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NRO Facilities



Pentagon Headquarters

Room 4C1052
The Pentagon
Washington, DC

Management coordination of the NRO is handled by the Air Force Office of Space Systems, located in the Pentagon. This office was initially housed in room 4C1000, and moved to 4C956 before migrating to its current address at 4Cl052.<1>


Program A - Air Force Special Projects Office

Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center
Los Angeles AFB, CA

On 31 August 1960 Air Force Secretary Dudley Sharp established the Office of Missile and Satellite Systems (which was subsequently renamed the Office of Space Systems) within the Air Force Secretariat at the Pentagon, and the Director of the SAMOS Project (later renamed the Office of Special Projects), at Los Angeles AFB, El Segundo, CA, directly responsible to the Secretary of the Air Force.<2>


Program B - CIA Office of Development & Engineering

12020/12030 Sunset Hills Road
Reston, VA 22090

The compound at 12100 Sunset Hills Road in Reston was publicly identified at the time of its construction as belonging to CIA. CIA's Foreign Broadcast Information Service acknowledges that its primary operating location is in Reston, and it may be assumed that one of the buildings on Sunset Hill Road is used by FBIS. Jeff Richelson has written <3> that CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology Office of Development and Engineering, which is the CIA component of the National Reconnaissance Office, has a new facility constructed in Reston, Virginia, in the mid-1980s., and it may be presumed that the other building at this site houses this office. The proximity of TASC [at 12100 Sunset Hills Road], which is a siginificant participant in the imagery intelligence activities of DS&T/ODE would seem to confirm this assessment. This evaluation is further supported by the presence on the other side of the Dulles Access Road of a number of contractors [such as Lockheed Martin and Intergraph] associated with imagery intelligence, as well as the Defense Mapping Agency, which is slated to be consolidated, along with DS&T/ODE, into the new National Imagery and Mapping Agency.


Program C - US Navy

Washington, DC

The Navy's component of NRO activities is managed by the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR), headquartered in Crystal City, Virginia. The Command's Space Technology Directorate (SPAWAR-40) located across the Potomac River at the Naval Research Laboratory, has direct responsibility for these activities.

Hardware development activity is also conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory, primarily in Building A59. This building was extensively reconstructed in the 1980's, providing a large security shell housing previously existing spacecraft test facilities (such as thermal vacuum chambers), which had been used in the White Cloud program in the 1970s. A significant fraction of this large exterior of the Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF) covers undeveloped ground (ie, the building appears much larger from the outside than it is in fact on the inside).


OPERATIONAL FACILITIES


Onizuka Air Force Base

Sunnyvale, CA Onizuka AFB is the primary control node for NRO spacecraft through the Satellite Control Network, All acknowledged Air Force programs are now controlled through Falcon Air Force Station in Colorado.

Communications Electronics Evaluation Test Activity

Buelah Road
Ft. Belvoir, VA

The Communications Electronics Evaluation Test Activity [CEETA] at Ft Belvoir is the primary ground station for imaging intelligence satellites, from which imagery is relayed to the National Photographic Interpretation Center.

Buckley Air National Guard Base

Aurora, CO

NRO controls high Earth orbit JUMPSEAT and TRUMPET signals intelligence, HERITAGE measurement and signature intelligence, and Satellite Data System data relay satellites from a facility co-located with the Defense Support Program Aerospace Data Facility a t Buckley.

NEW FACILITIES

These locations largely defined the NRO for over a quarter of a century. However, beginning in 1989, the NRO initiated a phased strategy for its facility and organization restructure process. The facilities include a Temporary, an Interim, and a Final Facility. The leased Temporary Facility allowed the collocation of the NRO headquarters and selected support functions, The Interim Facility was occupied in mid-1991. In FY 1991, the NRO acquired the land for the Permanent Facility, which would accommodate all the functions at the Interim Facility, as well as collocation of some program offices although the parcel of land is sized to protect the option of a total collocation, if required.<4>


Temporary Facility

Rockwell-Collins
4101 Pleasant Valley Road
Lafayette Business Park, Chantilly, VA

The January 1990 NRO Restructure Report noted that funding for the Suburban Virginia <5> Temporary Facility would increase gradually from $4.6 million in 1991 to $4.8 million in 1995. These facility costs included rent, utilities, furniture, supplies, communications and computer equipment, facility and A&E contractor support, and special building fit-up.<6> The leased Temporary Facility allowed for the collocation of the NRO Headquarters and selected support functions. In mid CY 1991, those personnel and activities moved to the Interim Facility, which allowed the temporary facility to house the Centralized<7> Security Function until the completion of the Permanent Facility.<8>

