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A Commentary on Father Fahey’s


The Kingship of Christ and the

Conversion of the Jewish Nation

John Vennari



Reprinted from the September 30th issue of The Remnant

2539 Morrison Ave., St. Paul, MN 55117


To order your copy, dial—(715) 294-4139 or email (click here)



 “Let us pray that, in recalling the sufferings endured by the people of Israel throughout history, Christians will acknowledge the sins committed by not a few of their number against the people of the Covenant and the blessings, and in this way will purify their hearts.”

- A Representative of the Roman Curia

Confession of Sins Against the People of Israel from

the March 12, 2000, “Day of Forgiveness”


“Catholics need to be made familiar, not only with the repeated Papal condemnations of the Talmud, but with the measures taken by the Sovereign Pontiffs to preserve society from the inroads of Jewish Naturalism. Otherwise they will be exposed to the risk of speaking of Pope St. Pius V and Pope Benedict XIV, for example, as Anti-Semites, and showing their ignorance of the meaning of supernatural life and of the rule of Christ the King over society.”

- Father Denis Fahey, 1953, The Kingship of Christ

and the Conversion of the Jewish Nation


          More than one writer has observed that the March 12, 2000 apology for the alleged “sins against the People of Israel,” as part of the Vatican’s “Day of Forgiveness,” smacked of a one-sidedness that ignored theological truth, the facts of history and Jewish hatred of Christianity. American journalist Joe Sobran expressed bewilderment at the Papal Apology in a recent article entitled “Imperfect Contrition”:


 “The New Testament condemns ‘those of the synagogue of Satan, who say they are Jews and are not’; these words and others like them are ascribed to Christ, who apparently said nothing about ‘pluralism,’ ‘tolerance,’ ‘dialogue,’ or ‘the Judaeo-Christian tradition.’ The Jews are bluntly accused of crucifying Christ and persecuting Christians, and are warned that they must repent and convert. The Talmud is no more ecumenical, condemning all Gentiles, and Christians in particular, with obscene curses against Christ and the Blessed Virgin.”1


            Oddly enough, and in an indirect sort of way, the finest refutation of the “Apology for Sins Against the People of Israel” was penned 57 years ago by a lone Irish priest, who was more adept at reading the “signs of the times” than all post-Vatican II theologians combined.


Father Denis Fahey


          The Kingship of Christ and the Conversion of the Jewish Nation (Available from The Remnant Bookstore for $8.50 plus $2.00 p&h. The Remnant Bookstore 336 280th St., Osceola, WI 54020. Telephone 715-294-4139) was probably the last book published by Father Denis Fahey, the great champion of the Kingship of Christ, who died in 1954 at age 71. Other titles by Father Fahey include The Mystical Body of Christ in the Modern World, The Kingship of Christ and Organized Naturalism, The Church and Farming, and The Mystical Body of Christ and the Reorganization of Society.

          If there is one guarantee in reading Father Fahey's works it is this: once you read them, you will never look at the world in the same way again. Father Fahey’s uniqueness lies in the fact that he boldly and courageously proclaimed the Social Kingship of Our Lord Jesus Christ, which is a Catholic teaching conspicuously missing from the pulpits of the English-speaking world. His whole life's work was a prayer and a struggle to let the world know that Jesus Christ must be recognized as Lord and King by all nations, in private and in public. In short, Father Fahey gives his readers a truly Catholic world view.

          Father Fahey dedicated his life to sounding the alarm, perhaps the final alarm before the great collapse, that the once-Christian nations are knowingly and willingly returning to paganism due to the spirit of naturalism pervading everything, everywhere, not by accident, but by design.

          The more that nations turn their backs on Christ, the more they open the door for Satan and his fellow demons to poison the minds and hearts of men, and bring the world into darkness and utter ruin. Father Fahey's motto was unwelcome, but simple and true. He said, “The world must conform to Our Lord, not He to it.”

          In other words, States and Governments, as creatures of God, are not exempt from His law. For nations to prosper and endure, it is necessary that States and Governments recognize Christ’s Kingship over society. They must base their laws of right and wrong on what Jesus Christ and His Holy Catholic Church teach is right and wrong. Any other way is contrary to Our Lord’s Divine Plan for our ordered return to Him.

