FINA CONSTITUTION
  FINA HANDBOOK
. CONSTITUTION
GENERAL RULES
BY-LAWS
SWIMMING RULES
OPEN WATER SWIMMING RULES
DIVING RULES
WATER POLO RULES
SYNCHRONISED SWIMMING RULES
MASTERS RULES
FACILITIES RULES
DOPING RULES
MEDICAL RULES

FINA CONSITUTION
New rules 2001-2002

FINA is the world-wide Swimming sports governing organization.

Table of Contents
C 1    Name
C 2    Discrimination
C 3    Objectives
C 4    Language
C 5    Membership
C 6    Rights and Duties of Members
C 7    Application for Membership
C 8    Termination of Membership
C 9    Fees
C 10  Sanctions
C 11  The Organization of FINA
C 12  Continental Organisations
C 13  General Congress
C 14  Technical Congress
C 15  Bureau
C 16  Standing Committees (SC)
C 17  Powers and Duties (SC)
C 18  Doping Control Review Board
C 19  Doping Panel
C 20  Ad Hoc Committees
C 21  Financial Monitoring and Control
C 22  Arbitration Court
C 23  Printing of Rules



C 1  NAME

The name of the federation shall be FEDERATION INTERNATIONALE DE NATATION, hereinafter known as FINA.

C 1.1  The site of FINA shall be located in the City of Lausanne, Switzerland.

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C 2  DISCRIMINATION

FINA shall not allow any discrimination against national Federations or individuals (competitors, officials, judges, delegates, etc.) on the grounds of race, sex, religion, or political affiliations.

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C 3  OBJECTIVES

The objectives of FINA are:

C 3.1  to promote and encourage the development of Swimming in all possible manifestations throughout the world,

C 3.2  to provide drug free sport,

C 3.3  to promote and encourage the development of international relations,

C 3.4  to adopt necessary uniform rules and regulations to hold competitions in Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, Synchronised Swimming, and Masters,

C 3.5  to organise World Championships and FINA events, and

C 3.6  to increase the number of facilities for Swimming throughout the world.

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C 4  LANGUAGE

C 4.1  The official languages of FINA shall be English and French.  The working language shall be English. Any other language may be used in correspondence or debate providing that adequate translation is provided. In cases of doubt, the English language shall prevail.

C 4.2  Whenever the fact or context so requires in order to give effect to the FINA Constitution and Rules, words in the singular shall include the plural, words in the plural shall include the singular; words of the masculine, feminine or neuter gender shall include any gender, except in the specification of a competition being for male or female competitors; and correction of any manifestly evident clerical errors shall be made.

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C 5  MEMBERSHIP

C 5.1  The national body governing Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, Synchronised Swimming, and Masters in any Country or Sport Country shall be eligible for membership in FINA (Member).

"Sport Country" means a geographical territory or region which, though not recognised as a country, has certain aspects of self‑government at least to the extent in being autonomous in the control of its sports, and is recognised as such by FINA.

C 5.2  The constitution and rules of a Member must not be in conflict with those of FINA.

C 5.3  Each Member shall acknowledge in its national rules that FINA is the only recognised body in the world which governs Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, Synchronised Swimming, and Masters internationally.

C 5.4  A Member Federation may choose to organise itself by delegations to one or more separate organisations the responsibility for particular disciplines, so long as the Member Federation gives notice to FINA of the identity of each such organisation and assumes all ultimate responsibility for the actions of such organisations.

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C 6  RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF MEMBERS

C 6.1  All Members are entitled

    C 6.1.1  to use the services of FINA,

    C 6.1.2  to take part in FINA World Championships and FINA events when they are eligible, and

    C 6.1.3  to be recognised as the only Swimming governing body of its Country or Sport Country, by everybody, including its National Olympic Committee.

C 6.2  All Members are obliged

    C 6.2.1  to support FINA in its efforts to achieve its objectives,

    C 6.2.2  to act in accordance with the decisions of the FINA Congress and the FINA Bureau,

    C 6.2.3  to pay the annual fee, and

    C 6.2.4  to include within its constitution a provision, which allows out-of-competition doping, control by FINA.