In July 1994 Rockwell Collins International Service Company purchased a one-story 82,000 square-foot building for $2.175 million. The flex-building, with ten loading docks, is designed to accommodate a flexible mixture of office space, storage, light manufacturing. Construction of the building had been completed in 1991, and prior to its purchase it was only 7.5% occupied.<9>

The transfer of NRO activities to the Permanent Facility at Westfields was to be accompanied by use of a "Temporary Facility", which is the Lafayette Business Park, Chantilly, VA facility leased by Rockwell-Collins. The lease by Rockwell was reported in the Washington Post, and upon examination it is clear that the size of the facility is consistent with the lease costs associated with the Temporary Facility in the Senate hearings. The fact that this facility appears to be inactive is also consistent with it being the "Temporary" Facility.


Interim Facility

Rockwell-Collins
13651 McClearen Road
Dulles International Center
Chantilly, VA

To support an early collocation of selected activities the NRO acquired a leased Interim Facility in suburban Virginia<10>. These facilities permitted collocation of the NRO Headquarters and selected major program office elements by the end of 1993.<11> The January 1990 NRO Restructure Report noted that funding for the Interim Facility would increase gradually from $17.9 million in 1991 to $20 .4 million in 1995. These facility costs included rent, utilities, furniture, supplies, communications and computer equipment, facility and A&E contractor support, and special building fit-up.<12> In mid CY 1991 the NRO Headquarters and selected support functions personnel and activities moved to the Interim Facility.<13>

The Rockwell-Collins location at 13651 International Point is surrounded by the "signature" distinctive black chain-link fence. It is co-located with a Hughes Training Inc facility and EDS Military Systems Division at 13600 EDS Drive, which has "signature" heavy solid-metal crash-proof gates at the entrance, earth berms, high chain-link fence and other such distinguishing features. Nearby is the Renaissance Park complex, which includes the Hallmark Building at 13873 Park Center Road, which prominently advertises as a major tenant EWA [Electronic Warfare Associates], and other tenants such as Hughes Technical Services, and the Aerospace Corporation.

Permanent Facility

Westfields Facility <14>
Westfields International Center
14225 Leesburg Highway
Fairfax, VA

In 1989, the SSCI concluded that the NRO should be reorganized with essential elements collocated in the Washington DC area. The Committees recommended that this reorganization proceed expeditiously. Congress, working with the NRO, approved initial funding for the project in the FY 1990 Authorization and Appropriation bills and asked for a full reorganization plan. In keeping with the approval to begin the project, several studies were conducted resulting in, among other things, a joint DCI-SecDef recommendation to adopt a phased approach to the NRO reorganization. This included leasing of temporary and interim facilities, along with construction of a permanent facility.

At the time the Westfields construction project began the existence of the NRO was classified. Since then the existence of the NRO has been publicly acknowledged. Consistent with the effort to make more information publicly available, the D/NRO, with the approval of the DCI and the Secretary of Defense determined that the existence of Westfields as an NRO facility can now be declassified.


Initial Acquisition

The decision to proceed with the Westfields project was made after completion of an extensive market survey of available government and commercial properties. Cost, security, sole occupancy, and ability to satisfy schedule are examples of the screening criteria used during the market survey. Using these criteria none of the available properties were found to be suitable. NRO did not use MILCON or GSA support, as is typical for most government facilities, in order to protect the NRO identity which was classified at the beginning of the program, and to hasten the construction process.

The land and subsequent building construction were contracted for in the name of our facility support contractor, Rockwell International; this added no burden or fee to the construction contract. The FY 1991 Authorization Conference Report agreed that the NRO should contract directly for its facility activities, which included land and building acquisition. During the course of this project NRO implemented a number of items which were believed to be cost effective, such as a cable distribution system that integrates both secure and non secure communications cables in a single conduit system, a progressive security design that minimizes exotic physical and technical security requirements, an energy management control system that will reduce the long term operations and maintenance cost and a back up generator design that will allow for a reduced electrical service rate schedule with the local power company.