          More specifically, States and Governments have a duty before God to create a social environment that is conducive for souls to live the supernatural life of sanctifying grace. Father Fahey explains, “We are exhorted to work for the return of society to Christ the King, so that instead of having to combat influences hostile to our supernatural life when we leave the Church after Mass, we shall on the contrary be aided by the current of life around us.”2

          Father Fahey also pointed out, along with the consistent teachings of the Popes, that there are powerful organized forces working against Christ and his Divine Plan for Order. He called these malevolent groups “The Forces of Organized Naturalism.”

          These Forces of Organized Naturalism are working with diligence and success to de-Christianize society and to drive Jesus Christ from the hearts and minds of men. Their goal is to lift civilization off of its Christian foundation and place it on one of pure Naturalism, in which the one true God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, has no place.

          All his life, whether as seminary professor in Ireland, or as the author of numerous books and articles, Father Fahey explained that the two most powerful visible forces working toward the overthrow of Catholic social order are Freemasonry and the Jewish Nation. To make the claim that the “Jewish Nation” is working toward this evil purpose requires a sound explanation and convincing documentation. The Kingship of Christ and the Conversion of the Jewish Nation supplies precisely that.


The Six Points


          Father Fahey opens the book with a discussion of the Six Points of the Programme of Christ the King. These Six Points are an outline of Catholic social order based on traditional Papal teaching. In another one of his books, Father Fahey emphasizes the importance of the Six Points:


“In the Outline of History, which I give almost every year at the beginning of the year, I try for the minds of the Scholastics, to place historical epochs, movements, programmes of politicians, as well as ideas of authors, in the hands of pupils for the study of languages and of history, by reference to the Six Points of Our Lord's Programme. Whatever is in harmony with the Divine Programme for Order will make for real progress, whatever is opposed to it spells decay and death. Thus I try to train them to make Our Lord the center of their lives in every department.”3


          The Six Points are as follows:


          1) Our Lord’s Mystical Body, the Catholic Church, Supernatural and Supranational, which all States must acknowledge as the only way established by Our Lord for our ordered return to Him.

            2) The indirect power of the Church over the State. That is, States and Governments must recognize the Catholic Church as the sole Divinely appointed Guardian of the whole Moral Law, natural and revealed.

          3) The unity and indissolubility of Marriage.

          4) The education of children as Members of the Mystical Body of Christ

          5) The widespread diffusion and ownership of Private Property

          6) An economic system that facilitates finance and the production of goods so as to be at the service of members of Christ in happy families.4


          Against this Six-Point plan, there is Satan’s plan for disorder and decay. It is a point-by-point antithesis of Our Lord’s Programme. This too is based on Papal teachings that warn Catholics against the evil designs of the enemy. Satan aims at:


          1) preventing nations from recognizing the Catholic Church as the one true Church established by Christ,

          2) encouraging States to treat the indirect power of the Church with contempt, leaving it up to the State, or to the vote of the people, to decide all moral questions,

          3) undermining Christian family life directly by the legalization of divorce, or indirectly, by the widespread promotion of immorality,

          4) preventing children from being educated as Members of Christ, especially by giving children a naturalistic formation in schools,

          5) promoting the concentration of property into the hands of a few; either nominally in those of the State, that is, in the party in power, or in those of the money manipulators,

          6) promoting an economic system wherein human beings are subordinated to the production of material goods, and this production is subordinated to the making of money and the growth of power in the hands of the financiers.


          One can easily observe that in our time, in virtually every nation of the world, including the United States, it is Satan’s plan that has triumphed. Further, the Six-Point plan of Satan could pass as a blueprint for the agenda of the United Nations.

          In the next two chapters, Father Fahey explains the “Kingship of Christ and Its Integrity,” and gives the reader an “Outline of the Theology of History.” He writes that thirteenth-century Europe was the age that best practiced and understood God’s rights over society. Since then there has been a steady decay.

           The Protestant Revolt seriously wounded Catholic Europe with the formation of non-Catholic nations. This work of destruction was made almost complete by the French Revolution, with the establishment of the secular State. Since 1789, State after State has constructed itself on the naturalistic principles of Freemasonry, which is a satanic imitation of the supranational Catholic Church.

