Magical Fraternities in Marin

The last quarter of the 20th century saw a revived interest in ceremonial magic that closely paralleled the same occurrence in the last quarter of the 19th century. There has been a revived interest in late 19th century magical groups such as the Golden Dawn, and the early 20th century Ordo Templi Orientis. While Marin County appears to have missed the original wave of Victorian interest in such groups, by the start of the 21st century interest in them appears to be growing.

The "original" Victorian interest seems, in part, to have been an outgrowth of public interest in all things Egyptian or Arabic. The opening of the Near East ("Occident") to the West followed closely on the heals of the Napoleon's discoveries in Egypt, the Egyptian Revival movement in architecture, and was fueled by archeological discoveries in the Near East which aided the publication of such works as: Sir Austin Henry Layard's publications including Nineveh and its Remains (1849) and Discoveries Among the Remains of Nineveh and Babylon (1859); Diplomat and Assyriologist Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson's publications including Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1846) and The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia (5 vol., 1861-84); Cambridge Antiquarian C.W. Goodwin's Commentary on Egyptian Papyrus XCVIII (1864); Sir A.E. Wallis Budge's, Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum, publication of The Mummy: Chapters on Egyptian Funeral Archeology (1873), Egyptian Magic (1899) and the Egyptian Book of the Dead (1899); Gaston Maspero, The Dawn of Civilization (1894):and Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough (1890). Fraternal organizations with mock Near Eastern themes may have received some of their initial impetus from then current popular books and music: The first poetical tale in Thomas Moore's Lalla Rookh (1817), titled the "Veiled Prophet of Khorassan," which was a best selling popular work, publication of which went into many subsequent editions; Sir Walter Scott's book The Talismen (1825) about Saladin and the crusaders; Captain Sir Richard F. Burton's Thousand Nights and a Night (sometimes titled the Arabian Nights) (1855-1858), A Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah (1853), Kama Sutra (1883); Robert Hichens popular novel The Garden of Allah (1904) (Interestingly The Garden of Allah inspired local Mill Valley resident Ralson White to contract architect Willis Polk to design White's hillside estate in Mill Valley which White named "The Garden of Allah."); and Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov's Scherazade Suite (1888).

When popular Arabic- Egyptian-Indian-Persian themes became distilled into organizations, a divergence seems to have occurred: The majority of the resulting organizations (American) came into being to provide a fun social outlet and perform charitable works; on the other hand, a few fringe organizations (European) formed which sought to pursue "oriental" magic and mysticism while holding out a genteel Victorian hint that sexual secrets of the East might be opened to the initiates who attained to the highest levels of these non-Masonic fringe organizations.

The major American fraternal groups of the 19th-century experienced an explosion of interest in organizations with a Near Eastern theme, most of which were deemed "playgrounds" for the membership of the principal bodies. Freemasonry appears to have started the race to create Near Eastern "playground" orders: The ritual for the Ancient Arabic Nobles of the Mystic Shrine was written in c.1870 by a group of Masons which included: actor William "Billy" Florence; Dr. Walter Millard Fleming; lawyer and expert on Masonic Ritual, Charles T. McClenachan; printer, linguist, and ritualist, William Sleigh Paterson; and scholar in Arabic studies, Albert L. Rawson (Rawson was also involved with the Theosophical Society and was an associate of Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. See, The Masters Revealed: Madame Blavatsky and the Myth of the Great White Lodge, Paul Johnson, pp. 25-30 (SUNY Press, 1994); Blavatsky's primary works were Isis Unveiled (1877) and The Secret Doctrine (1888).) The first Shrine Temple ("Mecca")was officially organized September 26, 1872 at New York City; a second Shrine Temple was charted at Rochester, N.Y. in 1875 and by 1888 there were 48 Shrine Temples located throughout the United States and one in Canada. Soon the Shrine had Masonic competitors, the Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm (MOVPER) or Grotto formed in 1890, and the Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots (AEOS) formed in 1905 in San Francisco.

The Odd Fellows entered the fray with several different "Near Eastern" bodies, including the: Oriental Order of Humility and Perfection (O.O.H.& P., introduced in San Francisco in the 1880's; a earlier group styled the Oriental Order of Humility had been decried by the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows of the United States in c.1870) which along with several other Odd Fellows fun clubs and side degrees (e.g., The Imperial Order of Muscovites (I.O.M., 1894), Veiled Prophets of Baghdad (V.P.B.), Knights of Oriental Splendor (K.O.S.), Ancient Mystic Order of Cabirians (A.M.O.C.)), was amalgamated into the Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (A.M.O.S.) in 1924. The Knights of Pythias formed the Dramatic Order of the Knights of Khorassan in 1894. In 1904 members of the Knights of Columbus formed an auxiliary (still not officially recognized), the International Order of the Alhambra, with Arabic costuming, its theme being the final expulsion of the Moors from Spain. While the ceremonials of these organizations were primarily for the entertainment and fun of the members, organizations like the Shrine have proved their merits in the field of charitable works that continue to this day.

Across the Atlantic, organizations formed that were earnest. Rather than focus on pageantry, fanciful costumes, and spreading good works of charity as the American fraternities had done, these groups seized upon so-called "occult knowledge" that was becoming available through such sources as Burton's Kama Sutra, and Budge's Egyptian Magic. Hence we see the formation of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in England in 1887 and some eight to fifteen years later the idea for the Ordo Templi Orientis in Germany. Members of such groups have been zealous in their pursuit of personal mystical attainment. Members of these groups styled themselves as magicians.

A Cautionary Note on Magic

Traditional high magic was practiced within a framework of traditional religion, as an adjunct to faith. The objective of the Magician was to obtain a one-pointedness of mind (e.g. heightened concentration) such that without distraction the Magician might become aware of the divine creator. In the process he served as a mediator and sought to work in sympathy with nature. Within such a framework, the Magician was not likely to become fixated on "supernatural" phenomena (e.g. invisibility, telepathy, inner fire, etc.) or otherwise deviate from what was viewed as a harmonizing effect of magic.

In contrast, modern ceremonial magic is largely divorced from any traditional religious framework. While most persons involved in ceremonial magic appear sincere and are committed to a spiritual path, the "dry path" of magic has the peculiar danger of exalting personal ego: The modern magician may be prone to the illusion that they have developed powers and may seek to develop such supposed powers for the sake of power. Traditional magic sought to abrogate, not develop or exalt, the ego of the Magician.