To support the restructure of the NRO, the agency proceeded with the acquisition of a Permanent Facility necessary to provide a permanent solution for the restructure facility requirements. This facility accommodated the functions housed in the Temporary Facility and Interim Facility and was to be capable of expanding, in the future, to accommodate additional collocated activities as required. The total estimated cost for the Permanent Facility was $195.4 million from 1991 through 1995<15>

The three-building plan was designed to accommodate approximately 1,700 people. This consisted of all personnel housed in the Temporary and Interim facilities and selected program offices. Savings to be achieved with the occupancy of the Permanent building included termination of the temporary and interim facility leases and the consolidation of their associated support expenditures. These reductions were factored into the FY93 budget submission.<16>

The NRO decided to bypass both GSA regulations and military construction procedures for the construction of the headquarters facility, opting instead to operate under the DCI's "special authorities."<17> The Intelligence Community's special contracting authority which was utilized to construct the new headquarters facility permits the Intelligence Community to undertake needed intelligence projects as rapidly as possible while maintaining necessary security. The special contracting authority should not interfere with full disclosure to the Congressional Intelligence Oversight Committees. The record shows that the special CIA contracting authority has permitted the NRO and the Intelligence Community to pursue many vital intelligence projects in a timely, cost-effective, and secure manner.<18>

In order to provide the required facilities in as timely a manner as possible and to maintain the flexibility to implement the full range of potential restructure alternatives, a phased, incremental facility strategy was adopted. This protected a least-total-cost acquisition strategy for the permanent facility which involved the purchase of both the land and the buildings required. This approach had the highest near-year costs but it provided the greatest flexibility regarding additional collocation decisions.<19>

In FY 1991, the NRO acquired a parcel of land sufficient to protect for the option of full collocation. The facility master plan allows for a six building complex, structured parking, emergency generator building, warehouse, conference facility, and cafeteria. The current construction plan and budget provide for three buildings to accommodate all functions currently located at the Interim and Temporary Facilities, as well as collocation of some program office elements; general site development; site security; and the basic infrastructure support additional buildings. The site development phase, begun in FY 1991, included clearing and grading, roads, site utility installation, parking structures and building foundation. The building core and shell construction was scheduled to begin in summer 1992. Building fit-up was scheduled to commence in summer 1993 with building activation, equipment installation and testing scheduled for early 1995 leading to occupancy in late 1995. The total construction was approximately 800,000 gross square feet.<20>

The NRO purchase of the parcel of land in support of the permanent facility collocation activities of the NRO restructure efforts was consistent with the overall facility strategy and the NRO Restructure Report published in January 1990. The third phase of the facility support plan, involved the acquisition of property and facilities that provide a permanent solution for collocation activities. The intent was to be able to accommodate in the permanent facilities, all the activities previously located in the Temporary and Interim Facilities. In addition, the permanent facility site would allow for additional collocation up to and including all of the NRO and some supporting contractors. The actual land purchase agreement was executed between the land owner and the facility support contractor. Title to the property was notionally held in the name of the facility support contractor, thus supporting NRO cover and security. This was then converted to a pass-through arrangement between the facility support contractor and the United States Government. A similar arrangement was used during the building construction phase. There was no GSA or fee markup on the pass-through contracts.<21>

The size of the parcel is approximately 68 acres. The master plan provides for the development of approximately 1.3 million square feet on the site. The purchase agreement allows development of slightly less than 1.5 million square feet. The master plan has been structured by definition as a three-phase development program. Phase one provides for the construction of approximately 500.000 square feet. Phase two would add an additional 400.000 square feat. Phase three would also provide an additional 400,000 square feet. Flexibility is inherent in the master plan to allow phase two and three to be sized differently as the need arises. NRO planned initially to proceed only with phase one construction only. Phase two and three protected the option for additional collocation, up to, and, including a total collocation.<22>

The 1991 construction plan provided for three buildings to accommodate all functions located at the Temporary and Interim Facilities, as well as collocation of some program office elements. The building core and shell construction was scheduled to begin in summer 1992. Building fit-up was to commence in summer 1993 with building activation equipment installation and testing scheduled for early 1995 leading to occupancy in late 1995. The total construction was approximately 800,000 gross square feet.<23>


1992 Expansion

In the summer of 1992 the NRO decided to expand this project from 3 to 4 towers.<24> As part of the 1992 NRO restructure study, the Administration approved full collocation of NRO Programs A and B to the Permanent Facility. This necessitated the addition of Building Four at the Permanent Facility and the acquisition of additional temporary space to allow the transition to begin prior to the completion of the Permanent Facility. NRO prepared a FY 1992 reprogramming request to proceed in a expeditious fashion. The FY 1993 budget provided a total of $227.4 million for construction, outfitting, operations and maintenance of three permanent buildings. It also provided for general site development of the NRO Facilities compound, site security, structured parking, and an emergency generator building, warehouse, conference center and cafeteria. These costs provide for the additional design, site work, utilities, parking, construction, security, communications, operations, and maintenance associated with the addition of the fourth building at the permanent facility. This allowed full collocation of the NRO consistent with the Administration's most recent approval of the NRO restructure plan. By FY 1996 all program offices will be located at the Permanent Facility. In addition to the permanent facility costs, NRO needed to acquire additional temporary facilities to begin the transition prior to the completion of the permanent facility.<25>

