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*FM 21-11
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C. 27 OCTOBER 1988

FM 21-11

FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS


*Table of Contents


  1. CHANGE PAGE #1 DATED 28 AUGUST 1989

  2. CHANGE PAGE #2 DATED 4 DECEMBER 1991

  3. PREFACE

  4. CHAPTER 1. Fundamental Criteria for First Aid

    Section I. EVALUATE CASUALTY

    1. 1-1. CASUALTY EVALUATION (081-831-1000)
    2. 1-2. MEDICAL ASSISTANCE (081-831-1000)

    Section II. UNDERSTAND VITAL BODY FUNCTIONS

    1. 1-3. RESPIRATION AND BLOOD CIRCULATION
    2. 1-4. ADVERSE CONDITIONS

  5. CHAPTER 2. Basic Measures for First Aid

    Section I. OPEN THE AIRWAY AND RESTORE BREATHING

    1. 2-1. BREATHING PROCESS
    2. 2-2. ASSESSMENT (EVALUATION) PHASE (081-831-1000 AND 081-831-1042)
    3. 2-3. OPENING THE AIRWAY--UNCONSCIOUS AND NOT BREATHING CASUALTY (081-831-1042)
    4. 2-4. RESCUE BREATHING (ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION)
    5. 2-5. PRELIMINARY STEPS--ALL RESCUE BREATHING METHODS (081-831-1042)
    6. 2-6. MOUTH-TO-MOUTH METHOD (081-831-1042)
    7. 2-7. MOUTH-TO-NOSE METHOD
    8. 2-8. HEARTBEAT
    9. 2-12. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTIONS
    10. 2-13. OPENING THE OBSTRUCTED AIRWAY--CONSCIOUS CASUALTY (081-831-1003)
    11. 2-14. OPEN AN OBSTRUCTED AIRWAY--CASUALTY LYING OR UNCONSCIOUS (081-831-1042)

    Section II. STOP THE BLEEDING AND PROTECT THE WOUND

    1. 2-15. CLOTHING (081-831-1016)
    2. 2-16. ENTRANCE AND EXIT WOUNDS
    3. 2-17. FIELD DRESSING (081-831-1016)
    4. 2-18. MANUAL PRESSURE (081-831-1016)
    5. 2-19. PRESSURE DRESSING (081-831-1016)
    6. 2-20. TOURNIQUET (081-831-1017)

    Section III. CHECK AND TREAT FOR SHOCK

    1. 2-21. CAUSES AND EFFECTS
    2. 2-22. SIGNS/SYMPTOMS (081-831-1000)
    3. 2-23. TREATMENT/PREVENTION (081-831-1005)

  6. CHAPTER 3. First Aid for Special Wounds

    Section I. GIVE PROPER FIRST AID FOR HEAD INJURIES

    1. 3-1. HEAD INJURIES
    2. 3-2. SIGNS/SYMPTOMS (081-831-1000)
    3. 3-3. GENERAL FIRST AID MEASURES (081-831-1000)
    4. 3-4. DRESSINGS AND BANDAGES

    Section II. GIVE PROPER FIRST AID FOR FACE AND NECK INJURIES

    1. 3-5. FACE INJURIES
    2. 3-6. NECK INJURIES
    3. 3-7. PROCEDURE
    4. 3-8. DRESSINGS AND BANDAGES (081-831-1033)

    Section III. GIVE PROPER FIRST AID FOR CHEST AND ABDOMINAL WOUNDS AND BURN INJURIES

    1. 3-9. CHEST WOUNDS (081-831-1026)
    2. 3-10. CHEST WOUND(S) PROCEDURE (081-831-1026)
    3. 3-11. ABDOMINAL WOUNDS
    4. 3-12. ABDOMINAL WOUND(S) PROCEDURE (081-831-1025)
    5. 3-13. BURN INJURIES
    6. 3-14. FIRST AID FOR BURNS (031-31-1007)

    Section IV. APPLY PROPER BANDAGES TO UPPER AND LOWER EXTREMITIES

    1. 3-15. SHOULDER BANDAGE
    2. 3-16. ELBOW BANDAGE
    3. 3-17. HAND BANDAGE
    4. 3-18. LEG (UPPER AND LOWER) BANDAGE
    5. 3-19. KNEE BANDAGE
    6. 3-20. FOOT BANDAGE

  7. CHAPTER 4. First Aid for Fractures

    1. 4-1. KINDS OF FRACTURES
    2. 4-2. SIGNS/SYMPTOMS OF FRACTURES (081-831-1000)
    3. 4-3. PURPOSES OF IMMOBILIZING FRACTURES
    4. 4-4. SPLINTS, PADDING, BANDAGES, SLINGS, AND SWATHES (081-831-1034)
    5. 4-5. PROCEDURES FOR SPLINTING SUSPECTED FRACTURES (081-831-1034)
    6. 4-6. UPPER EXTREMITY FRACTURES (081-831-1034)
    7. 4-7. LOWER EXTREMITY FRACTURES (081-831-1034)
    8. 4-8. JAW, COLLARBONE, AND SHOULDER FRACTURES
    9. 4-9. SPINAL COLUMN FRACTURES (081-831-1000)
    10. 4-10. NECK FRACTURES (081-831-1000)