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C 7  APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP

C 7.1  Application for membership shall be submitted to the Bureau with

    C 7.1.1  a statement of the name of the national body which must reflect the territorial extent, jurisdiction, and tradition of that Country or Sport Country,

    C 7.1.2  a copy of the constitution and rules of the body applying for membership, and

    C 7.1.3  the appropriate affiliation fee.

C 7.2  The Bureau shall have the power to approve the applicant for membership.  If such membership is not accepted, the applicant is allowed to appeal this decision.  In this case, the next General Congress shall decide.  That decision shall be final.

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C 8  TERMINATION OF MEMBERSHIP

C 8.1  Any affiliation to FINA ends

    C 8.1.1  if the Member no longer exists,

    C 8.1.2  if the Member withdraws its affiliation, or

    C 8.1.3  if the Member is expelled.

C 8.2  Any Member who wants to withdraw its affiliation to FINA shall give written notice thereof to the Honorary Secretary.  The affiliation ends immediately, but no refunds of fees will be made.

C 8.3  The Bureau shall have the power to expel a Member for significant violation of the Constitution and/or Rules of FINA.  The respective Member is allowed to appeal this decision.  In this case, the next General Congress shall make the final decision.

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C 9  FEES

Each Member of FINA must pay an annual affiliation fee.  The General Congress shall fix the amount of payment.  If payment is not received when it is due, the Member may be suspended or unaffiliated in accordance with the By-Laws.

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C 10  SANCTIONS

C 10.1  Any Member or individual member of a Member may be sanctioned.

    C 10.1.1  if duties to FINA are not fulfilled, or

    C 10.1.2  in case of violation of the Constitution, Rules, and/or decisions of the Congresses, or

    C 10.1.3  for bringing the sport into disrepute

C 10.2  Sanctions are:

    C 10.2.1  warning

    C 10.2.2  fine

    C 10.2.3  suspension

    C 10.2.4  expulsion

C 10.3  Sanctions shall be imposed by the FINA Executive.

              C 10.4  Any sanction imposed on a competitor or a person by a Member or by a FINA recognised body shall be recognised and complied with by all Members.

C 10.5  In cases in consequence of doping control, sanctions shall be applied by the FINA Doping Panel, Rule C 17.1 - 9.

C 10.6  Before any Member or individual is sanctioned, except in the case of C. 9, the individual or a representative of the Member must be given the right to appear before the Executive either in person or in writing.  The Honorary Secretary of FINA shall inform the respective Member about this right, in writing, in sufficient time to allow the Member or individual to exercise this right.

C 10.7  Sanctions shall be in force immediately upon the decision being made unless the deciding body rules otherwise.

C 10.8  Appeals

    C 10.8.1  A Member or individual sanctioned by the Executive may appeal to the Bureau.      

    C 10.8.2  An appeal shall be submitted to the Honorary Secretary of FINA not later than one month after the sanction has been received by the Member or individual sanctioned.

    C 10.8.3  An appeal against a decision by the Bureau or the FINA Doping Panel shall be referred to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), Lausanne, Switzerland, within the same term as in C 10.8.2. The only appeal from a decision of the Doping Panel shall be to the CAS.  The CAS shall also have exclusive jurisdiction over interlocutory orders and no other court or tribunal shall have authority to issue interlocutory orders relating to matters before the CAS. Decisions by the CAS shall be final and binding, subject only to the provisions of the Swiss Private International Law Act, section 190.

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C 11  THE ORGANIZATION OF FINA

C 11.1  The following entities are established to govern and administer FINA:

                                                the General Congress,

                                                the Technical Congress,

                                                the Bureau,

                                                the Standing Committees,

                                                the Ad Hoc Committees, and

                                                the Arbitration Court.

C12  CONTINENTAL ORGANISATIONS

C 12.1  The following continental bodies are recognised by FINA:

Confédération Africaine de Natation Amateur

Amateur Swimming Union of the Americas

Asian Amateur Swimming Federation
Ligue Européenne de Natation

Oceania Swimming Association
provided their statutes comply with the conditions in C 12.2.

C 12.2  The Constitution of Continental Associations must be approved by the Bureau to ensure that they are not in conflict with those of FINA.