"[T]he more 'distanced' the magus from the primordial tradition, the more he is forced to rely upon effort of will and attempts to control or direct the elementals - as 'Abramelin the Mage' said is necessary - rather than upon the beneficent influences of the celestials and upon the harmony and equilibrium wrought by virtue of spiritual transmutation." The Philosophy of Magic, Arthur Versluis, p.86 (Arkana, 1986). Traditional, primordial magic "is based wholly upon the transcendence of the ego, and of habit energy, in order to channel divine forces and powers. In a very real sense, the magus must sacrifice himself for others, 'giving up' the ego in order to benefit those around him. " The Philosophy of Magic, Arthur Versluis, p.90 (Arkana,1986) As stated by Paul Foster Case, "The greatest magicians know themselves to be no more than channels for the Life-power, clear window-panes through which the light of wisdom within the house of personality streams forth into the objective world." The true magus must be the epitome of compassion and humility.

Since the triumph of rationalist Aristotelian thought in the Renaissance, the Western mind has excluded or rejected the celestial or angelic realms and consequently has dwelt ever more in the realm of mundus medius, of the psyche. "With this in mind, the nature of the modern attraction to psychic phenomena, and to bizarre forms of 'spirituality' under many guises becomes clear: having cut himself off from his traditions, but realizing the barren nature of a purely materialistic point of view, man seeks to recreate for himself that which he has lost. This attempt at recreation, though, is necessarily confined to the psychic realm, 'below' the realm of the planets and so represents a triumph of the irrational under the guise of spirituality. " The Philosophy of Magic, Id. at 78-79.

Modern ceremonial magic has been described as the dry path. The modern magician actively seeks to realize the divine through following a prescribed formula. The modern magician may through misuse of these means take a wrong turn, so to speak, and instead exalt personal ego, fixate on phenomena and become lost in the illusion of having powers.

In contrast and to the extent comparison is possible, Freemasonry has been described as a "wet path." The initiate is given keys (symbols), but no contention is made that the symbols open doors or suggests that they should even be used to open them. Through the symbolism presented in the framework of Freemasonry, an awakening may occur passively: Thus there is no chance of exceeding the initiate's preparedness to be awakened. The traditions of Freemasonry stress humility, harmony, and service to others: The wet path is less prone to problems of ego, fixation and illusion associated with the dry path. Using Old Testament symbolism, Freemasonry is a well-grounded traditional "system of morality veiled in allegory."

Magical Fraternities Currently in Marin

Aurum Solis (AS)

In 2000, the Circle of the Green Lion, Aurum Solis (a Commandery in formation) was formed. It is an official Aurum Solis study and practice group and a daughter temple of the Commandery of the Winged Serpent. The Director is an initiate of the Outer Order of Aurum Solis. The Aurum Solis conducts pathworkings, planetary sphereworkings and study sessions at the Mill Valley Masonic Center.

Aurum Solis - Background, History, Ritual and Emblems

The Order was founded in 1897 by Charles Kingold and George Stanton (the first head of the AS), as a practical school of ceremonial magic within the "Western esoteric tradition." The Order ceased operations for periods during the First and Second World War, resuming an uninterrupted function from 1949 to the present. In 1957 a split occurred in the AS with a portion of the Order leaving to form the Order of the Sacred Word (OSV). In 1971 the breach in the Order was healed and the Order again unified as the Aurum Solis.

The Aurum Solis asserts it is not based on Rosicrucianism or Freemasonry. It asserts its bases are "Gnostic," Greek, Celtic and Alchemical philosophies and practices. It claims to follow the "Ogdoadic Tradition" of the second-century Basilidean heresy (a Gnostic sect named for its founder, Basilides), which takes its basis in the mystery religions of ancient Egypt and demonstrates some influence from the so-called Fourth Book of Cornelius Agrippa.

The thread of this ogdoadic tradition purportedly can be seen in influences on medieval guilds' initiation rituals and disciplines, in the military Orders of the crusades (the Knights Templar, Knights of St. John, and Teutonic Knights), the Ismaili Order of the Faithful Ones of Love, the Fedeli d'Amore (c.end 12th Century), the Careggi Circle (15th century), and the Order of the Helmet (16th Century). In c.1689 an "inner body" of an antiquarian society that called itself the Societas Rotae Fulgentis (Society of the Blazing Wheel) began a collection of "Ogdoatic teachings and practices." Charles Kingold and George Stanton were purportedly members of that Societas Rotae Fulgentis.

The Aurum Solis is also heavily influenced by Qabalah, but asserts that it practices Qabalah of different traditions and lineage than that used by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and its progeny, with the desire and purpose "of detaching the timeless teachings of the Qabalah from the limitations of historical and theological particularity, and restating them for the modern student of high magick. [sic]" Purportedly one prominent direct student of Carl Jung was in close association with the Order and may have influenced the orders five volume published work, The Magical Philosophy.

Builders of the Adytum (BOTA)

A study group of the Builders of the Adytum met from approximately 1995 to 1997 at the Masonic Hall in San Rafael. The study group practiced meditation based on the Qabalah and the Tarot.

Builders of the Adytum - Background, History, Ritual and Emblems

Builders of the Adytum (BOTA) was founded by Paul Foster Case. The precise founding date for BOTA is unclear. Case apparently had planned the organization as early as c.1918, and it may have existed secretly behind another school he had founded in 1923 that was called the "School of Ageless Wisdom." Case apparently activated "BOTA" as his principal teaching vehicle in 1926-1927, during which period he worked out the rituals for the BOTA Lodges. After 1931 and with active Lodges in Boston, Washington, DC, New York, Buffalo and Rochester, BOTA ceased being a "secret organization."

Case had been a member of the Ordo Templi Orientis, advancing to the Third Degree (probably early 1917 to mid-1918); he received his OTO initiations from the Outer Head of the Order. He purportedly resigned from the OTO citing dissatisfaction. Case had been initiated into the First Order of the Thoth-Hermes Temple of the Golden Dawn (Alpha et Omega) in 1918 and into the Second Order on May 16, 1920. He was subsequently expelled by Moina Mathers from a surviving Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn temple in the United States, allegedly for discussing "sex magic techniques" with outer order members. In 1926 he became a Freemason, joining a Lodge in New York. In 1944, after Case moved to Los Angeles Case affiliated with various Masonic Lodges in California, maintaining his Masonic membership until his death in 1954.

