The Golden Age Batman Chronology Part Two

Events Issue Date
The Postwar Era
1946
Batman and Robin help Superman investigate a series of mysterious bank robberies that the Man of Steel believes he himself may have committed during several strange blackouts he has suffered as an after-effect of his exposure to Kryptonite. The real robber is ultimately identified as a naive Russian strongman named Boris, who has been manipulated by a gang of crooks into committing the robberies on the pretext that they are are harmless publicity stunt. The gang is sent to prison, and Superman arranges for Boris to get a legitimate job.
Note: This story aired on the Adventures of Superman radio series from January 29 to February 14, 1946. At one point in the story Superman mentions to Batman that he signs his name with his right hand as Clark Kent and his left hand as Superman to help prevent anyone from discovering his secret identity by comparing his handwriting. Batman remarks on the wisdom of this strategy, and, as established in World’s Finest Comics #60 (9-10/52), he and Robin began doing the same in later comic stories.
*SUP RADIO* 1-2/46
Batman and Robin meet the Penguin’s Aunt Miranda and learn that his real name is Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot. ASch/JB/CP
Notes: The Penguin’s real name was never revealed in any of his Golden Age comic book appearances, but Batman #257 (8/74) established this as his real name in the comic book as well as the comic strip.
*SUNDAY* 2/46
Batman and Robin upgrade the Batplane to jet propulsion, adding at least “100 miles per hour” to its maximum speed. ?/DS TEC 108 2/46
Batman and Robin attend a masquerade ball to apprehend gangster Slugger Kaye. Unfortunately for Robin, their stolen invitation specifies that “due to certain unfortunate cases of fisticuffs at last year’s ball, no gent will be admitted unless accompanied by his own lady,” forcing Robin to accompany Batman, who is dressed as Louis XVI, in the guise of Marie Antoinette. At the ball, Robin attracts the unwelcome attention of several men, including Slugger Kaye, inciting a brawl with jealous gun moll Hammerlock Hilda. To add further to his indignity, he is later forced to deliberately flirt with some of Kaye’s gangland associates to provide a distraction while Batman removes the unconscious Kaye from the party. JSch/DS/SK
Notes: This was the only newspaper sequence drawn by Dick Sprang. Although Sprang was offered the opportunity to become the strip’s regular artist, he felt constrained by both the format and the deadlines involved, and turned it down.
*DAILY* 2-3/46
Batman and Robin meet Gotham senator Rae Raleigh and match wits with notorious radio journalist Reed Parker, who has sworn to expose Batman’s true identity on his radio show, “The News That Makes the News.” ASch/BK/CP
Notes: Reed Parker was based on newspaper and radio pundit Walter Winchell (1897-1972), whose Sunday radio series, Walter Winchell’s Journal, ran on ABC from 1932 through 1953.
*DAILY* 3-6/46
April 1, 1946: Batman helps Clark Kent play a prank on Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen, and his other friends and colleagues.
Note: This story aired on the Adventures of Superman radio series from March 29 through April 14, 1946.
*SUP RADIO* 4/46
In London, Batman and Robin use their first Bat-Boat and defeat Professor Moriarty, an English criminal who models himself on the infamous foe of Sherlock Holmes. DC/WM
Notes: This story firmly established that Sherlock Holmes and Moriarty were fictional characters in Batman’s world — at least on Earth-Two. Some later tales (e.g., Detective Comics #572 (3/87)) indicate that Holmes really existed in the DC Universe, at least on Earth-One. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s great detective first appeared in “A Study in Scarlet,” initially published in November 1887 as the main part of Beeton’s Christmas Annual. Professor Moriarty was introduced in the story “The Final Problem,” first published in The Strand magazine in December 1893.
TEC 110 4/46
Batman and Robin participate in a wild, cross-country race that takes them to various American landmarks, including Mount Rushmore. BF/DS
Notes: Les Daniels suggests that the Mt. Rushmore sequence in this story may have inspired the similar scenes in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1959 opus North by Northwest.