In mid October 1992, it was announced that as many as 800 government workers and employees of the Aerospace Corporation would move from the Space and Missile Systems Center at Los Angeles AFB to the new home of the Special Projects Office in suburban Northern Virginia.<26> Total NRO employment in Los Angeles was estimated at 1,000 Air Force and 1,000 Aerospace Corporation staff. This transfer was viewed as part of an effort to better coordinate NRO operations with users located in the Washington area, in contrast to the coordination with spacecraft builders facilitated by the Los Angeles location.<27>

In October 1992 the NRO requested approval to reallocate $22 million of FY 1992 funds within the National Reconnaissance Program (NRP) for design and construction activities related to increasing the size of the permanent facility, approved by Congress in FY 1991.<28> As of late 1992, the Westfields (WF) baseline included approximately 1 million square feet with: 4 six story office buildings; conference center; cafeteria; emergency generator building; and 2 guard houses.<29>

As of late 1994 NRO was "very confident" that the final cost of the project will be significantly less than the $350M referenced by the Senate Intelligence Committee. However, NRO maintained this amount in the budget to protect against requirement changes and the potential of construction contractors claims. As noted in the draft SSCI audit team report, other than scope changes such as the addition of tower four, the changes for error and omissions have been 2.7% of current contract values. The completion of the core and shell contract was scheduled for the end of October 1994. NRO signed a competitively awarded fit-up contract in July 1994. Within the current space allocation plan for Westfields there is approximately 40,000 square feet of unused space out or approximate 1,000,000 square feet, or about 4%. This could accommodate approximately 200 additional personnel within this space without a major redesign. There are several activities that may be able to benefit from this space. The parcel of land at Westfields can support additional construction by site zoning. The current master plan, approved by the Fairfax zoning officials, reflects that two additional buildings could be developed. This space, if developed, would be available to anyone in the Intelligence Community.<30>

The Restructure Plan approved by the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence collocated most of the NRO to a single location as soon as possible. Full collocation will be supported with the occupancy of the NRO Westfields facility in 1996. The building core and shell construction commenced in the summer of 1992. Building fit-up commenced in FY 1993 with building activation and equipment installation and testing scheduled for early FY 1995 leading to occupancy in late 1995. The total construction is approximately 1,000,000 gross square feet.<31>


1994 Controversy

The fiscal year 1991 intelligence authorization act conference report stated that the NRO's "land and facility acquisition will remain subject to the prior approval of the appropriate congressional committees." This did not happen with regard to this facility. The NRO did not seek specific prior congressional approval for the Westfields Project - instead, funding for the facility was buried in the "base" portion of the budget, an unspecified aggregate of various O&M costs. This "base" funding for the Westfields Project continued despite specific Congressional direction to the NRO in the FY94 Intelligence Authorization Act Conference Report which stated, "the conferees also explicitly stipulate that each individual program must provide complete details for the entire request -- not simply any changes from the "base" level provided in the prior fiscal year." Despite this requirement, the FY95 budget request for the new NRO facility was once again buried in the base budget. Following this, the Senate Intelligence Committee staff acted to initiate an audit and recommended a full briefing for members.<32>

The Senate Intelligence Committee's Audit Team spent two months working with NRO officials examining the requirements, cost, schedule, management procedures and internal controls of the National Reconnaissance Office's headquarters construction initiative, known as the Westfields project. According to Committee Chair Senator Dennis DeConcini and Vice Chair John Warner:<33>

"We were shocked and dismayed to learn that the facility cost for the new NRO headquarters at Westfields may reach $350 million by completion, nearly double the amount most recently briefed to the Committee. In fact the total anticipated cost of this project, under its current configuration, was never effectively disclosed to our Committee, either in the annual budget submissions or in related briefings. We consider the NRO's failure to coordinate and communicate with this Committee on this large, sensitive and very expensive project to reflect disregard for this Committee's oversight responsibilities for intelligence operations and funding."