BOTA operates as a religious organization and states that it is irrevocably dedicated to spiritual attunement through enlightened worship in the Tradition of the Western Mysteries. It claims to be derived from antiquity: Adytum is Greek for "Inner Shrine" or "Holy of Holies" and Builders refers to the emulation of the Carpenter from Nazareth, Jesus, whom BOTA believes was versed in the Qabalistic Tradition. BOTA states that it is not a strictly Christian organization, nor is it Jewish, as the Qabalah is thought to be, but accepts the Qabalah as the mystical root of both ancient Judaism and the original Christianity. Viewing itself as a Mystery School, BOTA's professed mission is to facilitate and speed mankind's evolution toward higher consciousness through the teachings of "ageless wisdom."

In many respects, the BOTA teachings can be described as Hermetic and Rosicrucian. Case was of the opinion that one becomes a Rosicrucian, not 'join' them, and that his order (and others) consequently only can be a vehicle for the labors of the individual students on their path to such a goal. He also made the similar point that there very well may be some 'true' Rosicrucians in any order as well as outside every order. Nonetheless, he claimed to be in touch with the 'invisible Rosicrucian masters' (the secret chiefs of which most Rosicrucian groups claim to derive from or be in contact with), hence legitimizing the Rosicrucian aspect of his own hermetic order. Besides from emphasizing the Qabalah, BOTA is also known for its work on Tarot: A large part of the BOTA curriculum Illustrations of tarot trumps with the colors described, the intention being that the student color them in, thus indenting the image into their unconscious. The BOTA Tarot designs are akin to Rider Waite Tarot design, with certain well-considered variations.

The majority of BOTA members receive home lessons. Such individuals may also participate in Study Groups. After reaching a certain proficiency in the work of BOTA, the member may join a Pronaos (e.g., Lodge) which practices rituals for the Pronaons (e.g. Lodge members). The first degree is called Companion Builder.

BOTA has headquarters in both Paris and Los Angeles. Recently they have gone through a number of schisms, resulting in new orders having been formed. The Fraternitas Lux Occulta (The Brotherhood of Hidden Light) (FLO), is such a derivation, and seems to perpetuate the early spirit of the school. A body of the FLO began meeting at the Mill Valley Masonic Center in October 2001.

Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO)

In approximately 1996, a Marin County psychologist received a charter to institute an OTO camp. The camp was named Mons Abiegnus. The camp grew quickly, and by approximately 1998 had been chartered an Oasis, enabling it to confer the first four degrees of the OTO that comprise the Man of the Earth series of degrees: Minerval (0°), Man of the Earth (1°), Magician (2°), and Master Magician (3°). The Mons Abiegnus Oasis meets primarily at the Mill Valley Masonic Center; it also conducts various outdoor activities on Mount Tamalpais, Ring Mountain, and at various beaches.

Ordo Templi Orientis - Background, History, Ritual and Emblems

The OTO claims to have begun first as the idea of Heinrich Klein and purportedly, Carl Kellner and Franz Hartmann around 1895. Kellner was a wealthy industrialist and a Mason, who represented that he had encountered Tantrism in his travels to India: However, Kellner died a year before the OTO was founded. Hartmann was a Theosophist and wrote an introduction to magic he titled, Magic White and Black; Contrary to some claims, there appears to be evidence that he was never connected with the OTO, but only with Theodor Reuss and Henrich Klein through the pseudo-Masonic Rite of Memphis and Misraim. Hartmann had severed contact with Reuss in 1904. Klein was involved with the Rite of Memphis and Misraim, which in Germany had been led by himself, Franz Hartmann, and Theodor Reuss. The OTO itself did not come into being until approximately 1906, when it became a clandestine Masonic Lodge in Germany.

Its head at founding in 1906 was Theodor Reuss, who had been a member of a regular Masonic Lodge under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England, but had been expelled by his Lodge for non-payment of dues. The clandestine lodge Reuss formed as the OTO purported to confer not only the three degrees of Freemasonry, but also the 4th through 32nd degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry and the degrees of two fringe Masonic Rites - the Oriental Rite of Memphis with 96 degrees, and the Rite of Mizraim with 90 degrees. Reuss described his OTO Lodge as a complete academy of Freemasonry.

During the period of 1919-1924, in an apparent bid to gain recognition from the world of regular Masonry, the OTO's Head of the Order for England and Ireland advanced claims as the Outer Head of the Order and undertook to rewrite the rituals of the OTO's first three degrees: The effort to gain Masonic recognition was in vain. However, the degrees of Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason, including the building of Solomon's temple and the Hiramic legend, were abandoned by the OTO. In their place were substituted four degrees: Minerval, Man of the Earth, Magician, and Master Magician. In place of the Third Degree Hiramic legend, the OTO utilized the legend of the Sufi mystic and martyr Mansur el-Hallaj. (Mansur al-Hallaj is one of Sufism's most controversial figures. He was executed in Baghdad for political reasons. Hallaj became famous for his problematic saying, "I am the Real" (Ana 'l-Haqq), which can also be translated as "I am the Truth" and "I am God.") The OTO's remaining degrees, however, were not rewritten and have retained titles, and purportedly some features of ceremonies taken from the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Some have described the OTO's higher degrees as truncated versions of the more expansive rituals of the Scottish Rite.

At the time the Ruess rituals were rewritten, they had engrafted into them the "new" religion of Thelema of which Ruess's successor is accorded the status of prophet. Purportedly, the OTO degrees become progressively more "Thelemic" as the candidate progresses. Additionally, the rewritten rituals purportedly imposed a more hierarchical organization, and required initiates to make pledges of obedience to the Outer Head of the Order. (Not everybody found the restructuring of the OTO to their taste, so several branches parted: There are groups in Switzerland still active, the largest of which was headed by Herman Joseph Metzger, which derive from the pre-Thelemic OTO of Reuss.) Today, the most well-known branch of the modern OTO, is the Thelemic organization that is alone in operating internationally under the name of OTO: Its headquarters is in Berlin.