BATMAN 34 [1] 4-5/46
Batman and Robin carry out an elaborate exercise in which Robin is given 24 hours to find and “apprehend” his mentor in Gotham City. BF/DS
Notes: This story may have inspired Batman Chronicles: The Gauntlet (1999), a modern graphic novel by Bruce Canwell and Lee Weeks, in which Robin, as a “final exam” for his role as Batman’s partner, is compelled to elude Batman in Gotham City for 24 hours.
BATMAN 34 [3] 4-5/46
Catwoman challenges Batman to capture her as she carries out a spree of crimes across the country, taunting her nemesis by sending letters to the newspapers announcing the location of her next crime. While pursuing the villainess aboard a steamer bound for Nashville, Tennessee, Batman masquerades as a middle-age man while Robin is disguised as his young daughter, “Lulu Belle.” ASch/JB/FR/WM
Notes: The costume worn by Catwoman in this story was basically identical in style to her most famous purple-and-green outfit, but it was colored dark blue with a light purple cape.
*SUNDAY* 4-6/46
Batman and Robin battle the gangster “Nails” Finney. BF?/WM
Notes: The title of this story, “A Tree Grows in Gotham City,” was inspired by the 1943 novel A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, written by Betty Smith. The novel was faithfully adapted for the screen in 1945 by 20th Century Fox; the film was noted director Elia Kazan’s feature debut.
WF 22 5-6/46
Batman and Robin match wits the Catwoman, who carries out a series of death-defying stunts intended to convince her henchmen that she is virtually invincible. She finally plummets over a cliff, leaving Batman uncertain if she has survived. BF/DS
Notes: This story was the first time Catwoman wore her distinctive purple-and-green costume. Her hair was inexplicably colored blond, rather than black.
BATMAN 35 [1] 6-7/46
Batman and Robin defeat a group of criminals who have commandeered the mechanical dinosaurs on Dinosaur Island, an island amusement park operated by showman Murray Wilson Hart. Hart later gives Batman one of the dinosaurs, which becomes one of the principal trophies in the Batcave’s Hall of Trophies. BF/RB/Gene McDonald> BATMAN 35 [2] 6-7/46
Dick Grayson tries his hand as a comic book writer for Crescent Comics. DC?/DS BATMAN 35 [3] 6-7/46
Batman and Robin investigate a series of bizarre attempts to murder Cappy Wren, a young man who has been diagnosed with a rare disease that gives him only 10 days to live. ASch/BK/CP
Note: This story, which ran in the daily newspaper strip from June 3 through August 3, 1946, may have been partly based on the 1937 David O. Selznick film Nothing Sacred, which starred Carole Lombard as a young woman named Hazel Flagg, who becomes a celebrity in New York City after she falsely claims to be dying of radium poisoning.
*DAILY* 6-8/47
Batman helps Superman protect the secret of his dual identity from Scotland Yard detective Herbert Calkins, who suspects that Clark Kent is Superman.
Note: The story, which aired on the Adventures of Superman radio series from July 22 to July 31, 1946, was the first time that Batman masqueraded as Superman. A very similar story (albeit not involving Batman) with a similar character, Inspector Erskine Hawkins, appeared in Action Comics #100, cover dated September 1946. That story, written by Al Schwartz and drawn by Ira Yarbrough, appeared on newsstands at about the same time the radio serial aired; it is unclear which was conceived first.
*SUP RADIO* 7/46
Batman and Robin match wits with the unscrupulous defense called the Iceberg. ASch/BK/CP
Notes: According to writer Alvin Schwartz, this story, which ran in the daily newspaper strip from August 5 to September 21, 1946, was inspired by (and borrowed several key elements from) the 1932 Warner Bros. film The Mouthpiece, starring Warren William.
*DAILY* 8-9/46
The Penguin opens a restaurant called the Nest as part of an elaborate scheme to obtain the signatures of some of Gotham’s wealthiest residents. ASch/BK/RB
Notes: This story became the basis for a two-part episode of the Batman television series, “The Penguin’s Nest”/“The Bird’s Last Jest.” The teleplay was written by Lorenzo Semple, Jr., and originally aired December 7-8, 1966.