On 26 July 1994, Vice Chairman Warner chaired a Senate Intelligence Committee briefing on the NRO facility. Chairman DeConcini joined that briefing later and reviewed the same facts. They jointly agreed to send a letter to the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence demanding more information. That letter was sent on 29 july. On 4 August it was decided to have a formal closed hearing and seek declassification of as much material as possible. On 8 August the DeConcini and Warner made a field trip to the NRO construction site. Later that day, public disclosure of this project was made because of White House, DOD and CIA decisions. The president was involved in this decision. As the Senate Intelligence Committee suggested, the President declassified the essential facts about this project; its location, size, cost and purpose.<34> The Administration issued press releases at 5:00 on 8 August, and the Senator's press conference followed shortly thereafter.<35>

NRO Director Jeffrey Harris stated that:<36>

" ... with specific regard to this project remaining classified, I have reviewed the circumstances at the time the project began and as they stand today. Public acknowledgement of the existence of the NRO coupled with our commitment to greater openness has led me to conclude that the NRO facility can be declassified."

On 8 August 1994 the Director of Central Intelligence and the Deputy Secretary of Defense announced ongoing construction of a National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) facility in Northern Virginia. The building is intended to support the NRO mission of meeting US government spaceborne intelligence reconnaissance needs. The project was begun in 1990 prior to declassification of the NRO's existence in 1992. The construction site is located on Route 28 and Willard Road in Chantilly, VA, on a tract of approximately sixty-eight acres. The facility is designed to accommodate approximately 3,000 contractor and government personnel, nearly all currently working in the Washington area. The 1 million square foot complex includes office space, a cafeteria, conference facility, generator building and other support functions. It is scheduled for occupancy in 1996. The cost of the project is approximately $310 million. The primary support contractor for the project is Collins International Service Corporation (CISCO), a subsidiary of Rockwell International.<37>

On 10 August 1994 the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence convened an unprecedented open hearing to review the process utilized by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) to notify Congress, secure the necessary funding, and initiate construction of its new headquarters complex in Chantilly, Virginia. Witnesses testifying at the hearing included Director of Central Intelligence James Woolsey, Jeffrey Harris, Director of the NRO, Jimmie Hill, Deputy Director of the NRO; and Mr. Roger Marsh, Chief of the NRO's Mission Support Organization, and John Deutch, Deputy Secretary of Defense. The four hour hearing reviewed the history of and rationale for the project, including decisions regarding project size and the process by which Congress was informed of the project. It also discussed what options are available to reduce the project's cost and increase its usefulness, including the collocation of other Intelligence Community functions at the site and whether the Intelligence Community should retain the special authority which was utilized to construct this facility.

The Intelligence Community and the Defense Department formed a group to review: the history of the project; how Congress was notified about the project scope and the required funding during the course of the funding; and to provide recommendations on how the project can be completed in as cost effective a manner as possible, including use of excess space for related military space activities. Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Nora Slatkin, and Principal Deputy CIA General Counsel, John Byerly, jointly led this review, to be completed within a few weeks.<38>


The $300 Million Photo-Mat

One question before the Congress and the executive branch was whether the plans for consolidation and expansion of the NRO facility, as conceived in the cold war era, were properly reviewed in the aftermath of the demise of the Soviet Union.<39> The Congress knew that the NRO was building a new headquarters facility in northern Virginia. The complaint was that the Congress was not adequately informed about the scope or the cost of the facility.<40>

Senator Warner observed that:<41>

"The NRO facility is truly a massive installation -- a series of four modern "towers" comprising 1 million square feet. By rough comparison, the Pentagon consists of 5 million square feet of usable space.... this facility, which was conceived during the cold war, is now disproportionate to the needs of the NRO. I have been unable to find any information which indicates that "a scrub" was done of this project following the collapse of the Soviet Union. At every step along the way, this project continued to expand.

"I am also concerned about the basic issue of fairness to other government employees, intelligence as well as others, who are working in facilities which are not as comfortable. In the Pentagon, I know from personal association, most employees work in cramped, aged quarters. Some perform the same high-level intelligence work as do the NRO employees. Why should NRO personnel be treated differently?"

In constant FY 1996 dollars, the Westfields Facility will cost about the same as other comparable Intelligence Community construction protects which have been completed over the past decade.<42> Primary office area is the personnel-occupied area in which an activity's normal operational functions are performed. The 125 square feet represents the amount of space occupied by employees houses in GSA office space.<43> The Westfields complex will provide 133 square feet per person, based on current estimates of the personnel occupancy. This is only slightly higher - 6% - than the General Services Administration (GSA) Guideline of 125 square feet per person. With the possible addition of 200 people, Westfields would be at or below the GSA guideline.<44>


What Did They Know and When Did They Know It?

NRO Director Jeffrey Harris acknowledged that:<45>

"In my view, our report card is mixed with regard to the information conveyed to the Committee on this effort. However, at no time do I believe it was the NRO's intent to obfuscate the costs or any other data associated with this project. In keeping with the Committee's recommendations, in the future I will ensure that data about this project is reported in a more detailed manner."

