The LPIC-2 Exam Prep

Wim-Jan Hilgenbos

Alain van Hoof

Heinrich W. Klöpping

Beno T.J. Mesman

Piet W. Plomp

Willem A. Schreuder


People that want to pass the LPIC-2 exam. You need to have at least 2 years of practical experience with Unix, preferably Linux. Though you may take the LPIC-2 exam without it, you should be an LPIC-1 alumni to be allowed to the titles and rights that come with the LPIC-2 certification.


We wanted to create a set of documents that can help us and others to pass the LPIC-2 exams. This book will contain all the information (and more) needed to pass the exam.

The latest version of this book can be downloaded at:


Our sources of information were (Open Source) materials on the Internet, several books, practical experience of the authors and others and research done by the authors. We try to give credit where it is due, but are fallible. We apologize.


Most of this document is a quotation of other peoples work. Where possible and allowed we tried to copy their work literally. On some occasions we had to alter the texts to fit their new context. We tried to give proper credit to the original authors and have included pointers to the original texts in the bibliography. While every precaution was made in the preparation of this book, we can assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. When you feel we have not given you proper credit, when you feel we may have violated your rights, or when you have suggestions how we may improve our work, please notify us immediately, so we can take corrective actions.

Organization of this book:

This book is organised in order of the LPI Level 2 Topics, draft 4, August 11th, 2001 and written using the DocBook documentation standard.

Copyright © 2001 Henk Klöpping. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

Table of Contents
1. * Linux Kernel (2.201)
Kernel Components (2.201.1)
Different types of kernel images
Identifying stable and development kernels and patches
Using kernel modules
* Compiling a Kernel (2.201.2)
Getting the kernel sources
Creating a .config file
Compiling the kernel
Installing the new kernel
* Patching a Kernel (2.201.3)
* Customizing a Kernel (2.201.4)
* Debugging a Kernel Compile (2.201.5)
2. *System Startup (202.2)
* Customising system startup and boot processes (2.202.1)
* System recovery (2.202.2)
3. Filesystem (2.203)
Operating The Linux Filesystem (2.203.1)
The File Hierarchy
Creating Filesystems
Mounting and Unmounting
Maintaining a Linux Filesystem (2.203.2)
fsck (fsck.e2fs)
Creating And Configuring Filesystem Options (2.203.4)
Autofs and automounter
CDROM filesystem
4. Hardware (2.204)
Configuring RAID (2.204.1)
What is RAID?
RAID levels
Hardware RAID
Software RAID
Configuring RAID
Adding New Hardware (2.204.2)
Find out what you have
Configuring output devices
Configuring USB devices
Configuring serial devices
Configuring PCI devices
Configuring disks
Software And Kernel Configuration (2.204.3)
Configure kernel options
Logical Volume Management
Configuring PCMCIA Devices (2.204.4)
Card Services for Linux
The stab file
cardctl and cardinfo
5. *Networking (2.205)
*Basic Networking Configuration (2.205.1)
*Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting (2.205.2)
6. *Mail & News (2.206)
*Configuring mailing lists (2.206.1)
*Using Sendmail (2.206.2)
*Managing Mail Traffic (2.206.3)
*Serving news (2.206.4)
7. *DNS (2.207)
*Basic BIND 8 configuration (2.207.1)
*Create And Maintain DNS Zones (2.207.2)
*Securing a DNS Server (2.207.3)
8. *Web Services (2.208)
*Implementing a Web Server (2.208.1)
Installing the Apache webserver
Open SSL
Apache access_log file
Monitoring Apache load and performance
*Restricting client user access
*configuring mod_perl and PHP support
*Setting up client user authentication
*Configuring Apache server options
*Maintaining a Web Server (2.208.2)
*Implementing a Proxy Server (2.208.3)
9. *File and Service Sharing (2.209)
*Configuring a Samba Server (2.209.1)
*Configuring an NFS Server (2.209.2)
LPIC 2 objective 209.2
NFS - The Network File System
Setting up NFS
*Testing NFS
*Securing NFS
*Overview of NFS components
NFS protocol versions
NFS LPIC-2 Objectives revisited
10. *Network Client Management (2.210)
*DHCP Configuration (2.210.1)
*NIS configuration (2.210.2)
*LDAP configuration (2.210.3)
*PAM authentication (2.210.4)
11. *System Maintenance (2.211)
*System Logging (2.211.1)
*Packaging Software (2.211.2)
*Backup Operations (2.211.3)
12. *System Security (2.212)
*Configuring a router (2.212)
*Securing FTP servers (2.212.3)
*Secure shell (OpenSSH) (2.212.4)
*TCP_wrapper (2.212.5)
*Security tasks (2.212.6)
13. *System Customization and Automation (2.213)
*Automating tasks using scripts (2.213.1)
14. *Troubleshooting (2.214)
*Creating recovery disks (2.214.2)
*Identifying boot stages (2.214.3)
*Troubleshooting LILO (2.214.4)
LILO errors
*General troubleshooting (2.214.5)
*modprobe et al
*Troubleshooting system resources (2.214.6)
*Troubleshooting network issues (2.214.7)
*Troubleshooting environment configurations (2.214.8)
15. *0.00 The Demo Chapter
*Objectiv-nr/subnr Title
A. GNU Free Documentation License
B. LPIC Level 2 Objectives
List of Tables
4-1. Commonly used lspci parameters
4-2. Commonly used setserial parameters
4-3. cardctl commands
9-1. Kernel options for NFS
9-2. Some options for the nfsstat program
9-3. Overview of NFS related programs and files
9-4. Overview of NFS protocol versions
B-1. LPIC Level 2 Objectives And Their Relative Weight
List of Figures
4-1. LVM concepts in ASCII art