BATMAN 36 [1] 8-9/46
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to sixth-century England, where they meet King Arthur. BF/BK/RB BATMAN 36 [3] 8-9/46
Dick Grayson receives threatening calls and letters from an old enemy, Eric Larson, who is supposedly dead, having passed away while in prison. He eventually discovers that Larson has faked his own death as part of a plot devised by Paul Marsh, the unscrupulous secretary of Dick’s ailing grandfather, to do away with Dick so that Marsh will inherit his grandfather’s fortune. Larson is subsequently murdered by Marsh, who abducts Dick and nearly succeeds in killing Dick, his grandfather, and Alfred before he is finally defeated by Batman and Superman.
Note: This story, entitled “The Dead Voice,” aired on the Adventures of Superman radio series from September 25 to October 16, 1946. In the radio version of Robin’s origin, described by Bruce Wayne in the September 25, 1946 episode, Eric Larson was the dishonest proprietor of the circus that employed the Flying Graysons. Larson blackmailed the Graysons with the threat of betraying relatives of Dick’s mother (whose name was said to be Yvonne) in occupied France to the Nazis; when the Graysons could no longer pay him, he engineered their deaths. He was eventually apprehended by Batman and Robin and sent to prison in 1941. None of these events were ever reflected in the comic books or comic strip.
*SUP RADIO* 9-10/46
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to 13th century England, where they meet Robin Hood. DC/WM
Notes: Interestingly, while Detective Comics #110 (4/46) presented Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Moriarty as purely fictional characters, this story showed Robin Hood and his men as real historical people whose lives really were the way they were described in Sir Walter Scott’s literary account. As depicted here Robin Hood bore a striking resemblance to actor Errol Flynn, who portrayed the character in the 1938 Warner Bros. film The Adventures of Robin Hood.
TEC 116 10/46
Batman helps Clark Kent retrieve a letter that contains the secret of his dual identity, intended to be delivered to his friends in the event of his death.
Note: This story aired on the Adventures of Superman radio series from November 25 to December 3, 1946.
*SUP RADIO* 11-12/46
Batman and Robin equip the Batplane with engineer Frank Folland’s “aeraquamobile” devices, allowing the Batplane to travel on land and as a speedboat as well as an airplane. DC/WM WF 25 11-12/46
Batman helps Superman rescue his friend Poco, an alien from the planet Utopia, who has become trapped in a refrigerated freight car. Notes: Batman appeared only briefly in this radio storyline, entitled “Phony Song Publishing Racket.” Superman’s friend Poco first appeared on the radio series in February 1945. *SUP RADIO* 12/46
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to fifth century Athens, where they witness the Olympic games. EH/JM/RB BATMAN 38 [1] 12/46-1/47
Batman and Robin renew their acquaintance with painter Pierre Antal after a deranged psychologist attempts to demoralize Batman and Robin by recreating their “first really big case,” the murders of several of Antal’s subjects by his patron in 1940. BF/JM/RB
Notes: The first appearance of Antal and the case described here, “The Case of the Prophetic Pictures,” first appeared in Detective Comics #42 (8/40). This was the first Batman story — and the first DC work — by artist Jim Mooney.
BATMAN 38 [2] 12/46-1/47
Late December 1946: The Catwoman unsuccessfully attempts to persuade Batman to let her escape justice, pleading, “Join up with me instead! Together, we can rule the underworld...we can be king and queen of crime!” BF/DS BATMAN 39 [3] 2-3/47
1947
The Metropolis police arrest Robin on the suspicion that he is the Monkey Burglar, an elusive cat burglar with amazing acrobatic skills. Superman and Batman join forces to track down the real Monkey Burglar, a boy named Billy Riggs.
Notes: This story aired on the Superman radio series from February 12 through February 25, 1947.