There are a total of 21 Initiate degrees in the OTO, including thirteen numbered degrees and eight unnumbered, intermediate degrees or sub-degrees. Beyond the degree of Puissant and Perfect Princes (or Knight Rose Croix), advancement is by invitation only. Initiates of the intermediate degree of Knight of the East and West (KEW) are eligible for formal ordination to the Priesthood in Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica. Episcopal consecration in Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica is conferred as part of the Seventh Degree. The Tenth Degree (X°) is held by the National Grand Master General of O.T.O. in a particular country.

The Oasis officers are: Oasis Master, Secretary (Communications Secretary, Initiation Secretary), Treasurer, Illuminator /Editor, Equipment Manager, Seneschal, Logistrix Master. The Initiation officers of the Oasis are: Saladin, Wazir, Emir, Guard, Sentinel.

The symbolism of the OTO degrees up to Master Magician might be compared to entering the landscape of the First Trump of the Tarot, that of Magician or Juggler (le Bateleur). Hence, it might be expected that in the landscape of the various degrees, the candidate is introduced to the ancient's symbolic elements of earth, water, air and fire, and is equipped with the Magician's various tools for mastering and balancing the same: A coin or talisman; cup; dagger or sword; rod or wand.

According to the OTO, "The Man of Earth degrees follow a pattern based on the symbolism of the Chakras and the stages of Kundalini Yoga; and represent, in dramatic form, the Individual's Path in Eternity. In the 0°, the Ego, a wandering God, is attracted to the Solar System. In the I°, the Child experiences Birth. In the II°, the Man or Woman experiences Life. The III° represents the Death of the individual, and the IV° represents the world beyond Death, the glorified state of the Initiate. In the PI Degree, the Initiate symbolically achieves ultimate Perfection (Completion), and the entire cycle is withdrawn into Annihilation. [They relate to Yoga as follows: 0° to Ajna and Mülâdhara; I° to Vishuddha; II° to Anahata; III° to Svadisthâna; IV° to Ajna and Manipüra; and P.I. to Sahasrâra.]

"Of these Events or Stations upon the Path, all but the II° represent single critical experiences. We, however, are concerned mostly with the varied experiences of Life. All subsequent degrees are therefore elaborations of the II°, a progressive instruction in how to live, since in a single ceremony it is hardly possible to sketch, even in the briefest outline, the Teaching of Initiates with regard to Life.

"The V° - IX° rituals and teachings are therefore instructions to the Initiate in the Mastery of Life; there is instruction in Hermetic Philosophy, Qabalah, Magick [sic] and Yoga..." [The misspelling of the word "magic" was apparently introduced by a head of the OTO; the added terminal "k" being the first letter of kteis, the Greek word for the female genitals.]

According to the OTO, as of February 1999, it has approximately 3,000 members. Of these, roughly half are in the United States. O.T.O. is active to varying extents in about 40 countries.

Founding dates of fraternal organizations (including benefit societies) and organizational initials acronyms and abbreviations that may be found on exonumia and jewelry.

AEOS Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots, founded 1890
AHOGK Ancient and Heroic Order of the Gordian Knot, c.1964?
AMOS Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans, founded 1924
AMORC Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis, founded 1915
AOF Ancient Order of Foresters, founded in 1882
AOH Ancient Order of Hibernians, founded 1836
AOKMC Ancient Order Of Knights of Mystic Circle, founded 1861
AOUW Ancient Order Of United Workmen, founded 1868
ALOH American Legion of Honor, founded 1878
AS Aurum Solis, founded 1897
BPOE Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, founded 1868
BPOEW Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks of the World, founded c. 1897
CK of A Catholic Knights of America, founded 1877
DOKK Dramatic Order Knights of Khorassan, founded 1894
ECV E Clampus Vitus, founded c. 1849 and revitalized in 1931
FOE Fraternal Order of Eagles, founded 1898
GAR Grand Army of the Republic, founded 1866
GUO of OF Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, founded 1843
IOI Independent Order of Immaculates, founded 1872
IOA International Order of the Alhambra, founded 1904
IOH Improved Order Heptasophs, founded 1878 (Dedicated to the virtues of Fraternity, Truth, Wisdom; motto, Experientia Docet, which translates "experience teaches." Reference exists to the Heptasophs celebrating an anniversary at Woodward's Gardens (no longer extant) in San Francisco.)
IOKP Improved Order of Knights of Pythias, founded 1895
IOOF Independent Order of Odd Fellows, founded 1819
IORM Improved Order of Red Men, founded 1834
IO of GT International Organization of Good Templars, founded 1851 (A lodge of Good Templars was organized May 1908 in the City of San Rafael, and met at the Red Men's Hall.)
IDES Irmandade do Divono Espirito Santo, founded 1889
JOAUW Junior Order-Ancient Order of United Workmen, founded 1868
JOUAM Junior Order-Order of United American Mechanics, founded 1853
KAEO Knights of the Ancient Essenic Order, founded c.1880's
KGH Knights of the Golden Horn, founded 1872
KGL Knight Grand Legion
KM Knights Militant
KC or K of C Knights of Columbus, founded 1882
K of E Knights of Equity, founded 1895 (Degrees of the Knights of Equity are the Hall of Emania (1°), its emblem is the scales of justice; Hall of Cruchan (2°), its emblem the red hand of Ulster of the O'Niell clan; Hall of Kincora (3°), its emblem is the Celtic Cross; Hall of Tara (4°), its emblem is the shamrock.)
K of L Knights of Liberty, founded circa. 1920
K of L Knights of Luther, founded 1912
KMC Knights of the (Ancient Order of the) Mystic Chain, founded 1887
KPC Knights of Peter Claver, founded 1909
KP or K of P Knights of Pythias, founded 1864
KRA Knights of the Royal Arch, a Lodge was organized in the City of San Rafael in January 1909
KT Knight Templar, The first appearance of the Masonic KT degree was c. 1740
K of T Knights of Tabor, founded 1846
KGE Knights of Golden Eagle, founded 1872
KOTGR (K.G.R.) Knights Of The Golden Rule, founded c. 1880's
KOTM Knights of Maccabees, founded 1878
KSP Modern Knights of St. Paul, founded 1917
KSF Knights of Sherwood Forest
LK of A Loyal Knights of America, founded 1890
MOLLUS Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States
MOVPER Mystic Order Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm (Grotto), founded 1890
MRA Royal Arcanum, founded 1877
MWA Modern Woodsmen of America, founded 1883
NHA National Haymakers' Association, founded 1879
OES Order of the Eastern Star, founded 1850
OOH Oriental Order of Humility was criticized as a "side degree" for Odd Fellows as being "indecent and contrary to good morals, certainly of an unbecoming and discreditable character" by the Grand Sire of Odd Fellows July 5, 1870
OOH& P Oriental Order of Humility and Perfection, was a group founded c.1880 for Odd Fellows whose motto was "We Never Sleep." The ritual was based on the legend of Xerxes, King of Persia who succeeded his father Darius in 485 BC. In 1924 In 1924 the O.O.H. & P. was amalgamated into the Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (A.M.O.S.) along with several other Odd Fellows clubs and side degrees.
OUAM Order of United American Mechanics, founded in 1845 as the Union of Workers and was later absorbed by its progeny, the Junior Order of United Mechanics which it had founded in 1853
OTO Ordo Templi Orientis, founded 1906 (A OTO Camp was started in Mill Valley in 1997 and quickly grew to Oasis size by 1998. It has yet to reach Lodge strength. The OTO Oasis, known as Mons Abiegnus Oasis, meets at the Mill Valley Masonic Center in Mill Valley.)
O.O.O. Order of Owls, founded 1904
OofO Order of Owls, founded in early 1920's
PM Patriarchs Militant (Independent Order of Odd Fellows), circa 1870's
POSA Patriotic Order of the Sons of America, founded 1847, resuscitated in 1868
RAOB Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffalo, founded 1822
RAM Royal Arch Masonry, degree worked c. 1765
SES Sociedade do Espirito Santo, founded 1895
SRA Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, founded 1867
SRICF Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis, chartered c. 1879
TBH Tribe of Ben-Hur, founded 1894
UM or APUMEC União Medeirense a.k.a. Associação Protectora União Madeirense do Estado da California, founded 1913
UOH United Order of Honor,
UPEC União Portuguesa Do Estado da California, founded 1880
UPPEC União Portuguesa Protectora Do Estado da California, founded 1901