Harris acknowledged that:<46>

"The SSCI audit of the Westfields facility raises concerns that the specific budget for Westfields has not been clearly identifiable. At no time was it our intent to hide costs associated with this or any other NRO project.

"Information and documentation on the collocation facilities - including construction costs for Westfields -- has been provided to the Congress in a number of forms: CBJB submissions, testimony, and other types of correspondence. Because, in most cases, the NRO treated collocation in the aggregate, specific information about the Westfields complex in the budget submissions to the Congress is difficult to identify.

"We sincerely believed that it was the intent of the Congress that the NRO should collocate as expeditiously as possible.

"It has always been our intent to keep the Congress fully informed of the scope and cost of NRO collocation. We recognize the Committees concerns that the NRO reporting on this project was not consistent with the procedures followed by other Agencies. In the future we will report this data in a more detailed manner consistent with the direction of the Congress."

NRO included this activity in the base budget rather than presenting it as a new initiative, as the CIA had done for its new headquarters project at Langley. The NRO, working with the Congress, out of phase with the FY 1990 normal budget process continued planning for collocation at a permanent facility. The FY 1990 language provided resources for NRO reorganization to continue. In FY 1991, NRO did not include the project as an ongoing initiative because this facility is part of the infrastructure necessary to continue the operation of the organization, which historically has been reported in the base.<47>

However, a letter to David L. Boren, Chairman, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from DNRO Marty Faga of 17 September 1990 provided formal notification of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) intent to purchase a parcel of land in support of the permanent facility collocation activities of the NRO restructure efforts.<48>

The Director of Central Intelligence noted a number of other National Reconnaissance Office presentations to Congress concerning the Wesfields Facility. At the direction of Congress in the 1980s, NRO launched an initiative to examine restructuring and reorganization. The initiative reflected the findings of a major study that recommended consolidating the NRO in one location in the Washington metropolitan area. In February 1990, the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense forwarded to the chairmen of the two intelligence oversight committees copies of this consolidation study, including estimated costs for construction of a facility. In September 1990, Director/NRO notified the oversight committees of NRO@s intention to purchase 68 acres in northern Virginia. The notification specified plans to construct a one million square foot facility. In the annual budget submission for FY 1992, made in February 1991, NRO provided a description of its phased strategy for consolidation and collocation. Specific information on costs addressed resources needed for the first portions of the phased approach to consolidation. In February 1992, the NRO~s annual budget submission for FY1993 outlined progress in its phased strategy for consolidation and construction of the new facility. Detailed responses to congressional questions on the budget on May 19, 1992 provided construction costs for each year through FY1995. On 29 May 1992, in a written answer to a question from the Senate Select Committee, NRO provided a year-by-year estimate of the cost to complete a permanent facility. On 10 November 1992, NRO briefed the Senate Select Committee staff in detail on the construction program, including characteristics of the facility, square footage, and construction costs from the site development phase through the final "fitting up" phase. The briefing provided the estimated total cost for the facility broken down by year through FY1997. In February 1993 and in February 1994, in its annual budget submissions, NRO continued to inform Congress of the construction program's progress, updating estimates for the completion of the collocation project.<49>

A comparison of various budget tables presented to the Congress by NRO indicates the source of the problem. These figures fail to reveal the total cost of the building project, and create the impression that the cost is either significantly less, or substantially greater, than the $310 million current estimate. The 1993 budget provided for construction, outfitting, operations and maintenance of three permanent buildings. It also provided for general site development of the NRO Facilities compound, site security, structured parking, and an emergency generator building, warehouse, conference center and cafeteria. The three-building plan was designed to accommodate approximately 1,700 people. As of early 1992, the total cost for the permanent facility development activities was estimated at $227.4 million.<50> The additional costs from FY1993 through FY 1997 to accelerate construction plans sufficient to provide for full collocation of Program A and Program B at the western Fairfax facility were estimated at $228.0 million. These costs provide for the additional design, site work, utilities, parking, construction, security, communications, operations, and maintenance associated with the addition of the fourth building at our permanent facility. This will allow full collocation of the NRO.<51>



                           WESTFIELDS FACILITY
              PROGRAM COSTS ESTIMATES PRESENTED TO CONGRESS

                 3 Buildings    3 Buildings   4th Building
                  26 Feb 90     19 May 92     19 May 92
          
     FY91           31.9             -              -
     FY92           70.1          [81.6]*           -
     FY93           44.4           80.8           59.5
     FY94           19.8           80.9           74.9
     FY95           29.2           65.7           41.1
     FY96             -              -            27.2
     FY97             -              -            25.3

     Total         195.4          227.4          228.0
                                 [309.0]






Footnotes

<1> Jeffrey Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community, (Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge Massachusetts -- A Subsidiary of Harper & Row Publishers Inc. Second Edition, 1989), pages 27-29.