*SUP RADIO* 2/47
Robin apprehends the villainous No-Face. FH?/WM
Notes: This was the second adventure in Robin’s solo series in Star-Spangled Comics, which began in #65. That series, generally written by Bill Finger or France E. Herron and drawn first by Win Mortimer and later Jim Mooney, ran through Star-Spangled Comics #130 (7/52).
STARSP 66 3/47
After notorious Gotham City gambler “Sure Thing” Smiley blackmails Mayor Carfax with his son’s gambling debts, Commissioner Gordon is stripped of his office and forced to once again become a uniformed police officer. Batman and Robin lose their special deputy status, putting them at odds with the police department, but Batman eventually manages to beat the crooked Smiley at his own game. Gordon is subsequently reinstated and Batman and Robin’s special deputy status is restored. Howard Sherman?/DS TEC 121 3/47
The Catwoman escapes from prison and launches a new series of robberies. She is thwarted by Batman and Robin, but manages to elude them in her new cat-like “Kitty Car,” again leaving them uncertain if she is alive or dead. ?/BK/CP TEC 122 4/47
Superman enlists the help of Batman and Robin to retrieve a piece of Kryptonite from crooked politician “Big George” Latimer. The Caped Crusaders fail to prevent Latimer from using the Kryptonite to ambush and kidnap the Man of Steel. During the following weeks Batman and Robin search frantically for their missing friend as Superman, stricken with amnesia, begins a new career as the pitching sensation for a minor league baseball team. Batman and Robin are eventually reunited with Superman. Latimer and his men are killed and the three heroes arrange to dispose of the Kryptonite at sea, where it can never again threaten the Man of Steel.
Notes: This story aired on the Superman radio series from May 14 through June 27, 1947. Big George Latimer first appeared in the Superman radio series on September 3, 1946. A very similar story, albeit without Batman and Robin, appeared in Superman #77 (7-8/52). The comic book story was written by Bill Finger and drawn by Wayne Boring and Stan Kaye.
*SUP RADIO* 5-6/47
Batman and Robin visit the planet Mars and defeat the malevolent Sax Gola. GF/DS
Notes: This story was the first time Batman and Robin visited another planet.
BATMAN 41 [3] 6-7/47
Per Degaton, the power-mad assistant of scientist Malachi Zee, murders his employer and steals Zee’s time machine. Recruiting an army of costumed villains, he travels back in time to December 1941, where he attempts to conquer the world on the eve of America’s entry into World War Two. Although he succeeds in capturing many of the most prominent heroes of that year, preventing them from intervening in the Japanese attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, he is ultimately defeated by the newly formed All-Star Squadron, returning him to his own time with no memory of these events. RT/RiB/JO
Notes: This was actually Degaton’s second attempt at changing history. The first, which involved altering the outcome of the Battle of Arbela in 331 B.C., was depicted in All-Star Squadron #35 (6-7/47), written by John Broome and drawn by Irwin Hasen. At the end of that story, Degaton was left with no memory of his attempted world conquest. The first chronological appearance of Professor Zee, as an unnamed member of the Time Trust, was in All-Star Comics #10 (4-5/42). As revealed in All-Star Squadron #2 (10/81), Degaton’s first chronological appearance was behind the scenes of that same story.
JLA 193
A*SQ 1-3
9-11/81
Per Degaton regains his memory of his previous attempts to conquer the world and makes a third try, this time with a complex scheme involving stealing nuclear weapons from Earth-Prime in 1962 and using them to blackmail the Allies and Axis of Earth-Two to surrendering to him in 1942. He is defeated by the combined forces of the 1980s Justice Society and Justice League of America and the 1940s All-Star Squadron, undoing his tampering with history and once again stripping all involved of their memories of these events. RT/GC/JO/DH
Notes: Although labeled “Book Two,” the events of All-Star Squadron #14 actually preceded those of Justice League of America #209, labeled “Book One.”
