outside reference: kb.indiana.edu/data/abwa.html
|operating system||basic level software that controls and computer's hardware, runs programs, interacts with users, and communicates with peripheral devices.|
|device-driver||A piece of software (program) which communicates with (sends signals to) a device, thus operating (driving) the device.|
|virtual memory||disk space reserved to be used like RAM (via swapping or paging) whenever the system runs short of memory.|
|GUI||a Graphical User Interface lets a user interact with the computer via pictures and symbols rather than typed text.|
|command line||as in command-line interface, where user interacts with the computer via memorized commands which are then typed in, precisely, with a keyboard.|
|multi-tasking||the ability of an operating system to run several programs simultaneously.|
|co-operative multi-tasking||the application controlling the cpu must relinquish that control before another application can run.|
|pre-emptive multi-tasking||the operating system determines which application may have access to the cpu.|
|filesystem||1) maintains the physical organization of data on
disks, through a directory structure.
2) the organization of directories, sub-directories, and files on a partition. Examples include FAT16, FAT32, NTFS, etc...
|format||to prepare a disk for storing data, by installing the structure of a given filesystem.|
|partition||is a subdivision of a disk drive. There are two types: primary partition and extended partitions.|
|Fault Tolerance||the ability of a system to recover from equipment malfunctions|
|application||a computer program designed to accomplish a specific task or related set of tasks.|
|backward compatibility||the task of engineering a new version of a product so that the new version works with previous versions of the product.|
|protected memory||the ability of an operating system to provide applications with their own area of memory which cannot be accessed by other applications.|
|August 25, 1980||XENIX operating system announced by Microsoft.|
|August 12, 1981||MS-DOS 1.0 ships with the new IBM Personal Computer|
|March, 1983||MS-DOS 2.0 ships|
|November 10, 1983||Microsoft Windows announced|
|November, 1984||MS-DOS 3.1 available|
|November 20, 1985||Microsoft Windows 1.0 released|
|April, 1986||MS-DOS 3.2 ships|
|April 2, 1987||Microsoft Operating System/2 (MS OS/2) announced, as
part of a joint agreement between Microsoft and IBM
That same day, Microsoft announces MS-DOS 3.3, Windows 2.0 and Windows /386. These new versions are the first with overlapping windows.
|June 28, 1988||Windows /286 and /386 versions 2.1 announced|
|July, 1988||MS-DOS 4.0 released (ugh)|
|October 31, 1988||OS/2 1.1 with Presentation Manager ships.
David Cutler, formerly of Digital and now working for Microsoft, begins work on Windows NT.
|November, 1988||MS-DOS 4.01 shipped to correct 4.0 problems|
|May 22, 1990||Microsoft releases Windows 3.0. First version of Windows to allow use of memory beyond 640Kb.|
|October, 1991||Windows NT is displayed publicly at a demo at COMDEX.|
|October 20, 1991||Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions released.|
|June, 1991||MS-DOS 5.0 ships.|
|April 6, 1992||Windows 3.1 released. Adds TrueType fonts and many other features.|
|October 27, 1992||Windows for Workgroups 3.1 released, adding easier, integrated networking.|
|March, 1993||MS-DOS 6.0 ships.|
|August, 1993||Windows NT 3.1 released. It consists of over 6 million lines of code.|
|November, 1993||MS-DOS 6.2 released.|
|February 15, 1994||Windows for Workgroups 3.11 released.|
|March 2, 1994||MS-DOS 6.21 ships with drive compression removed due to a law suit.|
|April 11, 1994||MS-DOS 6.22 ships with new DriveSpace drive compression.|
|September 6, 1994||Windows NT 3.5 released. It consists of over 9 million lines of code.|
|April 20, 1995||Frank Condron's World O'Windows begins operation (sorry, couldn't resist!)|
|June, 1995||Windows NT 3.51 released. Minor release is to support upcoming Windows 95 programs.|
|August 24, 1995||Windows 95 released.|
|August 24, 1996||Windows NT 4.0 released. It consists of over 16 million lines of code.|
|November, 1996||Windows CE 1.0 released, supporting handheld-PCs|
|September, 1997||Windows NT 5.0 Beta 1 released.|
|November, 1997||Windows CE 2.0 released|
|December, 1997||Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack released|
|June 25, 1998||Windows 98 released.|
|July, 1998||Windows CE 2.1 released, supporting palm-sized PCs|
|August 1998||Windows NT 5.0 Beta 2 released to testers|
|October 27, 1998||Microsoft announces that Windows NT 5.0 will be renamed "Windows 2000"|
|April 29, 1999||Windows 2000 Beta 3 released to testers|
|May 5, 1999||Windows 98 Second Edition released|
|July, 1999||Windows 2000 Release Candidate 1 released to testers|
|August 25, 1999||Microsoft and Compaq discontinue all Windows NT/2000 development for the Alpha processor|
|September 19, 1999||Windows 2000 Release Candidate 2 released to testers|
|November 17, 1999||Windows 2000 Release Candidate 3 released to testers|
|November 29, 1999||"Millennium" beta 2, successor to Windows 98SE, sent to beta testers|
|December 15, 1999||Windows 2000 released to manufacturing (i.e., coding completed)|
|February 17, 2000||Windows 2000 Professional, Server, and Advanced Server released.|
|Operating System||DOS-based||GUI||Multitasking||Bus-Width||Protected Memory|
|Win 3.1||runs on top of DOS||YES||cooperative||16-bit||No|
|Win95||backward compatibility||YES||cooperative for Win16
preemptive for Win32
|Win98||backward compatibility||YES||cooperative for Win16
preemptive for Win32
|WinNT 4.0||fresh design||YES||preemptive||32-bit||Yes|
only stripe set with with parity can be recovered in case of disk failure
others must be rebuilt, with data restored from backups.
since volume sets and stripe sets require multiple disks, the chances of data corruption through disk failure is increased.
total of 4 partitions possible.
by default, drive letters are assigned first to the primary partitions, then to the extended partition/logical drives.
Disk Administratorcan be used to alter drive letter designations.
-- is DOS-based, so can only create 1 primary partition, and 1 extended partition.
-- Windows 95 or later versions allows for FAT32 (enable large disk support)
-- FAT16 supports partitions up to only 2GB.
|FAT12||supported||NO||NO||NO||supports floppies and small disks (16MB)|
|FAT16||supported||supported||supported||supported||disks from 16MB to 2GB|
|FAT32||supported||supported||NO||NO||disks up to 2TB|
|dir||displays listing of the current directory's files and subdirectories|
|dir [filename]||display listing for filename only|
|attrib||displays or changes file attributes
a = archive, r = read-only, h = hidden, s=system
|attrib +h [filename]||makes filename a hidden file|
|attrib -r -s -h [filename]||removes read-only, hidden, and system attributes from filename|
|copy||copy [filename1] [filename2]||make a copy of filename1 and store it as filename2|
|del||del [filename]||delete filename|
|edit||very simple text editor
alt key accesses menubar
move around screen via arrow keys
CR activates highlighted menu
|format||format [x:]||format a partition as a FAT16 filesystem|
|fdisk||an interactive tool for disk partitioning|
|sys||sys [x:]||copies the 2 DOS system files (IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS, plus the command interpreter (shell) COMMAND.COM to the targeted drive|
convert -- (NT) convert a filesystem from FAT (16) format to NTFS format.
scandisk -- (DOS) checks filesystem consistency
chkdsk -- (DOS) surface scan checking for bad media
chkdsk -- (NT) combines functionality of DOS chkdsk and scandisk. chkdsk performs surface scan.
showdisk -- available on NT Resource Kit only