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C 13  GENERAL CONGRESS

C 13.1  The General Congress is the highest authority of FINA and shall have the power to decide upon any matters arising in FINA, except those belonging to the authority of the Technical Congress.  Decisions by the Technical Congress may, however, be overruled by the General Congress.  The Bureau may decide to consider proposals relating to Technical Rules as well as other proposals.

C 13.2  The General Congress of FINA shall consist of:

    C 13.2.1  two duly appointed delegates of each affiliated Member.  Each delegate shall have one vote, provided, however, where a Member is represented by only one delegate, such delegate shall be entitled to two votes.  Notice of the appointment of delegates, certified in writing by the Member they represent, must be lodged with the FINA Honorary Secretary prior to the commencement of the Congress.

    C 13.2.2  all members of the Bureau without vote,

    C 13.2.3  the Honorary Life President without vote, and

    C 13.2.4  all Honorary Members without vote.

C 13.3  The President of FINA shall preside at all Congress meetings or in his absence one of the Vice-Presidents appointed by the Bureau.

C 13.4  The Congress shall be convened every four years, preferably on the occasion of the Olympic Games.  The Honorary Secretary shall inform the Members not later than twelve (12) months ahead of the exact date fixed for the Congress concerned.  The Honorary Secretary shall send an invitation to all Members, together with the agenda for the Congress and the reports as in C13.8.2 and C13.8.3 below and together with all duly submitted motions and applications at least three (3) months prior to the date fixed for the meeting.

C 13.5  A special or extraordinary meeting of the Congress shall be convened by a decision of the Bureau or upon receipt of a written request of one‑third of the Members.  The Honorary Secretary shall call such a meeting, not to be held earlier than five (5) months from the date of the notice, which shall state the reason for the meeting.  No subject shall be discussed at the special meeting other than the matters stated in the requisition.  The quorum shall be twenty (20) Members.  Should there be no quorum present, the motion shall be deemed to have been lost and shall not be raised again until the next ordinary meeting of the Congress.

C 13.6  The General Congress may, in order to reward exceptional merit in or service for the advancement of international Swimming, elect an Honorary Life President, who shall be a member of the Bureau without vote.  The General Congress may also elect Honorary Members.

C 13.7  The General Congress has a quorum if more than half of the Members are represented.  If a quorum is not present at the previously‑announced opening time of the Congress, the meeting shall not open until one hour later, at which time the quorum shall not be fewer than forty (40) Members.  Decisions by the Congress are made on vote of a majority of those Members present and voting.

C 13.8  At each regular General Congress the following items shall be included on the agenda:

    C 13.8.1  declaration of a quorum,

    C 13.8.2  report of the Bureau on its activities during the time since the previous Congress,

    C 13.8.3  financial report of the Honorary Treasurer,

    C 13.8.4  releasing the previous Bureau from responsibility,

    C 13.8.5 proposals for changes and amendments of the FINA Constitution and General Rules,

    C 13.8.6  election of Bureau members in accordance with C 14.4 and Officers, and

    C 13.8.7  other business for which notice has been given.

C 13.9  Motions, applications and proposals for alteration of or addition to the Constitution or General Rules of FINA shall be considered only if submitted by a Member or by the Bureau.  All motions, applications, and proposals to be considered by the General Congress must reach the Honorary Secretary at least eight (8) calendar months prior to the Congress and must appear on the agenda given to the Members in accordance with C13.4.  On a motion of urgency approved by a two‑thirds majority of those delegates present and voting, the Congress may deal with new proposals not appearing on the agenda.

C 13.10  Any alteration of or addition to the Constitution agreed upon by the Congress shall become effective immediately unless otherwise determined at the time of such approval.  Any alteration of or addition to the General Rules agreed upon by the Congress shall not become effective earlier than two (2) months after the decision has been made.

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C 14  TECHNICAL CONGRESS

C 14.1  The Technical Congress is authorised to decide upon all technical matters concerning the competitive sport in Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, Synchronised Swimming, and Masters and shall have the power to determine the Technical Rules of FINA.