          Not surprisingly, Jewish writers have long hailed the Protestant Revolt and the French Revolution as great signs of progress.5 The Great Sanhedrin held at Paris in 1807 welcomed the principles of the French Revolution as the Messiah: “The Messiah came to us on Feb. 28, 1790, with the Declaration of the Rights of Man.”6


The Struggle of the Jewish Nation Against the Kingship of Christ


          Father Fahey then explains that there are two results of the decay in social acceptance of the Divine Plan:

          1) The gradual disappearance of the Catholic supernatural influences and ideals from the political and economic life of the nation; and,

          2) The elimination of the supernatural from public life, making smooth the path for the coming of the Natural Messiah.

          Our Lord had originally called the Jewish people to be the heralds of His Divine Plan to the world. Their refusal, says Fahey, “meant they elected to impose their national form on the world, and they have put all their intense energy and tenacity into the struggle for the organization of the future Messianic age. Thus, when any nation turns against the Supernatural Messiah, it will be pulled in the direction of subjection to the Natural Messiah.”7

          The Jewish ideal of what is the Messiah is interpreted differently by different Jews. The orthodox Jews want to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple, reinstate Old Testament worship, and await the coming of a personal Messiah. The non-orthodox Reform Jews have departed from the central hope of Judaism by rejecting belief in a personal Messiah. Instead they believe in the advent of a Messiah in the sense of a Messianic Age which will come through the leadership and domination of their race.8

          This does not mean that all Jews are bad men actively plotting against Christianity. Father Fahey notes that many have a great deal of natural virtue. However, notes Fahey, “as much as they are one with the leaders and rulers of their race, [they] will oppose the influence of the supernatural life in Society and will be an active ferment of Naturalism.”

          Father Fahey’s point is a simple one. When Jews gain control over Catholics in politics, economics, or social life, they will necessarily exert a non-Christian influence. This will beget the elimination of the supernatural influence of Christ over society, resulting in the disappearance of the Catholic State and the triumph of Naturalism. Fahey explains, “That Christ should reign over nations, in order that the influence of His supernatural life should be felt in all public life, elevating and purifying it, is utterly abhorrent to their Naturalism.”9

          Father Fahey’s words are confirmed by the Jewish writer Bernard Lazare, who wrote in his book L’Antisémitisme:


“The Jew is the living testimony of the disappearance of the State founded upon theological principles and which the Christian Anti-Semites dream of reconstructing. The day when a Jew became the holder of public positions, the Christian State was in danger. That is perfectly accurate, and the Anti-Semites who affirm that the Jews have ruined the idea of the State could say with greater justice that the entry of the Jews into society symbolized the destruction of the State, that is, of course, of the Christian State.”10


          It must be noted that Father Fahey sounded these warnings not because he hated the Jews, but because he, along with centuries of Papal practice, recognized the anti-supernatural effect that will result if Jews rise to prominent positions in Catholic countries. In fact, Father Fahey constantly reminded his readers that Catholics are forbidden to indulge in hatred or mistreatment of Jews:


“Our Lord’s Sacred Heart is a human heart and He loves His own nation with a special love. We must never forget that or allow ourselves to fall victims to an attitude of hatred for the Jews as a Nation. We must always bear in mind that He is seeking to draw them on to that supernatural union with Himself, which they reject.... We are bound to work for the return of society to Our Loving Savior, so that social organization may be permeated with the reality of the supernatural life of grace.”11


          Father Fahey’s love of the Jewish Nation is demonstrated by the special pious practice he performed faithfully:


“For over twenty years, I have been offering the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass every year on the Feasts of the Resurrection, Corpus Christi, SS Peter and Paul and the Assumption of Our Blessed Mother, for the acceptance of the Jewish Nation of the Divine Plan for order.”12


          The love that Father Fahey bore for the Jewish people, however, was not a sloppy, sentimental love that strove to prove itself by pandering to the latest gripes of the B’nai B’rith. Father Fahey viewed all things by measuring them against Christ and His Divine Plan for order. He thus expressed himself on the Jews establishing the State of Israel in Palestine:


“Have the Jews a right to Palestine as the portion of the earth’s surface in which they may set up a separate State? It is clear they do not. From all that has been said about their rejection of the true supernatural Messiah, they can no longer claim it by Divine right. They were assigned this part of the earth on condition of their being obedient to God. They disobeyed God’s command to hear His Son, by their rejection of Our Divine Lord before Pilate and on Calvary, and they persist in their disobedience. Accordingly, there can be no question of a right based on a Divine Promise. In addition, the Arabs have a natural right to the country they have occupied for the last thirteen hundred years.”13


          Fahey even noted that because the attempt to set up a Jewish State in Palestine was, objectively, an effort to defy God, it had been suggested that some other country should be set aside for the Jewish Nation — like Uganda.14


The Talmud


          Father Fahey examines the proper meaning of the term “Anti-Semitism.” In truth, it means hatred of Jews as a race, and, as such, is sinful. “The Jews, however,” says Fahey “use the word to designate any form of opposition to themselves, and they strive persistently to associate irrationality and want of balance with the term. They evidently want the world to believe that anyone who opposes Jewish pretensions is more or less deranged.” He then provides extensive quotations from Papal and Vatican documents wherein the Church condemns hatred of the Jews.15

          Father Fahey now launches into the sensitive issue of the Talmud, whose Messianic teaching is reflected in the following quote from The Jewish World, Feb. 9, 1883:


“The great ideal of Judaism is ... that the whole world should be imbued with Jewish teachings, and that in a universal Brotherhood of nations — a great Judaism in fact — all the separate races and religions shall disappear.”16


          It is the Talmudic formation that is responsible for the attitude of the Jewish Nation to other nations, which leads to the friction that they provoke. Msgr. Landrieux, Bishop of Dijon, France, in his L’Histoire et les Histores dans la Bible, outlines the effects of the Talmud as follows:


“It is a systematic deformation of the Bible.... The pride of race with the idea of universal domination is therein exalted to the height of folly.... For the Talmudists, the Jewish race alone constitutes humanity, the non-Jews are not human beings. They are a purely animal nature. They have no rights. The moral laws which regulate the mutual relations of men, the Ten Commandments, are not of obligation in their regard.”17


          The ex-Rabbi Drach, a nineteenth-century convert to Catholicism, who was highly honored and decorated for his learned works by Popes Leo XII, Pius VIII and Gregory XVI, also provides a fascinating insight into the Talmud:


“For a long time it was my professional duty to teach the Talmud and explain its doctrines, after having attended special courses for many years under the most renowned of contemporary Jewish Doctors.... The judicious reader of the Talmud is often saddened by the presence of many of those strange aberrations into which the human mind falls when bereft of the true faith, and very frequently rabbinical cynicism makes him blush with shame. The Christian is horrified by the insane and atrocious calumnies which the impious hatred of the Pharisees hurls at everything he holds sacred ... In the Ghemara [part of the Talmud] there are at least a hundred passages which are insulting to the memory of Our Adorable Savior, the more-than-angelic purity of His Holy Mother, the Immaculate Queen of Heaven, as well as the moral character of the Christian, whom the Talmud represents as practicing the most abominable vices.”18


          Regarding the long-established Jewish reverence for the Talmud, Msgr. Landrieux quotes the Jewish organ L’Univers Israélite (June 1887): “For two thousand years the Talmud has and remains an object of veneration for the sons of Israel, whose religious Code it is.” He also mentions the Archives Israélites, according to which: “The absolute superiority of the Talmud over the Bible of Moses must be recognized by all.”19

          Father Fahey asks the question: Is the Talmud still taught to Jews today? He answers by citing Volume 12 of the Jewish Encyclopedia: “For the majority of Jews, the Talmud is still the supreme authority in religion.” However, “Modern culture has gradually alienated from the study of the Talmud a number of Jews in countries of progressive civilization....Yet it occupies a prominent place in the curricula of the Rabbinical seminaries.”20

          But how, the reader may ask, do Talmudic Rabbis teach that the Jewish race itself is the “Messiah.”

          Father Fahey answers by quoting the work of the Fathers Lémann, two of the most distinguished Jewish converts from the nineteenth-century. Here we learn that the Rabbis have altered certain words of Old Testament prophecies, or sculpt the interpretation so that they apply to the Jewish race and not to Christ. Here are three examples:


          Rabbi Jerchi writes:


“Our Doctors understand this psalm (Psalm 2) of the Messiah, but on account of the Christians who profit by this in a sinister fashion, it is expedient to refer it to David: and Isaiah 53, in which there is a question of the sufferings of the Messiah, is made to refer to the Jewish people.”