Bibliography of Works Consulted

General Reference

The International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies and Fraternal Orders, Alan Axelrod (Facts on File, Inc., N.Y.: 1997)

Secret Ritual and Manhood in Victorian America, Mark C. Carnes (Yale University Press, CT, 1989)

The Theosophical Enlightenment, Joscelyn Godwin SUNY Press, 1994)

The Masters Revealed: Madame Blavatsky and the Myth of the Great White Lodge, Paul Johnson, pp. 25-30 (SUNY Press, 1994)

The Philosophy of Magic, Arthur Versluis (Arkana,1986)

A History of Magic, Richard Cavendish (Arkana, 1990)


History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders, Henry Leonard Stillson, ed. in chief (Fraternity Publishing Co, Boston, New York, London, 1892)

Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840, Steven C. Bullock (University of No. Carolina Press, 1996)

The Origins of Freemasonry; Scotlands Century 1590-171O, David Stevenson (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988)

The Mythology of Secret Societies, John M. Roberts (Paladin, G.B., 1974)

The Symbols of Freemasonry, Daniel Béresniak, photographs by Laziz Hamani, trans. Ian Monk (Editions Assouline, Paris, France, 1997)

The Way of the Craftsman: A Search for the Spirital Essence of Craft Freemasonry, W. Kirk MacNulty (Penguin Arkana, 1988)

Freemasonry: A Journey through Ritual and Symbolism, W. Kirk MacNulty (Thames and Hudson, 1991)

The Art and Architecture of Freemasonry, James Stevens Curl (Overlook, 1993)

"From Lodge Room to Theatre: Meeting Spaces of the Scottish Rite," Theatre of the Fraternity, William D. Moore, pp. 48-49 (University Press of Mississippi, 1996).

"The Use and Misuse of History," Proceedings California Masonic Symposium, Paul Rich, Ph.D., University of the Americas-Puebla/Hoover Institution, Stanford University, pp. 12-13 (Institute for Masonic Studies and the Committee on Masonic Education, 2001).

The History of the Imperial Council Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine for North America: 1872-1921, William B. Melish, Preston Belvin, James McGee, George S. Meredith, and Fred C. Schramm, 2nd ed. (Cincinnati, OH, 1921)

A Short History of the Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, International Shrine Headquarters (Tampa, FL, 1998)

Ritual of the Ancient and Heroic Order of the Gordian Knot, Supreme Grand Synod (1964)

Independent Order of Odd Fellows

Oddfellows Manual and Textbook: An Elucidation of the Theory of Odd-Fellowship Embracing a Detail of the Order in All Its Branches, Paschal Donaldson, rev. 1878 (Moss & Company, 1878)

The History and Manual of Odd Fellowship, Theo. A. Ross (M.W. Hazen Co., N.Y., 1902)

The Red Blood of Odd Fellowship, Elvin J. Curry (Press of Fleet-McGinley Co., Baltimore, MD 1903)

Six Links of Fellowship: Sovereign Grand Lodge Sessions in California, Frank S. Christy and Donald R. Smith (Linden Publications, Linden, CA, 1995)

California Odd Fellowship, Linden Publications (Linden, CA, 1988)

The Odd Fellows Pocket Companion: A Correct Guide in all Matters Relating to Odd Fellowship, Paschal Donaldson (R.W. Carroll & Co. Cincinnati, Ohio, 1874)

The Brotherhood: Being a Presentation of the Principles of Odd-Fellowship with a Brief History of Bible Men and Women, who Developed in their Several Lives, the Principles that have been adopted by the Fraternity, Rev. Thomas G. Beharrell (Brotherhood Publishing Co., Indianapolis, Ind.: 1875)

Five Standard Rituals: Odd Fellowship Illustrated; Knights of Pythias Illustrated; Good Templarism Illustrated; Exposition of the Grange; Ritual of the Grand Army of the Republic, Ezra A. Cook, Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1880)

Forget It Not: A Book Consisting of the Initiatory and the Three Subordinate Lodge Degrees, annon. (Bullis & Holden, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, 1929)