C 14.2  The Congress shall be convened every four years, preferably on the occasion of the World Championships.  The Honorary Secretary shall inform the Members not later than twelve (12) months ahead of the exact date fixed for the Congress concerned.  The Honorary Secretary shall send an invitation to all Members, together with all duly submitted motions and applications at least three (3) months prior to the date fixed for the meeting.

C 14.3  The Technical Congress shall consist of:

    C 14.3.1  two duly appointed delegates of each affiliated Member, if the Congress is divided into separate meetings for individual disciplines.  If the Congress is for the four disciplines jointly, each affiliated Member may appoint up to four delegates.  Notice of the appointment of delegates, certified in writing by the Member they represent, must be lodged with the FINA Honorary Secretary prior to the commencement of the Congress.  In each Technical Congress, each Member has two votes, no matter how many delegates.

    C 14.3.2  all members of the Bureau without vote,

    C 14.3.3  the Honorary Life President without vote,

    C 14.3.4  all Honorary Members without vote, and

    C 14.3.5  all members of the respective Technical Committee without vote.

C 14.4  The President of FINA shall preside at all Congress meetings, or in his absence one of the Vice-Presidents appointed by the Bureau.

C 14.5  The Technical Congress has a quorum if at least twenty (20) Members are represented.

C 14.6  At each Technical Congress the following items shall be included on the agenda:

    C 14.6.1  declaration of a quorum,

    C 14.6.2  proposals of changes and amendments of the Technical Rules, and

    C 14.6.3  other technical business for which notice has been given.

C 14.7  Motions, applications, and proposals for alteration of or addition to the Technical Rules shall be considered only if submitted by a Member, by the Bureau, or by the respective Technical Committee.  All motions, applications and proposals to be considered by the Technical Congress must reach the Honorary Secretary at least eight (8) calendar months prior to the Congress and must appear on the agenda given to the Members in accordance with C 14.2.  On a motion of urgency approved by a two‑thirds majority of those delegates present and voting, the Congress may deal with new proposals not appearing on agenda.

C 14.8  Any alteration of or addition to the Technical Rules agreed upon by the Congress shall not become effective earlier than two (2) months after the decision has been made.

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C 15  BUREAU

C 15.1  The Bureau shall consist of:

    C 15.1.1  the President,

    C 15.1.2  five Vice-Presidents,

    C 15.1.3  the Honorary Secretary,

    C 15.1.4  the Honorary Treasurer, and

    C 15.1.5  fourteen additional members.

    C 15.1.6  The Honorary Life President, the Immediate Past President, the Immediate Past Honorary Secretary, and the Immediate Past Honorary Treasurer are also members of the Bureau, but without vote. The Immediate Past President, the Immediate Past Honorary Secretary and the Immediate Past Honorary Treasurer shall stay as such only for one term of four (4) years. 

             C 15.2  The Bureau shall be elected by the General Congress.  All the Bureau members, except the Honorary Life President, the Immediate Past President, the Immediate Past Honorary Secretary, and the Immediate Past Honorary Treasurer, shall be of different Countries or Sport Countries.  Candidates for Bureau membership shall be proposed by the Member from which they come.  Persons not actually in attendance may be elected if a written declaration of consent is presented.

C 15.3  The Congress shall elect on the basis of geographical representation fifteen (15) members as follows:

    C 15.3.1  three (3) from Africa,

    C 15.3.2  four (4) from America,

    C 15.3.3  three (3) from Asia,

    C 15.3.4  four (4) from Europe,

    C 15.3.5  one (1) from Oceania.

For this election, only the Members of the respective continent may nominate and vote on their candidates. Another seven (7) members shall be elected from the world at‑large, not exceeding one (1) from Africa, one (1) from Asia, one (1) from Oceania, two (2) from the Americas and two (2) from Europe.

C 15.4  The Congress shall elect from among those twenty two (22) Bureau Members

    C 15.4.1  the President,

    C 15.4.2  five (5) Vice-Presidents who shall be elected on the basis of continental representation, one for each of the continents of Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania.  At the election of the Vice-Presidents only the members of respective continents may nominate and vote on their candidates.

    C 15.4.3  the Honorary Secretary, and

    C 15.4.4  the Honorary Treasurer.