JLA 207-209
A*SQ 14-15
10-12/82
For the fourth and final time, Per Degaton regains his memory of his previous attempts to conquer the world by changing history. Returning to Professor Zee’s laboratory, he shoots the professor, who stumbles backwards into the machine, activating it. The time machine disappears, leaving Degaton with nothing to do but wait for it to reach its destination: Professor Zee’s 100th birthday, November 29, 1984. RT/HW/AA (AMvJSA 4) (4/85)
Batman fills in for the Atom in a Justice Society mission, helping the JSA solve the mystery of the Koehaha, the Stream of Ruthlessness.
Notes: This adventure indicated that at this time most of the regular JSA members were not aware of Batman’s true identity, although Bruce Wayne knew theirs. This was the only time during the Golden Age that Batman and Superman actively participated in a JSA adventure, and the first time Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman appeared together in the same story. The authorship of this story is unclear; it was apparently written, or at least rewritten, by Robert Kanigher, but may have originally been written by either John Broome or Gardner Fox. The artist of the Batman chapter is also uncertain, but was probably either Irwin Hasen or Win Mortimer.
ALL-STAR 36 8-9/47
Catwoman breaks out of prison to carry out a new wave of cat-inspired crimes. BF/CP
Notes: The circumstances of Catwoman’s capture and imprisonment are unclear: she was still at large at the end of her previous escapade.
BATMAN 42 [1] 8-9/47
Batman and Robin battle Dr. Hercules, an unscrupulous millionaire inventor who has created an army of powerful robots to commit crimes in Gotham City. BF/CP
Notes: This story, entitled “The Robot Raiders,” was reprinted in 3-D in Batman Adventures in Amazing 3-D Action (1953), the first time a Batman adventure was published in 3-D.
BATMAN 42 [3] 8-9/47
After Superman has been incapacitated by a secret “atomic ray” being tested by the U.S. Navy, Batman and Robin come to the Man of Steel’s aid in his fight against racketeer and gambler Joe Solitaire
Notes: This story aired on the Superman radio series from November 27 through December 26, 1947. The actor playing Joe Solitaire voices the character in a convincing imitation of actor Peter Lorre.
*SUP RADIO* 9-10/47
Batman and Robin defeat Joe Coyne, the so-called “Penny Plunderer,” a criminal obsessed with pennies. A giant penny used by Coyne later becomes one of the most famous trophies in the Batcave. BF/DS
Notes: A post-Crisis version of Joe Coyne appeared in Batman Chronicles #19 (Fall 99).
WF 30 10/47
1948
Batman and Robin are abducted by a man calling himself Jones (whose name is later revealed to be Mort Beeler), who has somehow discovered Batman’s true identity. Jones arranges for an accomplice to impersonate Batman in order to speak out against the Marshall Plan and other programs intended to aid war-ravaged Europe, while Jones himself attempts to gain control of Bruce Wayne’s fortune. Batman and Robin are ultimately rescued by Superman, and Jones and his accomplice perish in a fire intended to kill their captives.
Notes: This story aired on the Superman radio series from February 3 through February 17, 1948. The Marshall Plan, an ambitious and highly successful program to provide financial assistance for 17 European nations, was proposed by U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall in a speech on June 5, 1947, and carried out from April 1948 through December 1951 at a cost of about $13 billion.
*SUP RADIO* 2-3/48
Infuriated at being left out of a new book by author Neil Weston entitled The Lady Rogues, Catwoman once again breaks out of prison to begin a crime spree. After being recaptured by Batman and Robin, she is visited by Weston, who informs her — to her chagrin — that she was omitted from his book only because he is writing another book dedicated solely to her exploits. BW/DS BATMAN 45 [1] 2-3/48
Clark Kent calls on Batman and Robin for assistance after wanted criminal Willie Snyder steals a spare Superman costume from a hidden closet in Clark’s apartment. Willie realizes that he has discovered Superman’s secret identity, he dies of bullet wounds sustained in a battle with police before he can share the secret with anyone. Gangster Biggie Conroy learns that Willie stole the costume from Clark Kent’s apartment building and comes to suspect that Clark Kent may be Superman. Clark, Batman, and Robin ultimately manage to throw him off the scent by making it appear that Clark has been seriously injured in a car accident, and deliver Conroy and his men to police.