Revised Odd-Fellowship Illustrated: The Complete Revised Ritual of the Lodge, Encampment and Rebekah Degree, J. Blanchard, 47th Ed., (Ezra A. Cook, Publisher, Chicago, IL, 1930)

Forms and Ceremonies of the Degree of Patriarchs Militant Degree, IOOF, Sovereign Grand Lodge of the IOOF, rev. ed. (Sovereign Grand Lodge of the IOOF, Baltimore, 1914)

Ceremonies for Instituting, Opening and Closing Grand Lodges and for the Installation of Grand Lodges; also for Instituting Subordinate Lodges as Prescribed by the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Sovereign Grand Lodge, IOOF (Baltimore, 1902)

Ritual of Theta Rho Girls' Club Under the Jurisdiction of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Sovereign Grand Lodge (rev. 1968)

IOOF Emblematic Charts - Lithographs

Our Motto by J.W. Dorrington Published by Frank W. Parkhurst & Co., Boston, MA G.H. Buek & Co., NY

From Jerusalem to Jericho, The Pettibone Bros. Mfg. Co.

Knights of Pythias & Pythian Sisters

History of the Knights of Pythias, Joseph D. Weeks (Jos. D. Weeks and Company, Pittsburgh, PA, 1872)

Knights of Pythias Complete Manual and Textbook, John Van Valkenburg (Philadelphia, Moss & Co., 1878)

A History of the Order of Knights of Pythias in Indiana with the Story of Damon and Pythias, Frank Bowers (Carlon & Hollenbeck, Indianapolis, IN, 1885)

The Jewels of Pythian Knighthood, John Van Valkenburg (The Pettibone Mfg. Co., Fraternity Publishers, Cincinnati, OH, 1890)

Pythian Knighthood: Its History and Literature, James R. Carnahan, M.A. (The Pettibone Mfg. Co. Fraternity Publishers, Cincinnati, 1892)

Secret Ritual of the Pythian Knighthood, James R. Carnahan (Kissinger reprint of c. 1892 book, Pythian Knighthood: Its History and Literature)

Pythian History: The Birth and Progress of the Order, William D. Kennedy (Pythian Publishing Co., Chicago, 1904)

Fourteen Decades of Brotherhood, Michael W. Carr (pub. By the author, c. 1996/7)

The Official Pythian Lodge Directory - 1928, Supreme Lodge Knights of Pythias (Minneapolis, MN, 1929)

The Official Pythian Lodge Directory - 1931, Supreme Lodge Knights of Pythias (Minneapolis, MN, 1931)

Talks on Pythianism, Rev. S.L. Harris, introduction by Hon. Hamilton Douglas (Converse & Wing Publishing Co., Atlanta, GA, 1908)

Man, My Brother: The Broader Fraternalism - Fraternal Addresses, George M Hanson (KofP), John B. Cockrum (IOOF), George B. Griggs (IROM) (Fraternal Publishing Co., Houston, TX, 1912)

Happiness, Frederick S. Attwood (Murphy-Travis Co., Minneapolis, MN, 1923)

The Story of Damon and Pythias, Albert Payson Terhune (Grosset and Dunlap Publishers, N.Y.: 1915)

Revised and Illustrated Ritual for Subordinate Lodges of Knights of Pythias, Adopted by the Supreme Lodge 1878 (Ezra A. Cook, Chicago, ILL, 1878)

Revised and Illustrated Ritual for Subordinate Lodges of Knights of Pythias, Adopted by the Supreme Lodge Aug. 29th, 1892 (Ezra A. Cook, Chicago, ILL, 1895)

Knights of Pythias Ritual for Subordinate Lodges, 1966 Rev., Supreme Lodge (Second Printing 1968)

Manual of Instructions for the Conduct and Guidance of Subordinate Lodges Knights of Pythias, Supreme Lodge Extension and Educational Commission (1939)

Ritual for Grand Lodges of Knights of Pythias, Supreme Lodge (1894)

Revised Ritual and Installation Work for Divisions of the Uniform Rank, Supreme Lodge (St. Louis, MO, 1886)

Tactics and Manual for the Uniform Rank Knights of Pythias, Maj.-Gen James R. Carnahan, M.A. 4th Ed. (The Pettibone Mfg. Co., Cincinnati, 1889)

Ritual of the Dramatic Order Knights of Khorassan, Imperial Palace (1958)

Knights of Pythias Music Book: Odes and Marches of the Order of the Knights of Pythias, Supreme Lodge (Brandon - Nashville, c. 1880)

Pythian Service Book, Supreme Lodge (Brandon Printing Co., Nashville, TN, 1895) (includes Funeral Service, Memorial Service, Decoration Day Service for Memorial Day, Dedicatory Ceremony for new Pythian Castles)

Spicers Floor Work: A Manual for Knights of Pythias Drill Teams, W.F. Spicer (The Ward-Stilson Co., New London, OH, 1909)

History of the Order of Pythian Sisters, Ida M. Jayne-Weaver and Emma D. Wood (Peters Publishing Co., Seattle, WA, 1925)

Book of Forms for the Floor Work: Order of Pythian Sisters, Supreme Temple, Pythian Sisters (1932)

Supreme Lodge Knights of Pythias Catalogue of Official Supplies, Supreme Lodge (1948) includes an insert from the C.E. Ward Company of New London, OH for "Pluto Degree Equipment," including, inter alia, Mephisto style costume, costumes for the "Masked Knight" cauldrons, tridents, and lycopodium flash torches.

K of P Emblematic Charts - Lithographs

The Heros Damon and Pythias, large heads surrounded by emblematic vignettes from Rank Work of the Order, c. 1880's.