          According to Rabbi Kimchi,


“The true interpretation of Psalm 2221 is to understand it of the people of Israel. It is the Jewish people which cries out in captivity: My God, My God, why have You abandoned me? And if, in this psalm, all the terms are in the singular, it is because Israel in exile must be considered as forming one man, with one single heart.”


          Likewise, Rabbi Jarchi explains Chapter 53 of Isaiah:


“Sufferings have befallen the Jewish people, in order that by their wounds they may become the salvation of the world. The Lord has been appeased in His indignation and He has not laid waste the earth.”22


            The Fathers Lémann grieve for these disastrous effects of the Talmud on the Jewish people:


 “Since this leaden book presses down on Israel, there is no longer question of the Messiah among the Jews. The Bible was too clear, the seventy weeks of Daniel were too clear, the twenty-second Psalm of David was too clear; the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah was too clear. Your Rabbis, O Israelites, have extinguished all these lights with the Talmud.”23


          The Fathers Lémann also quote certain Jewish writers who speak of the “true Redeemer not being a person, but Israel transformed into a beacon for the nations.”

          Thus the modern Zionist ideal has little in common with the traditional Judaism of Abraham and the Patriarchs. “The just of the Old Law,” writes the ex-Rabbi Drach, “did not attribute to the Messiah they expected, as does the modern synagogue, the mission of restoring our nation to Palestine, and bestowing upon it glory and goods of this world, but that of winning our spiritual salvation, as in point of fact Our Lord Jesus Christ has done.”24


Contemporary Jewish Aims and Future Events


          The Talmud is a dark subject. A knowledge of it is necessary for the Catholic, but it can leave one near despair regarding the salvation of the Jewish nation. Perhaps this is why Father Fahey immediately followed his treatment of the Talmud with a study of the prophecies concerning the future conversion of the Jewish nation to the Catholic Faith. “There is a tradition in the Church” writes Fahey, “that the Jewish people will be converted when the Nations shall have ceased to be Catholic by falling into apostasy.”25 He provides many citations from Scripture and the Fathers of the Church that foretell the conversion of the Jews, probably taking place during the persecution by Antichrist. The convert Father Lémann also comments on the fiery missionary zeal for the Gospel that will characterize the Jews when they finally convert to Christ and His one true religion.

          We, however, still live in an age when the Jews have not yet converted. They continue to exercise a de-Christianizing influence on the nations (and since Vatican II, on the Church, but that is cause for another study).26 The section titled “Contemporary Jewish Aims” chronicles various goals and activities of the Jewish Nation according to documentation available up until the early 1950s. These details are too numerous to mention here, including the accounts of the brutal treatment of Arabs during the establishment of the State of Israel.

          Of special note is Father Fahey’s brief treatment of UNESCO, where he explains that the goal of this United Nations group is to educate children according to the principles of Naturalism. He also foretells the introduction of corrupt sex education to young children. Finally, he cites a 1952 Canadian Intelligence Service extract which reports, “One tiny group [identified as Zionist nationalists] that constitutes one percent of the world’s population holds no less than sixty percent of the permanent posts of the United Nations Organization.”27

          The final chapter, “The Coming of Antichrist” is perhaps the best and briefest treatment of this subject in print. It is fitting that the book closes with a discussion of this Apocalyptic event, because Tradition holds that neither the coming of Antichrist, nor the conversion of the Jews, will take place until the Apostasy of the Nations from the Catholic Faith. Here, Fahey relies on the work of the Jewish convert, Father Lémann, who classifies what we can know about the coming of Antichrist into four categories: 1) Things that are certain, 2) Things that are probable, 3) Things that are undecided, 4) Things that have not a solid foundation.

          The chapter closes by quoting the little-known Decree from Fourth Lateran Council that threatens with excommunication anyone who attempts to give a precise date for the coming of Antichrist or the Second Coming of Christ.




          When Pope John Paul performed the March 12 act of apology for sins “against the people of Israel,” he prayed “God of our fathers, you chose Abraham and his descendants to bring your Name to the Nations: we are deeply saddened by the behavior of those who in the course of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant. We ask this through Christ our Lord.”