Notes: This story aired on the Superman radio series from March 10 through April 1, 1948. In the radio series, Clark Kent lived in the Maple Crest Apartments. In the comics his apartment was at 344 Clinton Street, Apartment 3-B, while on television he lived in Apartment 5-H of the Standish Arms Apartments.
*SUP RADIO* 3-4/48
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to 15th century Milan, Italy, where they meet Leonardo Da Vinci. DC/DS BATMAN 46 [3] 4-5/48
Professor Carter Nichols takes Batman and Robin back in time with him to early 19th century Europe, where they learn of the true events that inspired the novel Frankenstein. EH/LS/CP TEC 135 5/48
While Superman pursues a gang of criminals out west, Batman steps in to round up the ringleaders in Metropolis. Note: Batman appeared only in the final installment of this Superman radio adventure, entitled “The Crossword Puzzle Mystery.” *SUP RADIO* 5/48
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to the year 1667, where they meet the notorious pirate Henry Morgan. ?/DS TEC 136 6/48
Catwoman breaks out of prison yet again and begins a new scheme, masquerading as Madame Moderne, publisher of a new fashion magazine entitled Damsel. BF/BK/LS BATMAN 47 [1] 6-7/48
Batman encounters Joe Chill, the man who murdered his parents. Unable to prove Chill’s guilt, Batman reveals his true identity to Chill and promises to haunt him until he makes a mistake. Chill seeks the help of his gangster allies, who promptly gun him down as the man responsible for the existence of their greatest enemy. The secret of Batman’s identity dies with him. BF/BK/LS
Notes: This was the first time in the series that the name of the Waynes’ murderer was revealed.
BATMAN 47 [3] 6-7/48
Batman and Robin travel to Shanghai with Superman to investigate a group of smugglers led by the ruthless Roger Kilburn that is bringing deadly radioactive diamonds into the United States via a tiny meteoric island off the China coast.
Notes: This story, entitled “The Secret of Meteor Island,” aired on the Superman radio series from June 14 through July 6, 1948.
*SUP RADIO* 6-7/48
Batman enlists Superman’s help to pursue escaped killer Butcher Stark after a freak accident in a “sonic laboratory” outside Metropolis gives Stark the power to emit a highly destructive, high-frequency sound. Stark allies himself with one of Superman’s old enemies, the Scarlet Widow, but he eventually kills her in an argument and leads Superman and Batman in a wild cross-country chase before he is finally defeated by Superman.
Notes: This story aired on the Superman radio series from July 7 to July 30, 1948. The Scarlet Widow first appeared on The Adventures of Superman radio show on September 26, 1945.
*SUP RADIO* 7/48
Fugitive public enemy Wolf Brando seeks refuge in Wayne Manor, where he accidentally discovers the secret entrance to the Batcave. Batman and Robin are forced to play a deadly game of cat and mouse with Brando, who attempts to turn their own equipment and trophies against them. Brando eventually drowns when he falls into a whirlpool somewhere within the Batcave’s labyrinthine passageways, taking the secret of Batman’s true identity to the grave. BF/JM
Notes: This story was the first to depict the Batcave as a natural cavern, rather than simply a series of underground rooms.
BATMAN 48 [2] 8-9/48
Crooked carnival puzzle-master Edward Nigma decides to challenge Batman and Robin as the Riddler. BF/DS
Notes: In 1989 The Question #26 (by Denny O’Neil, Bill Wray, and Malcolm Jones III) established that in post-Crisis continuity the Riddler’s last name was originally Nashton; he changed it to Nigma when he began his carnival career. In the original story his name was indeed Nigma. This story became the basis for a two-part episode of the Batman television series, “Batman’s Anniversary”/“A Riddling Controversy.” The teleplay was written by William P. D’Angelo; it originally aired February 8-9, 1967.
