TESTIMONY OF ARTHUR MANDELLA, ACCOMPANIED BY LT. JOSEPH A. MOONEY, NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT, BUREAU OF CRIMINAL IDENTIFICATION

Mr. DULLES. Mr. Mandella, will you raise your right hand. Do you swear that the testimony you give before this Commission will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?
Mr. MANDELLA. I do.
Mr. DULLES. Thank you.
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Mandella, could you give us your full name and position?
Mr. MANDELLA. Arthur Mandella. I am a detective on the New York Police Department and I work at the bureau of criminal identification in that department.
Mr. EISENBERG. Could you briefly outline your qualifications as a fingerprint identification expert, Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. In 1945 to 1948 I was a fingerprint technician in the U.S. Navy. My principal duties were the classification and filing of fingerprints, the developing and photographing of latent fingerprints found at crime scenes, the comparison of latent fingerprints with suspects, and the searching of fingerprint files in general. From 1948 to 1953 I was employed by the U.S. Government as a criminal investigator. However, my principal duties were the lifting and developing and identification of latent fingerprints, also the preparation of fingerprint exhibits for court presentation. From 1955 to the present I have been employed by the New York Police Department and assigned to the bureau of criminal identification as a fingerprint technician and performing the same duties that I just outlined. During these past 17 years I have been examining not only fingerprints but palmprints and infant footprints as well.
I graduated from the following fingerprint schools: in 1945, the U.S. Naval Air Station; in 1948 I graduated from the Institute of Applied Sciences, which is a fingerprint school, fingerprint and identification school; in 1955 I graduated from the New York Police Fingerprint School at the police academy; and in

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1958 I attended an advanced latent fingerprint course conducted by the FBI at the New York Police Academy.
I am a fingerprint instructor for the New York Police Department Bureau of Criminal Identification and lecture at various hospitals relative to the proper techniques involved in footprinting the newborn.
I am a qualified fingerprint expert and have testified in New York State and Federal courts, including court-martiais, relative to all phases of fingerprints, palmprints, and footprints.
Mr. EISENBERG. Could you venture a guess as to how many identifications you have been called upon to make in the course of your work?
Mr. MANDELLA. General identifications, I suppose, it runs into many thousands. It is hard to pick a number. But it is certainly well into the thousands of examinations.
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Chairman, may this witness be permitted to testify as an expert witness on the subject of fingerprints?
Mr. DULLES. Yes; he may.
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Mandella, did you at my request examine certain photographs of latent prints and compare them with photographs of inked or known prints to determine whether there were identities between the known and latent prints?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I did.
Mr. EISENBERG. I hand you Commission Exhibits 656, 658, 659, 655, 657, 661, and 660. Could you briefly look through these and determine whether these are the photographs which you examined? As you finish an item, could you take a look at the Commission number and verify that you looked at the photographs in that Commission envelope?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I have examined the photographs contained in Commission Exhibit No. 656.
Mr. DULLES. I wonder if you would just state the number, in each case, In each envelope?
Mr. MANDELLA. In Commission Exhibit 656 there are 10 photos, 10 photographs. And I have also examined Commission Exhibit No. 658, which is one photograph. I also examined Commission Exhibit No. 659, which is two photographs. I have also examined Commission Exhibit No. 655, which is two photographs. I have examined Commission Exhibit No. 661, which contains three photographs. I have examined Commission Exhibit No. 660, which contains eight photographs. I have also examined Commission Exhibit No. 657, which contains three photographs.
Mr. EISENBERG. 657 contains photographs of inked prints, is that correct?
Mr. MANDELLA. That is correct.
Mr. EISENBERG. The standard 10-finger chart and a right and left palmprint?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. Which you have been informed by me and you see on the writing on these charts are the prints of Lee Harvey Oswald?
Mr. MANDELLA. That is correct.
Mr. EISENBERG. Do you have any other knowledge that these are the prints of Lee Harvey Oswald?
Mr. MANDELLA. No; none whatsoever.
Mr. EISENBERG. the remaining prints are photographs of what you would call latent prints?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; they are.
Mr. EISENBERG. Did you make markings on the backs of these prints, Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; on quite a few of them I did. However, not all of them.
Mr. EISENBERG. And you made those markings on the basis of - in your own printing?
Mr. MANDELLA. My own hand printing, for certain observations I wanted recorded.
Mr. DULLES. What is the nature of the marking?
Mr. EISENBERG. Let's take a sample. I will pull one out at random from Commission Exhibit 660. The topmost card says "Box B," which corresponds the label on the envelope 660 and that is No. 17.