C 15.5  The Executive Committee shall consist of the President, the Honorary Secretary and the Honorary Treasurer.

C 15.6  Twelve (12) members with vote shall form a quorum at any meeting of the Bureau.  The members of the Bureau shall serve until their successors are elected and take office.

C 15.7  The members of the outgoing Bureau, will be eligible as candidates for any position within the incoming Bureau. The President, the Honorary Secretary, and the Honorary Treasurer of the outgoing Bureau, if not re‑elected to such posts, or not elected to other posts, shall remain as members of the incoming Bureau, only without votes, as Immediate Past President, Immediate Past Honorary Secretary, and Immediate Past Honorary Treasurer.

C 15.8  The travel and hotel expenses of the Bureau shall be paid by FINA.

C 15.9  The Bureau shall have the authority to fill any vacancy which occurs through death or resignation of any member of the Bureau elected in accordance with C 15.3 or of any Committee member, subject to compliance with the appropriate geographical representation set out in C 15.3

C 15.10  Where a Bureau member has been absent from two consecutive meetings without reasons acceptable to the Bureau, the Bureau shall have the right to declare that such a member has forfeited his membership.  The Bureau according to C 15.9 may then fill the vacancy.

C 15.11  Rights and duties of the Bureau shall include the following:

    C 15.11.1  to discuss and make decisions on all matters assigned to them by the Congresses,

    C 15.11.2  to interpret and enforce the Rules of FINA, subject to confirmation at the next meeting of the Congress,

    C 15.11.3  to decide and take action on any matter pertaining to the affairs of FINA, subject to confirmation at the next meeting of the Congress,

    C 15.11.4  to submit proposals to the Congress,

    C 15.11.5  to decide on and publish administrative by‑laws, including time and manner of payment of any financial obligations,

    C 15.11.6  to decide on and publish regulations for FINA events,

    C 15.11.7  to decide on FINA awards,

    C 15.11.8  to make decisions in case of emergency, subject to ratification by the Congress at its next meeting,

    C 15.11.9  to approve the title of International Referee, Starter, or Judge on presentation of registered and certified candidates by the FINA Technical Committees. These titles are to be awarded to the Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, and Synchronised Swimming referees, starters, and judges who have received satisfactory marks for their officiating at major international competitions,

    C 15.11.10  to establish rules of order for the meetings of the Congress, Bureau, Technical Committees, etc., provided that they will not be in opposition to the Constitution of FINA,

    C 15.11.11  to determine the dates and sites of World Championships and FINA events and to organise and control all Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, and Synchronised Swimming competitions at the Olympic Games, World Championships, and FINA events,

    C 15.11.12  to instruct the FINA Committees and control their activities,

    C 15.11.13  to appoint delegates to the Olympic Games, World Championships, FINA events, and other international competitions.  The Organising Committee must guarantee proper accreditation.  The responsibilities of the delegates are to observe the organisation and to report back to the FINA Bureau, and

    C 15.11.14  to hire staff persons to execute the operations of the FINA Office.

C 15.12  The FINA Bureau is not authorised to make any changes in the Constitution, General Rules, or Technical Rules.

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C 16  STANDING COMMITTEES

C 16.1  Standing Committees of FINA are:

    C 16.1.1  the Technical Swimming Committee,

    C 16.1.2  the Technical Open Water Swimming Committee,

    C 16.1.3  the Technical Diving Committee,

    C 16.1.4  the Technical Water Polo Committee,

    C 16.1.5  the Technical Synchronised Swimming Committee,

    C 16.1.6  the Masters Committee, and

    C 16.1.7  the Sports Medicine Committee

C 16.2  The Standing Committees shall consist of twelve (12) members, each from different Member Federations, except for the Sports Medicine Committee, which shall consist of six (6) members, each of them from different Member Federations.  They shall be appointed by the Bureau at its first meeting, subject to the approval of their Member.  Only those persons may be appointed members of a Committee who are recognised experts in the respective sport, possess comprehensive experience as an athlete, doctor, judge, official, trainer, or teacher and are capable of, and interested in, actively and regularly attending the meetings of the Committee and co-operating on it.

C 16.3  The officers of each committee shall be a Chairman, a Vice‑Chairman, and an Honorary Secretary, appointed by the Bureau.