Members Record, copyrighted by J.M. Vickers Co., Terre Haute, IN, 1888

The Alter of True Pythianism, c. 1900

Members Record, copyrighted by Joseph Adams, 1910


A Condensed History of the Druidic Order of California - 1859 to 1934, compiled by C.A. Guglielmoni (The Recorder Printing and Publishing Co., San Francisco, CA, 1934)

Journal of Proceedings of the 67th Annual Session of the Grand Grove of the United Ancient Order of Druids of California (Walter N. Brunt Press, San Francisco, 1931)

The Druids, Stuart Piggott (Thames & Hudson, 1985)

Regulations for the Installation of Officers and Conducting Business Together with the Form of Initiation for the use of Subordinate Groves under the Authority of the Grand Grove of the United States of the United Ancient Order of Druids, Grand Grove (John Boyle, Printer, Philadelphia, 1859)

Ritual of the Subordinate Circles of the Grand Circle of California, United Ancient Order of Druids, Grand Circle (Dolores Press, San Francisco, CA 1958)

The Opening and Closing Ceremonies, Initiatory Charges, Installation Lectures, etc., of the Chapters of the United Ancient Order of Druids, Supreme Grove, (Albany, N.Y.: 1888). One copy is in German and one copy is in English.

Improved Order of Red Men

Official History of the Improved Order of Red Men, George W. Lindsay, Charles C. Conley, Charles H. Litchman, ed. by Charles H. Litchman (The Fraternity Publishing Co., Boston, Mass, GSD 402 = 1893)

Record of the Eighty-Fourth Great Sun Session of the Great Council of California Improved Order of Red Men (1950)

Record of the Eighty-Sixth Great Sun Session of the Great Council of California Improved Order of Red Men (1952)

Record of the Eighty-Seventh Great Sun Session of the Great Council of California Improved Order of Red Men (1953)

Record of the Eighty-Eighth Great Sun Session of the Great Council of California Improved Order of Red Men (1954)

Record of the Eighty-Ninth Great Sun Session of the Great Council of California Improved Order of Red Men (1955)

Record of the Ninetieth Great Sun Session of the Great Council of California Improved Order of Red Men (1956)

Ritualistic Ceremonies - Great Council of the United States of the Improved Order of Red Men for Tribes of the Order, Great Council of the United States, (G.S.D. 445 i.e. 1937)

Forms for Great Chiefs of Great Councils of the Improved Order of Red Men, Adopted by the Great Council of the United States of the Improved Order of Red Men. Printed by authority of the Great Council of the Unites States (G.S.D. 412, i.e. Great Sun of Discovery 1904)

Ritual of the Haymakers Degree of the Improved Order of Red Men, National Haymakers (Berger Brothers Printers, Phil., PA, 1901)

Improved Order of Red Men Emblematic Charts

Members Record depicting vignettes from the various degrees

Patrons of Husbandry a.k.a. Grange

Manual of Subordinate Granges of the Patrons of Husbandry, National Grange, 10th ed. (George S. Ferguson, Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1917)

Five Standard Rituals: Odd Fellowship Illustrated; Knights of Pythias Illustrated; Good Templarism Illustrated; Exposition of the Grange; Ritual of the Grand Army of the Republic, Ezra A. Cook, Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1880)

Knights of the Golden Eagle

Ritual for Subordinate Castles of the Knights of the Golden Eagle, Supreme Castle (James Young, Baltimore, OH, 1894)

Drill Tactics for the use of Knights of the Golden Eagle: Castles and Commanderies, Supreme Castle (J.W. Boud, Printer, Philadelphia, PA, 1892)

Form of the Funeral Ceremony, Memorial Service, and Dedication Ceremony for Knights of the Golden Eagle, Supreme Castle (James Young, Baltimore, MD, 1909)

Correspondence between George W. Carver, Jr., Supreme Master of Records of the KGE and Stanley J. Bransgrove dated August 14, 2001.

Knights of the Golden Eagle Emblematic Chart - Lithographs

Our Castle, a members record of degrees with vignettes from the degrees depicted as three floors of the Castle, c. 1890

Ancient Order of United Workmen

Master Workman's Ritual, Supreme Lodge (1895)

Ritual A.O.U.W. of Nebraska, Grand Lodge of Nebraska (The Huse Publishing Co., Norfolk, NB: 1911)

A.O.U.W. Public Ceremonies: Installation, Laying of Corner Memorial Stone, Dedication of Lodge Room, Funeral Service and Memorial Service (1907)

A.O.U.W. Emblematic Charts - Lithographs

Ancient Order of United Workmen Record Membership,  J M Vickory Co., Terre Haute, Ind., 1907.

Knights of the Maccabees

Amplified Ritual of the Knights of the Maccabees of the World (Riverside Printing Co., Port Huron, Mich.)

K.O.T.M. Emblematic Charts - Lithographs

K.O.T.M Degree Team (picture)/Note the Progress of the Maccabees, Form E-21-2-20-24000 (Post Card, 1900)

Knights of the Royal Arch

Collectanea: The Official Transaction of the Grand College of Rites of the United States of America, Volume 9, Part 1: Pantheisticon; Ne Plus Ultra; Ritual of the Golden Circle; Knights of Fidelity; Knights of the Royal Arch: Installation of a Pilgrim; Funeral Services; The Secrets of the Mopses Disclosed (1968)

Good Templars

Ritual for Subordinate Lodges of the Independent Order of Good Templars, Right Worthy Grand Lodge (1887)

Five Standard Rituals: Odd Fellowship Illustrated; Knights of Pythias Illustrated; Good Templarism Illustrated; Exposition of the Grange; Ritual of the Grand Army of the Republic, Ezra A. Cook, Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1880)

Independent Order of Foresters

The Ritual of the Independent Order of Foresters for Subordinate Courts, Supreme Court IOF (1898)

Modern Woodmen of America

Official Ritual of the Modern Woodmen of America, Head Camp W of A, Fourth Revision (1915)

Royal Neighbors of America

Ritual for Local Camps: Royal Neighbors of America, Supreme Camp, RNA (Rock Island, IL, 1963 ed.)