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Mr. DULLES. Will you show those to the witness and see if he identifies his own writing?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I have made these notations. Yes; I do recognize these.
Mr. EISENBERG. The next one says "Box B" and "Negative-same as box 'D' No. 7."
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. You have seen these as you flipped through to identify that these are the same photographs?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. Let the record show that these photographs are photographs of latent prints taken by or under the supervision of Mr. Sebastian Latona, and he has just testified that these photographs were taken of objects which were identified earlier in Commission proededings. Mr. Latona transmitted these photographs to me directly, and I in turn transmitted them to Mr. Mandella and Mr. Mooney, who is also present in this hearing room. Mr. Mandella, do you know what total number of identifiable latent prints were contained in these exhibits that you just identified-exclusive of 657, which contained the inked or known finger and palm prints?
Mr. MANDELLA. No; but I have this outline here.
Mr. EISENBERG. Just approximately would you say how many identifiable prints there were?
Mr. MANDELLA. Thirty.
Mr. EISENBERG. Some 30 odd prints?
Mr. MANDELLA. Some 30.
Mr. EISENBERG. And did you identify certain of those prints as being the finger or palm prints of Lee Harvey Oswald?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I did
Mr. EISENBERG. Could you tell us which of those prints you so identified?
Mr. MANDELLA. There was a photograph, a photograph of the underside of the gun barrel, Commission Exhibit No.-
Mr. EISENBERG. That is Commission Exhibit No. 658, and I will hand you that photograph now. You are referring to this photograph?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. And can you read the writing on the back of that?
Mr. MANDELLA. "Right palm Oswald underside gun barrel"
Mr. EISENBERG. Is that in your handwriting?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; it is in my handwriting.
Mr. EISENBERG. Did you determine what portion of the right palm that was Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; it is the right side of the right palm, this area right here.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is the ulnar portion?
Mr. MANDELLA. Pardon?
Mr. EISENBERG. Is that sometimes called the ulnar portion?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; the ulnar side, or the small-bone side; yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. Did you make any other identifications?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I did.
Mr. EISENBERG. Could you give the next one, please?
Mr. MANDELLA. The photo marked "brown bag wrapping paper" Exhibit No.-
Mr. EISENBERG. That is Exhibit 659, and that exhibit contains two photographs which I now hand you, which are marked 659-A and 659-B?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. And did you identify the prints in those photographs?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; on photograph No. 1-
Mr. EISENBERG. Could you refer to the print on the back, 659-A or B?
Mr. MANDELLA. On 659-B, as I called it, photo 1, is the No. 7 finger which is the left index finger of Lee Harvey Oswald.
Mr. EISENBERG. And do you have a note on the back of that picture?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I do.
Mr. EISENBERG. Can you read us that?
Mr. MANDELLA. "Left index, Oswald brown bag wrapping paper."
Mr. EISENBERG. And that is in your handwriting?

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Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; it is.
Mr. EISENBERG. Can you say what portion of the left index finger of Lee Harvey Oswald that is?
Mr. MANDELLA. It is the bulb of the finger, a little to the right.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is, by bulb you mean the central portion of the distal phalanx?
Mr. MANDELLA. The central portion to the right.
Mr. EISENBERG. Of the distal phalanx?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; the flesh joint; yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. And 659-A?
Mr. MANDELLA. Commission Exhibit No. 659, as I call it, photo No. 2, is a palmprint and I identified this as the right side of the right palm of Lee Harvey Oswald.
Mr. EISENBERG. The right side would again be the ulnar?
Mr. MANDELLA. It would be the ulnar side, yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. The little finger side?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. That also has writing on the back of it, does it?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; it does.
Mr. EISENBERG. Can you read that to us?
Mr. MANDELLA. "Right palm, Oswald brown bag wrapping paper."
Mr. EISENBERG. And that is in your own handwriting?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; it is.
Mr. EISENBERG. Was there any handwriting when you got any of these prints, by the way?
Mr. MANDELLA. No; there wasn't.
Mr. EISENBERG. All the prints were blank on the reverse side?
Mr. MANDELLA. They were blank on the reverse side. There was handwriting within the photographs but not-
Mr. EISENBERG. That is on the face of the photographs?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. Would you proceed, Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. Box A, photo No. 25.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is Commission Exhibit 656, and I will hand you photo No. 25.
Mr. MANDELLA. What was that number, 656? Numbers 25 and 34.
Mr. EISENBERG. I now hand you Nos. 25 and 34. Could you identify No. 25 first, Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. No. 25, Commission Exhibit No. 656, contains three identifiable fingerprints, one of which, located in the center in a whorl-type pattern, is the No. 2 finger or the right index finger of Lee Harvey Oswald. The fingerprints on the right and the left do not belong to Lee Harvey Oswald but the one in the center, the whorl-type pattern, is his No. 2 finger.
Mr. EISENBERG. Which is that now again, the right-hand index finger?
Mr. MANDELLA. The No. 2 finger, which is the right index finger, and again the first joint, the bulb of the finger.
Mr. EISENBERG. The bulb of the distal phalanx?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. Of the right index finger?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. DULLES. For clarity, where were these taken? What were these taken from?
Mr. EISENBERG. This was takell from box A-
Mr. DULLES. Box A?
Mr. EISENBERG. Which I believe is a 10 rolling reader carton. Is there printing or handwriting on the back of that photograph 25? -
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; there is.
Mr. EISENBERG. Could you read it to us?
Mr. MANDELLA. "Center impression No. 2 finger Oswald from Box A photo- latent on left unidentified - Photo Nos. 25 and 27 identical-Negative with unidentified."