<2> Jeffrey Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community, (Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge Massachusetts -- A Subsidiary of Harper & Row Publishers Inc. Second Edition, 1989), pages 27-29.

<3> Richelson, Jeffrey, The U.S. Intelligence Community, (Cambridge, Balligner, 1989, second edition), page 13.

<4> Adapted from: FY 1992-1993 Congressional Budget Justification, National Reconnaissance Program, volume IV, January 1991, page 250, [TOP SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<5> The location of this facility has not been publicly revealed. If the annual lease cost is assumed to be $25 per square foot (typical of local lease costs for large facilities), the floor space of the facility would be approximately 200,000 square feet, if the entire stated budget were for lease costs alone. As it has been stated that these costs cover a much broader range of expenses, the total cost per square foot would be some multiple of the typical lease cost, suggesting a floor space of over 50,000 square feet, housing in several hundred employees.

<6> Adapted from: National Reconnaissance Office, "Report to the Secretary of Defense and Director of Central Intelligence Regarding NRO Restructure," 8 January 1990, copy _ of 20 copies, page 41 of 63 pages [TOP SECRET/CODE WORD, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<7> The highlighted words are deleted in the redacted version of this document. Although the number of letters in the blacked-out spaces is difficult to determine, given the unique kerning of the text, the fact that the word "Security" is capitalized in the original, suggests that the reference is either to the National Security Agency or a Centralized Security Function.

<8> Adapted from: FY 1992-1993 Congressional Budget Justification, National Reconnaissance Program, volume IV, January 1991, page 251, [TOP SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<9> Haggerty, Maryann, "Latest Episode of the Rockwell Files: Building Secrets in Chantilly," The Washington Post, 29 August 1994.

<10> The location of this facility has not been publicly revealed. If the annual lease cost is assumed to be $25 per square foot (typical of local lease costs for large facilities), the floor space of the facility would be approximately 750,000 square feet, if the entire stated budget were for lease costs alone. As it has been stated that these costs cover a much broader range of expenses, the total cost per square foot would be some multiple of the typical lease cost, suggesting a floor space of a few hundred thousand square feet, housing in excess of a thousand employees.

<11> Adapted from: FY 1994-1995 Congressional Budget Justification, National Reconnaissance Program, volume IV, March 1993, page 181, [TOP SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<12> Adapted from: National Reconnaissance Office, "Report to the Secretary of Defense and Director of Central Intelligence Regarding NRO Restructure," 8 January 1990, copy _ of 20 copies, page 41 of 63 pages [TOP SECRET/CODE WORD, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<13> Adapted from: FY 1992-1993 Congressional Budget Justification, National Reconnaissance Program, volume IV, January 1991, page 251, [TOP SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<14> Adapted from: "Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Westfields Questions" attachment to NRO Director Jeffrey Harris, "Letter to Dennis DeConcini, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," [no date, August 1994], copy 1 of 6 copies, [SECRET/SCI, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<15> Adapted from: National Reconnaissance Office, "Report to the Secretary of Defense and Director of Central Intelligence Regarding NRO Restructure," 8 January 1990, copy _ of 20 copies, page 42 of 63 pages [TOP SECRET/CODE WORD, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<16> Adapted from: Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Questions for the Record -- Fiscal Year 1993 CbJB, attachment to NRO Director Jeffrey Harris, "Letter to Dennis DeConcini, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," [no date, August 1994], copy 1 of 6 copies, [TOP SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<17> Adapted from: "Statement of Vice Chairman Warner," Hearing on NRO Facility, 10 August 1994.

<18> Adapted from: R. James Woolsey & John M. Deutch, "Joint Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence concerning the NRO Headquarters Building," 10 August 1994.

<19> Adapted from: "Attachment to Joint Letter from the DCI and the SECDEF to David Boren, Chairman Select Committee on Intelligence United States Senate." 26 February 1990, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<20> Adapted from: "Excerpts from the FY 1993 Congressional Budget Justification Book [submitted to all appropriate authorization and appropriation committees]" dated approximately early 1992, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<21> Adapted from: "Letter to David L. Boren, Chairman, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from DNRO Mary Faga," 17 September 1990, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<22> Adapted from: "Letter to David L. Boren, Chairman, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from DNRO Mary Faga," 17 September 1990, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<23> Adapted from: FY 1993 Congressional Budget Justification, National Reconnaissance Program, volume IV, January 1992, page 189, [TOP SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<24> "Statement of Vice Chairman Warner," Hearing on NRO Facility, 10 August 1994.