C 16.4  The Committees shall meet whenever there is business to be transacted, all meetings being subject to the approval of the Bureau.

C 16.5  Seven (7) members shall form a quorum at any meeting of the Committee.

C 16.6  Where a member of any Committee has been absent from two consecutive meetings without reasons acceptable to the Bureau, the Bureau shall have the right to declare that such a member has forfeited his membership.  The Bureau according to C 15.9, C 16.2 and BL 5 shall then fill the vacancy.

C 16.7  For any Committee, the Bureau may appoint ex officio a Bureau member who shall ensure necessary communication between the Bureau and the Committee (Bureau Liaison).

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C 17  POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE STANDING COMMITTEES

C 17.1  The powers and duties of the Technical Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, Synchronised Swimming and Masters Committees are:

    C 17.1.1  to analyse the requirement for improvements of the Technical Rules for Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, Synchronised Swimming and Masters, and to consider corresponding proposals received from any Member.  The Committee submits in these cases recommendations to the Bureau or makes its own proposals for additions or amendments to the Technical Rules to the Technical Congress.

    C 17.1.2  to consider and decide upon any matter affecting their particular responsibility, which may be referred to them by the Bureau or the Congress.

    C 17.1.3  to appoint sub‑committees, if required, to investigate, study, and recommend to the parent committee any matters referred to such sub‑committee.  The members of a sub-committee may be persons selected from outside the parent committee membership.

    C 17.1.4  to investigate, study, and recommend on matters dealing with standard equipment and specifications of competitive pools for Olympic Games or international competitions.

    C 17.1.5  to evaluate and make recommendations regarding candidates, having been nominated by Members, for the title of international referee, starter or judge to be selected by the Bureau.

    C 17.1.6  to appoint one or more of its members to report on the qualifications of any person recommended as an international referee, judge, or starter and to report periodically on the continued qualifications of referees, judges, or starters on the existing list.

    C 17.1.7  to receive and report to the FINA Bureau on any complaint made by referees regarding misconduct of individuals in international competitions and to make recommendation thereon.

    C 17.1.8  to take part in the technical preparations and in the conduct of the competitions in their discipline at the Olympic Games, World Championships and FINA Events.

    C 17.1.9  The Bureau shall ensure participation of the committees in the preparation of the meetings of the Bureau with regard to such tasks that fall within their areas of responsibility. For that purpose, they shall have the right to submit reports, suggestions, recommendations and comments. The Chairman or authorised members of the Committee may be heard at the meeting of the Bureau on the respective issue. The Committees shall be involved in the technical preparations of the competitions at the Olympic Games, World Championships, and FINA events.

C 17.2  The powers and duties of the Masters Committee are:

    C 17.2.1  to receive and analyse recommendations for revisions to Masters Rules,

    C 17.2.2  to produce their own recommendations to the Bureau, and

    C 17.2.3  to consider and decide upon any matters affecting their particular responsibility which may be referred to them by the Bureau and/or the Congress.

C 17.3  The powers and duties of the Sports Medicine Committee are:

    C 17.3.1  to provide medical and sport science expertise to the Bureau and to give recommendations on any matter regarding sport science.

    C 17.3.2  to consider the development of the medical, sanitary, and medical control rules and to submit proposals for legislation to the Bureau.

    C 17.3.3  to give recommendations on any matter regarding healthful conditions in the practice of Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo, Synchronised Swimming and Masters.

C 17.4  All recommendations or decisions made by a Standing Committee require the approval of the Bureau before becoming effective.

C 17.5  The Bureau may approve administrative expenses and may decide upon any travel expenses to be paid by FINA.

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C 18  DOPING CONTROL REVIEW BOARD

C 18. 1  The FINA Doping Control Review Board (DCRB) shall consist of eight persons appointed by the Bureau.  No two members of the DCRB shall be from the same Country or Sport Country.  A majority of the Members of the DCRB shall be either physicians licensed in internal medicine, endocrinology, clinical pharmacology or sports medicine, with specific training in interpretation of urine steroid profiles, or analytical chemists with experience in IOC laboratories or their equivalent.

