate, we find that fields of the order of 1 and 10T are sufficient to cause levitation of para- and diamagnetics. This result should not come as a surprise because, as we know, magnetic fields of less than 0.1T can levitate a superconductor (chi= -1) and, from the formulas above, the magnetic force increases as B2.


Aerogel Technical Specifications

Property       Value

Apparent density:   0.003-0.35 g/cc
Internal surface area:   600-1000m2/g
% solids:   0.13-15%
Mean pore diameters:   ~20 nm
Primary particle diameter:   2-5 nm
Index of refraction:   1-1.05
Thermal tolerance:   to 500 C
Coefficient of thermal expansion:   2-4x10-6
Poisson ratio:   0.2
Young's modulus:   106-107N/m2
Tensile strength:   16 kPa
Fracture toughness:   0.8 kPa*m0.5
Dielectric constant:   1.1
Sound velocity through medium:   100 m/s


Superconducting Material Specifications

The major applications of high-temperature superconductors have mostly been confined to products in the form of wires and thin films. However, recent developments show that rare-earth REBa2Cu3O7-x and light rare-earth LREBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical-current density at 77 K and high magnetic fields. These superconductors will promote the application of bulk high-temperature superconductors in high magnetic fields; the superconducting bulk magnet for the Magnetic Levitation in Electrogravitational Inductor Systems is one possible application.


Laminate


Layers of Diamagnetic, Superconducting and Aerogel / Cellulytic materials which have been bonded together by the use of heat, pressure and, possibly, adhesive.

Tolerances

Thickness: 10%
Size (linear dimension): less than 100mm 1mm
greater than100mm +2% / -1%

The Electrical Machine Designed for the Application of the Special Function of Cyclic Diamagnetic Electrogravitation

© 2001 Nikola Romanski
The Electrical Machine Designed for the Application of the Special Function of Cyclic Diamagnetic Electrogravitation
© 2001 Nikola Romanski
© 2001 Nikola Romanski