Knights of Columbus

Knights of Columbus: A Complete Ritual and History of the First Three Degrees, ?, (?, c.1914)

Catholic Knights of America

Ritual for the Institution of Members and Order of Business at Meetings of the Catholic Knights of America (1895)


Ritual of the Subordinate Lodges Under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Grand Lodge (1963)

Fraternal Order of Eagles

The Rituals of the Fraternal Order of Eagles, Grand Aerie F.O.E. (1949)

Grand Army of the Republic

Five Standard Rituals: Odd Fellowship Illustrated; Knights of Pythias Illustrated; Good Templarism Illustrated; Exposition of the Grange; Ritual of the Grand Army of the Republic, Ezra A. Cook, Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1880)

Improved Order Heptasophs

Ritual of the Improved Order Heptasophs, Supreme Conclave Improved Order Heptasophs (James & Webb Printing Co, Wilmington, DE, 1882)

Tribe of Ben Hur

Court Degree Ritual: Opening and Closing Ceremonies, Amplified Form of Initiation, and Installation Ceremonies, D.W. Gerard (The Ben-Hur Print, 1897)

Tribe of Ben Hur Emblematic Charts - Lithographs

Charter of Muncie Ind. Lodge

National Union

Manual of the National Union, revised and adopted at sixth annual session (Johnson-White Printing Co., Chicago, 1895)

Internet Links


Mill Valley Lodge No. 356: http://www.abaris.net/freemasonry

Grand Lodge of California: http://www.freemason.org

Shrine Architecture and Culture by Paul Rich of University of the Americas-Puebla and Hoover Institution, Stanford University: http://mailweb.udlap.mx/~rich/papers/pcaaca99/pcashrine.html

Freemasons have been very active in civic affairs:

Odd Fellows:

History of Odd Fellowship: http://norm28.usc.edu/IOOF/IOOFHistory.html

Many well-known politicians were Odd Fellows:  http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/odd-fellows.html

The Odd Fellows Cave: http://norm28.hsc.usc.edu/IOOF/CAOFR/Aug2000/OddFellowsCave.html

Knights of Pythias

Supreme Grand Lodge: http://www.pythias.org

California Grand Lodge: http://communities.msn.com/GoldenDomain&naventryid=111

This photo was taken in 1908 when the Knights of Pythias were headed up to Santa Rosa for the installation of that group's officers. http://www.ci.sausalito.ca.us/shs/moments/Moment%201992-7-7.htm

Picture of the Knights of Pythias Lodge in Sausalito during the 1920's http://www.ci.sausalito.ca.us/shs/hist-dist/bridgeway/

Picture of Perry's Hall under construction in Sausalito: http://www.ci.sausalito.ca.us/shs/moments/Moment%201992-6-16.htm

The Pythian Cave by Josh Laney (illustrated): http://www.siskiyous.edu/class/geog1a/fall1997/pythian.htm

Hall in Newman: http://www.cityofnewman.com/

Many well-known politicians were Pythians: http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/knights-pythias.html

Time line of the American United Life Insurance Company sucessor to the Endowment Rank, http://www.aul.com/corporate/facts.html

United Ancient Order of Druids

The International Grand Lodge web site: http://www.igld.org/index.htm

California Grand Grove of Druids (uncertain if the site is genuine): http://www.geocities.com/caldruids/

Improved Order of Red Men

Great Council of the United States: http://members.nbci.com/redmen/

Kindling a New National Grand Council Fire: Native American Liberty and the U.S. Constitution:

Many well-known politicians were Red Men: http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/redmen.html

Patrons of Husbandry

California State Grange: http://www.grange.org/cagrange/index.html

International Order of Good Templars


Mechanics (Surviving Amalgamation)




Many well-known politicians were woodmen: http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/woodmen.html

Native Sons of the Golden West

Many well-known politicians were Native Sons: http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/native-sons-golden-west.html

Knights of Columbus

Many well-known politicians were members of the Knights of Columbus: http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/knights-columbus.html

California Knights of Columbus: http://www.kofc-california.org/

International Order of the Alhambra:

Luso-American/Azorean Fraternal Groups, i.e., Irmandade do Divono Espirito Santo a.k.a. Brotherhood of the Divine Holy Spirit and União Portuguesa do Estado da California a.k.a. The Portuguese Union of the State of California (U.P.E.C)

Biographies of Members demonstrating inter fraternal connections: http://wwwlibrary.csustan.edu/bsantos/sketch2.html

IDES History of the Holy Ghost Societies in California: http://holyghostcalifornia.org

Fraternal Order of Eagles

Many well-known politicians were members of the Eagles: http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/eagles.html



May well-known politicians were members of the Elks: http://politicalgraveyard.com/group/elks.html

Aurum Solis


Builders of the Adytum

B.O.T.A.: http://www.bota.org/index.html

Fraternity of the Hidden Light: http://www.lvx.org/index.html

Timeline on Paul Foster Case: http://www.mousetrap.net/~mouse/tarot/txt/case_timeline.txt

Ordo Templi Orientis

The OTO Phenomenon: http://www.cyberlink.ch/~koenig/

The OTO as Clandestine Masonry by C. Gary Ford: http://users.erols.com/solequis/secret_societies/phoneymasonry.htm

Review: O.T.O Rituals and Sex Magick, by Kristin T. Schnider: http://home.sunrise.ch/~prkoenig/kts.htm

OTO Rituals and Study Guides: http://www.illuminati.nl/oto/rituals_index.asp and/or

U.S. Grand Lodge, Ordo Templi Orientis:


"Researching Grandfather's Secrets: Rummaging in the Odd Fellow and Masonic Attics," Paul Rich of University of the Americas-Puebla and Hoover Institution, Stanford University: http://mailweb.udlap.mx/~rich/papers/grandfathers_secrets.html

"The Rise and Fall of Fraternal Insurance Organizations," Humane Studies Review, Leslie Siddeley See, http://mason.gmu.edu/~ihs/s92essay.html

Last Rites of Graying Fraternities: http://www.metroactive.com/papers/sonoma/01.25.96/mason-9604.html

Uniform Ranks of fraternal organizations, i.e., Knights Templar, Soldiers of Woodcraft, etc., have been treated with more respect by legislators than the modern militia movement: Gonzaga Law Review, 32 (1996 / 1997): 523, "An Ounce of Prevention: The Constitutionality of  State AntiI-Militia Laws," Ellen M. Bowden and Morris S. Dees, http://www.saf.org/LawReviews/BowdenAndDees.htm

A Brief History of the Community Mausoleum, including fraternal organization's crypts, http://www.keisterphoto.com/cemetery/cem_hist01.htm

Open Directory - Portal to Fraternal sites: http://www.tranquileye.com/pod/index.cgi/Society/Organizations/Fraternal/

Fraternal World - Portal to Fraternal sites: http://www.fratworld.org/

National Coalition of Free Men: http://www.ncfm.org

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