C 18.2  A person may not serve on the DCRB if he or she has any other responsibilities for FINA.

C 18.3  The Bureau shall appoint a chair of the DCRB from among the members of the DCRB.

C 18.4  The DCRB may act by majority vote or through responsibilities delegated by majority vote to a particular member or members of the DCRB.

C 18.5  The DCRB may review and make recommendations to the Bureau regarding FINA's doping control program and may make proposals for additions or amendments to the Doping Control Rules for consideration by the Congress.

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C 19  DOPING PANEL

C 19.1  The FINA Doping Panel shall consist of six persons.  No two members of the Doping Panel shall be from the same Country or Sport Country.  Members of the Doping Panel shall serve for a period of four years, or until their successors are appointed.

C 19.2  The outgoing President shall select six (6) persons to form the FINA Doping Panel. They shall be known for their ability, their impartiality and their knowledge and experience of doping matters, of FINA disciplines and sport in general. At least four (4) of them shall also have legal training and experience. The outgoing Bureau shall confirm the Doping Panel and appoint one of the members to be Chairman. The General Congress shall confirm the Doping Panel.

C 19.3  A person may not serve on the Doping Panel if he or she:

      (a) is a member of the Bureau or of a Standing Committee of FINA, or

      (b) cannot speak English or French.

C 19.4  If a member of the FINA Doping Panel should die or retire, a replacement shall be decided in accordance with Rule C 19.2.

C 19.5  The Doping Panel shall hear all controversies regarding doping control within FINA and shall apply sanctions in accordance with FINA Rule DC 9 to those individuals or Member Federations who are found to be in violation of FINA's Rules relating to doping control.

C 19.6  Where testing has indicated the presence of a banned substance, or there is suspicion or evidence of the use of a banned technique or other violation of FINA Rules relating to doping control, the Chair of the Doping Panel shall appoint three persons from the Doping Panel to adjudicate all matters before it.  No member of the Doping Panel shall be appointed to hear a specific case when he or she is a citizen of the country of the competitor suspected of violating FINA Rules; the Chair of the Doping Panel may also determine situations in which a Panel member should not be named as due to other potential conflicts.

C 19.7  Where a Member federation has held a hearing under DC 8, and the FINA Executive believes that in the conduct or conclusions of such hearing the Member federation has misinterpreted FINA Rules or otherwise reached an erroneous conclusion, the Executive may call for a hearing before a Doping Panel.

C 19.8  Where testing has indicated the presence of a banned substance or there is suspicion or evidence of a violation of FINA Rules relating to doping control, and, contrary to DC 8, a Member federation refuses to allow a competitor a hearing, the competitor may demand a hearing on the issues raised before a FINA Doping Panel.

C 19.9  Where testing by another sporting body has indicated the presence of a banned substance, and the competitor considers that the decision of the other sporting body is unsatisfactory and should not be relied upon, the competitor may demand a hearing before a FINA Doping Panel.

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C 20  AD HOC COMMITTEES

The Bureau shall be entitled to nominate any kind of Ad Hoc Committee or Working Commission when it is considered appropriate.

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C 21  FINANCIAL MONITORING AND CONTROL

C 21.1  The fiscal year of FINA is the calendar year.  For each calendar year the Honorary Treasurer shall establish a statement of accounts.  These annual statements of accounts shall be audited by a Certified Public Accountant and need the approval of the FINA Bureau.

C 21.2  The statement of accounts at the end of the fourth year and the four‑year statement of results, established by the Honorary Treasurer and audited by a Certified Public Accountant, shall be sent to all Members.

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C 22  ARBITRATION COURT

Disputes between FINA and any of its Members or individual members of Members or between Members of FINA that are not resolved by a FINA Bureau decision may be referred for arbitration by either of the involved parties to the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS), Lausanne. Any decision made by the Arbitration Court shall be final and binding on the parties concerned.

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C 23  PRINTING OF RULES

All Rules of FINA are solely for the benefit of Members and may be reprinted or translated by Members under their responsibility, with the understanding that in all cases where the translated text differs in interpretation, the English version shall be accepted.  Any other organisations desiring to publish these Rules shall obtain the permission of FINA.

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