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Mr. EISENBERG. "Negative with Oswald," are you referring now to two of the three photographs - two of the three prints appearing on the photograph?
Mr. MANDELLA. That is right, two prints, exactly, the one in the center, of course I am not in reference to the one in the center, which is his. The two on the right and left are unidentified.
Mr. EISENBERG. And No. 34, Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. No. 34, Commission Exhibit 656, is a palmprint from the left palm of Lee Harvey Oswald, the left palm section of course, the ulnar side again of the left side of the left palm.
Mr. EISENBERG. And do you have a note on the back of that?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I do. "Oswald's left palm-left side."
Mr. EISENBERG. And that again is in your own handwriting, is it Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. Any other identifications?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; there is one more on box D, photo No. 13.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is Exhibit 655, which contains two photographs, and I will extract the photograph labeled "13."
Mr. MANDELLA. Commission Exhibit 655, photo No. 13, the right palmprint of Lee Harvey Oswald. The section here is at the heel of the palm in the center.
Mr. EISENBERG. In the center of the palm?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes, sir.
Mr. EISENBERG. You were just pointing to the lower portion of the palm, which you refer to as the heel?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; this is the portion of Oswald's palm.
Mr. EISENBERG. Is there handwriting or printing on the back of that photograph?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; there is. "Right palm-Oswald-heel of hand."
Mr. EISENBERG. And that is your handwriting, is it, Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; it is.
Mr. EISENBERG. So you made a total of six identifications?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I did.
Mr. EISENBERG. Now when you made these identifications-or, I should say, when you received the photographs and when you made the identifications, did you have any knowledge of any kind as to how many, if any, prints of Oswald's were found among the many impressions which were given to you?
Mr. MANDELLA. I had no idea, sir.
Mr. EISENBERG. Were you aware in any way of the conclusions of any other body concerning these impressions?
Mr. MANDELLA. I knew nothing about any examination by anyone.
Mr. EISENBERG. At an unofficial level, had you seen anything in the newspapers which would indicate any information on these?
Mr. MANDELLA. In the newspaper several months ago there was reference to a - I don't even recall whether it was fingerprints or paimprints or both but there was some reference in the newspaper I had seen, and that is all.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is all you recall about it?
Mr. MANDELLA. That is all I recall.
Mr. EISENBERG. Did you pay any attention to that in making. your identifications?
Mr. MANDELLA. No; it didn't affect me at all, nothing to do with the identifications.
Mr. EISENBERG. What is your general attitude toward items you see like this in the newspapers, by the way?
Mr. MANDELLA. In the newspapers? It doesn't mean a thing. Attitude relative to fingerprints?
Mr. EISENBERG. I am trying to determine how far this might influence you in your evaluation, and I wonder as a police officer what your opinion is when you read accounts in newspapers of evidence in crimes.
Mr. MANDELLA. No; it doesn't affect me other than for general information purposes.
Mr. EISENBERG. Did I transmit to you any information whatsoever concerning these prints?