  8. CHAPTER 5. First Aid for Climatic Injury

    1. 5-1. HEAT INJURIES
    2. 5-2. COLD INJURIES

  9. CHAPTER 6. First Aid for Bites and Stings

    1. 6-1. TYPES OF SNAKES
    2. 6-2. SNAKEBITES
    3. 6-3. HUMAN AND OTHER ANIMAL BITES
    4. 6-4. MARINE (SEA) ANIMALS
    5. 6-5. INSECT BITES/STINGS
    6. 6-6. TABLE

  10. CHAPTER 7. First Aid in Toxic Environments

    Section I. INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION AND FIRST AID EQUIPMENT FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    1. 7-1. TOXIC SUBSTANCES
    2. 7-2. PROTECTIVE AND FIRST AID EQUIPMENT

    Section II. CHEMICAL-BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

    1. 7-3. CLASSIFICATION
    2. 7-4. CONDITIONS FOR MASKING WITHOUT ORDER OR ALARM
    3. 7-5. FIRST AID FOR A CHEMICAL ATTACK (081-831-1030 AND 081-831-1031)

    Section III. NERVE AGENTS

    1. 7-6. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
    2. 7-7. SIGNS/SYMPTOMS OF NERVE AGENT POISONING (081-831-1030 AND 081-831-1031)
    3. 7-8. FIRST AID FOR NERVE AGENT POISONING (081-831-1030)

    Section IV. OTHER AGENTS

    1. 7-9. BLISTER AGENTS
    2. 7-10. CHOKING AGENTS (LUNG-DAMAGING AGENTS)
    3. 7-11. BLOOD AGENTS
    4. 7-12. INCAPACITATING AGENTS
    5. 7-13. INCENDIARIES
    6. 7-14. FIRST AID FOR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
    7. 7-15. TOXINS
    8. 7-16. RADIOLOGICAL

  11. CHAPTER 8. First Aid for Psychological Reactions

    1. 8-1. EXPLANATION OF TERM "PSYCHOLOGICAL FIRST AID"
    2. 8-2. IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FIRST AID
    3. 8-3. SITUATIONS REQUIRING PSYCHOLOGICAL FIRST AID
    4. 8-4. INTERRELATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL FIRST AID
    5. 8-5. GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FIRST AID
    6. 8-6. RESPECT FOR OTHERS' FEELINGS
    7. 8-7. EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL DISABILITY
    8. 8-8. EMOTIONAL REACTION TO INJURY
    9. 8-9. EMOTIONAL RESERVE STRENGTH OF DISTRESSED SOLDIERS
    10. 8-1O. BATTLE FATIGUE (AND OTHER COMBAT STRESS REACTIONS [CSR])
    11. 8-11. REACTIONS TO STRESS
    12. 8-12. SEVERE STRESS OR BATTLE FATIGUE REACTIONS
    13. 8-13. APPLICATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FIRST AID
    14. 8-14. REACTIONS AND LIMITATIONS
    15. 8-15. TABLES

  12. APPENDIX A. First Aid Case and Kits, Dressings, and Bandages

    1. A-1. FIRST AID CASE WITH FIELD DRESSINGS AND BANDAGES
    2. A-2. GENERAL PURPOSE FIRST AID KITS
    3. A-3. CONTENTS OF FIRST AID CASE AND KITS
    4. A-4. DRESSINGS
    5. A-5. STANDARD BANDAGES
    6. A-6. TRIANGULAR AND CRAVAT (SWATHE) BANDAGES

  13. APPENDIX B. Rescue and Transportation Procedures

    1. B-1. GENERAL
    2. B-2. PRINCIPLES OF RESCUE OPERATIONS
    3. B-3. TASK (RESCUE) IDENTIFICATION
    4. B-4. CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE RESCUE
    5. B-5. PLAN OF ACTION
    6. B-6. MASS CASUALTIES
    7. B-7. PROPER HANDLING OF CASUALTIES
    8. B-8. TRANSPORTATION OF CASUALTIES
    9. B-9. MANUAL CARRIES (081-831-1040 AND 081-831-1041)
    10. B-10. IMPROVISED LITTERS (FIGURES B-15, B-16, AND B-17) (081-831-1041)

  14. APPENDIX C. Common Problems/Conditions

    Section I. HEALTH MAINTENANCE

    1. C-1. GENERAL
    2. C-2. PERSONAL HYGIENE
    3. C-3. DIARRHEA AND DYSENTERY
    4. C-4. DENTAL HYGIENE
    5. C-5. DRUG (SUBSTANCE) ABUSE
    6. C-6. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Section II. FIRST AID FOR COMMON PROBLEMS

    1. C-7. HEAT RASH (OR PRICKLY HEAT)
    2. C-8. CONTACT POISONING (SKIN RASHES)
    3. C-9. CARE OF THE FEET
    4. C-10. BLISTERS

  15. APPENDIX E. Digital Pressure

  16. APPENDIX F. Decontamination Procedures

    1. F-1. PROTECTIVE MEASURES AND HANDLING OF CASUALTIES
    2. F-2. PERSONAL DECONTAMINATION
    3. F-3. CASUALTY DECONTAMINATION

  17. APPENDIX G. Skill Level 1 Tasks

  18. GLOSSARY

  19. REFERENCES

  20. AUTHORIZATION LETTER


* This publication supersedes FM 21-11, 7 October 1985.