          Father Fahey’s writings, which are based on the consistent teachings of the Popes, reveal the gross deficiencies of this prayer, no matter how well-intentioned it may have been. In truth, only Roman Catholics can honestly be called “sons of Abraham,” since it is only the Catholic religion which is faithful to the Faith of Abraham regarding the coming of the Redeemer. Only Roman Catholics can truly be called the “People of the Covenant,” since Christ superseded the Old Covenant with His New Covenant by His Passion, Death, Resurrection, and the establishment of His one true ecclesia.28

          Thus, the March 12 “prayer for forgiveness” was a bizarre inversion of what should have taken place. It is the Jewish Rabbis who should have been on their knees reciting this same prayer, asking Heaven’s forgiveness for causing God’s “children to suffer” by their de-Christianizing effect on the nations and for their opposition to Christ and His Kingship. It is the Jewish Rabbis who should have vowed to “commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant,” in other words, to repudiate their blasphemous Talmudic errors and convert to the New Covenant of Jesus Christ, the Holy Roman Catholic Church.


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1) Joe Sobran, “Imperfect Contrition,” Sobran’s, May, 2000.

2) The Kingship of Christ and the Conversion of the Jewish Nation, [Hereafter, KCCJN] (Omni publication, first published 1953, republished 1987) p. 52.

3) Father Denis Fahey, A Brief Sketch of My Life Work, (Omni Publications), p. 8. Emphasis added.

4) This Sixth point is a paraphrase. A fuller explanation of this last point is beyond the scope of this article. For a fuller treatment of the Six Points, consult “A Clear Vision of the Kingship of Christ, The Six Points of Father Fahey” by John Vennari. (Audio cassette from 1999 Remnant conference.)

5) For example, See Judaism and the Vatican by Vicomte Leon de Poncins (Omni, 1967), which quotes the Jewish writer Joshua Jehouda who speaks favorably of the “three important stages” of the destruction of traditional Christianity: The Renaissance, The Protestant Revolt, The French Revolution., pp. 35-36.

6) Minutes of the Great Sanhedrin. Cited from KCCJN, p. 187.

7) KCCJN, p. 49.

8) David Goldstein, Campaigners for Christ, p. 20. Cited in Ibid., p. 49. David Goldstein was a former Jew who converted to Catholicism.

9) KCCJN, p. 65.

10) Ibid., p. 60.

11) Ibid., pp. 72-73.

12) Ibid., p. 6.

13) Ibid., p. 70.

14) Ibid., p. 71. On the same page, Father Fahey adds in a footnote: “Some writers state that Great Britain offered Uganda to the Jews. (Cf. Waters Flowing Eastward by L. Frey, p. 38.) Of course, the rights of the original inhabitants should be respected.”

15) See KCCJN, pp. 79-81.

16) Ibid., p. 78.

17) Ibid., p. 86.

18) Ibid., pp. 88-89.

19) Ibid., p. 92.

20) Ibid., p. 93.

21) Psalm 21 in the Douay-Rheims.

22) KCCJN, p. 95.

23) Ibid., p. 96.

24) Ibid., p. 100.

25) Ibid., p. 109.

26) Presently, and in the name of Vatican II, the National Council of Catholic Bishops are working with Jewish Rabbis from the Anti-Defamation League of the B’Nai B’rith on a new Commentary on the Lectionary designed to “purge” the Lectionary’s teachings of anything they deem to be “Anti-Jewish.” See “The Gospel According to Non-Believers” by John Vennari, contained in the book We Resist You to the Face (TIA, 2000) and also published in the May and June 2000 editions of Catholic Family News.

27) KCCJN, p. 169.                               

28) For a fuller explanation of these points, consult “The Meaning of the Name Church” by the eminent theologian, Msgr. Joseph Clifford Fenton, American Ecclesiastical Review, October, 1954. Elsewhere, Msgr. Fenton explains, “This society [the Catholic Church] was the true continuation of Israel. The men who were within it were the true sons of Abraham, in that they had the genuine faith of Abraham. This society [the Catholic Church] was the new association of the chosen people. Its members were, as Saint Paul called them, the elect or the chosen of God.” See The Catholic Church and Salvation, Fenton, (Newman Press, 1958), p. 139.