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Mr. MANDELLA. You did not, other than giving me the photographs.
Mr. EISENBERG. Did I tell you that any of these prints might be Lee Harvey Oswald's?
Mr. MANDELLA. You made no indication as to that it could have been his.
Mr. EISENBERG. Do you know now, apart from your own identification, have you acquired any information at this point, subsequent to your identification but prior to your appearance here, as to these prints, other than your own identifications?
Mr. MANDELLA. I have no knowledge as to what has been done with these prints at all by anyone.
Mr. EISENBERG. Are you absolutely sure as to each of these identifications, Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. I am positive.
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Mandella, are you familiar with the contention of some persons that 12 points are needed for identification of finger or palm prints?
Mr. MANDELLA. No I am not, no. Positive identifications are effected by the expert himself; 12 points are not necessary. A sufficient amount determined by the expert is the important factor.
Mr. DULLES. About how many? Have you any test as to how many points?
Mr. MANDELLA. I can't give a definite number, but I'd say in generalities-five or six or seven points certainly should be enough, depending on their uniqueness and frequency.
Mr. EISENBERG. What is the lowest number to which you have testified in court, Mr. Mandella?
Mr. MANDELLA. The lowest that I can recall I testified to, five points.
Mr. EISENBERG. Was there a conviction secured in that case?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; there was. Of course, I don't recall if the fingerprint was the thing that caused the conviction, but it was part of the testimony.
Mr. Dulles. In most of these cases where you have made an identification, have there been more than five points of identity?
Mr. MANDELLA. Well, it seems to run between, somewhere between 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 and in some cases more. It depends on how much of the finger or palm that you have, how many characteristics are contained in that area.
Mr. DULLES. My question was directed to the specific prints that you have, photographs of prints that you have examined.
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; it usually verges on 8,9, 10, 11 and 12.
Mr. DULLES. In the cases of these identifications that you have made?
Mr. MANDELLA. Oh, no. Some - we have many more characteristics in some of these identifications here today.
Mr. EISENBERG. I think Commissioner Dulles is referring to cases previous to this.
Mr. DULLES. I was referring to both. First I was asking you in general how many do you consider are necessary, and secondly how many did you find in these particular cases that you have examined in the Oswald case?
Mr. MANDELLA. Oh. Would you like me to-
Mr. EISENBERG. Do you have that information?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. Fine.
Mr. MANDELLA. Of course these characteristics that I point out are the ones that I see and in some cases there is a few more, but these are the ones that are definite and outstanding.
On the gun barrel, I forget the Commission exhibit number, there was 11 points of identity.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is 658?
Mr. MANDELLA. Commission Exhibit 658. There was 11 points of identity on that particular palmprint.
Mr. DULLES. That is exactly what I wanted.
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; now the brown wrapging paper bag, Commission's 659-
Mr. EISENBERG. There is a 659-A and B here. The one you have marked "left index Oswald"?
Mr. MANDELLA. Is that A?

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Mr. EISENBERG. That is what I have marked "B." That is Commission Exhibit 659-B.
Mr. MANDELLA. Then No.2, 659-A is the palmprint.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is marked "right palm"?
Mr. MANDELLA. Right palm, and there is 18 points, 18 characteristics that are very outstanding and in this case possibly more too. Now in Commission's Exhibit 659-B----
Mr. EISENBERG. That is marked "left index Oswald"?
Mr. MANDELLA. It is the left index finger-Lee Harvey Oswald, there is 11 points of identity and possibly a few more. In Commission Exhibit 656 which is the No. 2 finger or the right index finger of Lee Harvy Oswald, there is 11 points, that is the whorl-type pattern.
Mr. EISENBERG. Excuse me a second, Mr. Mandella. That is No. 25 center impression, marked by you "center impression No. 2 finger-Oswald," is that correct?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; that is correct. And there is 11 points of identity or characteristic.
Mr. EISENBERG. On No. 34?
Mr. MANDELLA. No. 34, the palmprint.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is marked by you "Oswald left palm-left side"?
Mr. DULLES. Palmprlnt on the box is it?
Mr. EISENBERG. Yes; box A.
Mr. DULLES. Box A?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; 18 points of identity I found on that particular exhibit.
Mr. EISENBERG. Can you check your notes on that?
Mr. MANDELLA. I can explain this. On the reverse side I have 13 to 16 points.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is the reverse side of number-
Mr. MANDELLA. It is the reverse side of Commission Exhibit 656. However, after going over this and looking at it again I found several more. Of course in this case it is still more than 18. But 18 that can be readily seen and recognized. And then Commission exhibit finally -
Mr. EISENBERG. 655?
Mr. MANDELLA. 655.
Mr. EISENBERG. Box D.
Mr. MANDELLA. Photo No. 13, the right palmprint of Oswald, and there is eight points of identity on that one.
Mr. DULLES. Thank you.
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Mandella, do you have any opinion concerning the ability to determine the freshness of a fingerprint?
Mr. MANDELLA. It is very difficult to tell. However, you can determine if it was left within say a few days, but certainly you can't pinpoint it. You can't say it was there so many hours or so many days. How many days I don't know, but in the developing of fingerprints we will say on an ashtray on this Commission desk here, if we just touch it now, as opposed to a fingerprint being left there several days ago, the impression that we recently left, as we applied powder to it to bring it about would naturally come out sooner because of the freshness of the oils on our fingers.
The others would come out, If we kept processing or powdering it with a brush. They would later come out too. So this is the only indication to me then, that the first ones that appear then were recently left. And in this you can't even say this. definitely either. It is very difficult because at certain times it could be a little more oil on someone's fingers and this could last longer and appear to be fresher. So it is very difficult to tell positively.
Mr. EISENBERG. What you are describing is freshness, relative freshness, between one print and another, rather than absolute freshness of any given print?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; that is true.
Mr. EISENBERG. Now I give you Commission Exhibit No. 139, which is a rifle, and ask you whether you think if you developed a print on a steel portion of the rifle you could testify as to whether this was a fresh or a stale print?
Mr. MANDELLA. No; I couldn't tell. I couldn't tell especially on steel or on wood here whether it is fresh or not. By itself of course too, with nothing around it, you couldn't tell. It is impossible, as a matter of fact.