<25> Adapted from: Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Questions for the Record -- Fiscal Year 1993 CbJB, attachment to NRO Director Jeffrey Harris, "Letter to Dennis DeConcini, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," [no date, August 1994], copy 1 of 6 copies, [TOP SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<26> Vartabedian, Ralph, "Air Force Spy Unit Leaving Calif.," The Los Angeles Times, 16 October 1992, page A1, A5.

<27> Pearlstein, Steven, "Spy Satellite Agency to be Moved Here," The Washington Post, 17 October 1992, page A1, A13.

<28> Adapted from: Martin C. Faga, Director, NRO, "Letter to David Boren, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," 16 October 1992, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<29> Adapted from: "Briefing Provided to Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Staff Members," 10 November 1992, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<30> Adapted from: "Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Westfields Questions" attachment to NRO Director Jeffrey Harris, "Letter to Dennis DeConcini, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," [no date, August 1994], copy 1 of 6 copies, [SECRET/SCI, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<31> Adapted from: FY 1994-1995 Congressional Budget Justification, National Reconnaissance Program, volume IV, March 1993, pages 181-182, [TOP SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<32> Adapted from: "Statement of Vice Chairman Warner," Hearing on NRO Facility, 10 August 1994.

<33> United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, "Letter to James Woolsey, Director of Central Intelligence, and William Perry, Secretary of Defense," 29 July 1994 (SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<34> Adapted from: R. James Woolsey & John M. Deutch, "Joint Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence concerning the NRO Headquarters Building," 10 August 1994.

<35> Adapted from: "Statement of Vice Chairman Warner," Hearing on NRO Facility, 10 August 1994.

<36> NRO Director Jeffrey Harris, "Letter to Dennis DeConcini, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," [no date, August 1994], copy 1 of 6 copies, [SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<37> Adapted from: Department of Defense, Memorandum for Correspondents, No. -M, 8 August 1994.

<38> Adapted from: R. James Woolsey & John M. Deutch, "Joint Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence concerning the NRO Headquarters Building," 10 August 1994.

<39> Adapted from: "Statement of Vice Chairman Warner," Hearing on NRO Facility, 10 August 1994.

<40> Adapted from: "Statement of Vice Chairman Warner," Hearing on NRO Facility, 10 August 1994.

<41> "Statement of Vice Chairman Warner," Hearing on NRO Facility, 10 August 1994.

<42> Adapted from: "Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from D/NRO Harris," 10 August 1994, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<43> Adapted from: Code of Federal Regulations 41, Chapter 101, revised as of 1 July 1993, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<44> Adapted from: "Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from D/NRO Harris," 10 August 1994, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<45> NRO Director Jeffrey Harris, "Letter to Dennis DeConcini, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," [no date, August 1994], copy 1 of 6 copies, [SECRET, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<46> "Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Westfields Questions" attachment to NRO Director Jeffrey Harris, "Letter to Dennis DeConcini, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," [no date, August 1994], copy 1 of 6 copies, [SECRET/SCI, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<47> Adapted from: "Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Westfields Questions" attachment to NRO Director Jeffrey Harris, "Letter to Dennis DeConcini, Chairman Senate Select Committee on Intelligence," [no date, August 1994], copy 1 of 6 copies, [SECRET/SCI, declassified and released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing).

<48> Adapted from: "Letter to David L. Boren, Chairman, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from DNRO Mary Faga," 17 September 1990, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<49> Adapted from: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<50> Adapted from: ""Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Question for the Record, Fiscal Year 1993 -- Question 3," 19 May 1992, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<51> Adapted from: ""Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Question for the Record, Fiscal Year 1993 -- Question 4," 19 May 1992, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<52> Adapted from: "Attachment to Joint Letter from the DCI and the SECDEF to David Boren, Chairman Select Committee on Intelligence United States Senate." 26 February 1990, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<53> Adapted from: ""Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Question for the Record, Fiscal Year 1993 -- Question 3," 19 May 1992, abstracted in: Director of Central Intelligence, "NRO Westfields Facility," [no date, August 1994], released at the 10 August 1994 NRO Westfields Project Senate Intelligence Committee hearing.

<54> ibid, Question 4.

<55> Amount included in response to "Cost to Complete" question, ibid, but not reflected in the estimated total cost of the project provided in previous answers.


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