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Mr. EISENBERG. I hand you Commission Exhibit No. 649, which consists of a piece torn off of a cardboard type of box, and appearing on that is a powder impression under a tape, of which you have seen actually a photograph, Mr. Mandella.
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. If you had developed that impression, do you think you would testify as to relative freshness?
Mr. MANDELLA. In this ceas, with this cardboard, in my own experience - I assume the medium used here is powder-
Mr. EISENBERG. Yes; I believe so.
Mr. MANDELLA. To develop it. If it comes out this fresh, I would have to assume that it was left there recently. But how recently I can't pinpoint that.
Mr. EISENBERG. Within 3 days?
Mr. MANDELLA. Oh, definitely I would say within 3 days.
Mr. EISENBERG. Within 2 days?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes; I would say within about a day, a day and a half, because the cardboard is very porous and it would normally draw the oils, the perspiration, and it would disappear. However, we do have an impression here with powder. That means that it was quite fresh, in my own opinion anyway.
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Mandella, I can see that you have taken notes, numerous notes on the fingerprints, including those you didn't identify. I wonder whether we could introduce those as a Commission exhibit, ratherthan going through those one by one. Would you part with those? We could supply you with a copy later.
Lieutenant MOONEY. I have the rough. It will only take us a couple minutes to-
Mr. DULLES. We would be very glad to give you a photograph copy of it.
Mr. MANDELLA. That is all I need. That is fine. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. You are handing me two pages, and these contain your original notes concerning the fingerprints?
Mr. MANDELLA. Yes.
Mr. EISENBERG. These contain your notes not only as to the fingerprints you identified, but those which you did not identify against a known print which you were given?
Mr. MANDELLA. That is right. There were quite a few fingerprints that didn't belong to Oswald. However, they belonged to one another.
Mr. EISENBERG. That is to say, you found two prints which were identical to each other?
Mr. MANDELLA. That is right.
Mr. EISENBERG. Two latents which were identical to each other?
Mr. MANDELLA. That is right, but to whom they belong I have no idea.
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Chairman, may I have these notes admitted as Commission Exhibit No. 662?
Mr. DULLES. It shall be admitted as Exhibit 662.
(Commission Exhibit No. 662 was marked for identification, and received in evidence.)
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Mandella, is there anything you would like to add to your testimony here?
Mr. MANDELLA. Nothing other than what I already mentioned.
Mr. EISENBERG. I have no further questions.
Mr. DULLES. We thank you then Mr. Mandella, very much. I didn't catch your name.
Lieutenant MOONEY. Lieutenant Mooney. Glad to have been of service.
Mr. DULLES. Would you please express to the Commissioner on behalf of the Chief Justice and the Commission our grateful thanks to you for the work that you have done, and it is greatly appreciated, and also express on my own personal behalf - I know the Commissioner - my appreciation for the cooperation he has given to the Commission.
Lieutenant MOONEY. Thank you, sir. We are glad to have been of service.
Mr. EISENBERG. Mr. Chairman, may I say that these two gentlemen both interrupted their vacatiou to come here, and they have been working practically night and day in order to meet with our time demands for testimony.

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Mr. DULLES. We deeply appreciate that.
Mr. MANDELLA. Glad to have helped in any way.
Mr. DULLES. The Commission will stand adjourned until tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock. (Whereupon, at 1:10p.m., the President's Commission adjourned.) 1