TEC 140 10/48
Batman and Robin battle the Mad Hatter and meet Vicki Vale, a beautiful photo-journalist determined to uncover the secret of Batman’s true identity. BF/LS/CP
Notes: This Mad Hatter, inspired by the character in Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland (1865) and not identified with a proper name, is not the same as Jervis Tetch, the hat-obsessed Mad Hatter who appeared in Detective Comics #230 (4/56) and who later appeared on the Batman television series; Tetch existed only on Earth-One. The original, Carroll-inspired villain, however, also had an Earth-One counterpart, who resurfaced in Detective Comics #510 (1/82), apparently having murdered Tetch, who he described as “the imposter.” In post-Crisis continuity there is only one Mad Hatter, whose real name is Jervis Tetch and who incorporates elements of both previous versions. Bob Kane later claimed that Vicki Vale’s appearance was based on that of Norma Jeane Baker, whom Kane allegedly met shortly before she changed her name to Marilyn Monroe.
BATMAN 49 [2] 10-11/48
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time 1,000 years to the city of Baghdad to investigate an image of the Joker on an antique Oriental rug. ?/LS/CP BATMAN 49 [3] 10-11/48
Batman and Robin again battle the Riddler. BF/DS
Notes: This story was the Riddler’s final Golden Age appearance. He did not return until Batman #171 (5/65), the issue that purportedly inspired the creation of the Batman television series.
TEC 142 12/48
Batman once again helps Clark Kent protect the secret of his dual identity from his suspicious friends, who have set an elaborate trap intended to prove that he is Superman. Notes: This radio storyline, entitled “Superman’s Secret,” aired from December 20 to December 29, 1948. *SUP RADIO* 12/48
Harvey Kent’s butler, Wilkins, kidnaps Harvey and carries out a series of robberies while disguised as Two-Face, hoping to convince the world that his employer has returned to crime. Wilkins is ultimately captured by Batman, who frees Harvey and exonerates him of any wrongdoing. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 50 [2] 12/48-1/49
1949
While pursuing Public Enemy Number One “Big Jack” Bancroft, Batman appears on Kay Kyser’s quiz show College of Musical Knowledge and apprehends one of Bancroft’s henchmen, who has impersonated Kyser’s saxophonist, Eddie Blinn. EH/DS
Notes: College of Musical Knowledge was a popular real-world radio show, hosted by Kyser and his sidekick, Ishkabibble (Mervyn Bogue). It ran on NBC from 1938 to 1950, and was briefly revived as a television series in 1954.
TEC 142 2/49
After Bruce Wayne fakes his own death as part of a plan to capture the Thinker, Alfred is charged and convicted of Bruce’s murder and sent to prison. He is later exonerated after Batman and Robin apprehend the Thinker and reveal that Bruce Wayne is not dead. BF/DS
Notes: The Thinker was not the same as Clifford Devoe, the villainous former district attorney who fought the Golden Age Flash. That Thinker, created by Gardner Fox and E. E. Hibbard, first appeared in All-Flash Comics #12 (Fall 43).
BATMAN 52 [1] 4-5/49
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back to ancient Norway to discover the truth about Viking warrior Olaf Erickson, a perfect look-alike for Bruce Wayne, who was accused of cowardice by his comrades. BF/DS BATMAN 52 [2] 4-5/49
Batman and Robin take on a mysterious masked criminal called the Wizard.
Notes: This story took place in Columbia Pictures’ 1949 15-chapter serial Batman and Robin. Robert Lowery starred as Batman, John Duncan as Robin, Lyle Talbot as Commissioner Gordon, and Jane Dams as Vicki Vale. The serial was written by George H. Plympton, Joseph F. Poland, and Royal K. Cole, and was directed by Spencer Bennet. The Wizard in the serial was not the same as the JSA villain of the same name.
*BATMAN & ROBIN* 1949
Batman and Robin match wits with a man who claims to have been driven to murder after receiving the transplanted hands of a deceased killer. ?/?
Notes: This story was inspired by Maurice Renard’s 1920 novel Les mains d’Orlac (filmed several times, first in 1924 in a German silent directed by Robert Wiene and starring Conrad Veidt).
WF 41 7-8/49
Professor Carter Nichols sends Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson back to 13th century China to discover why a recently unearthed ancient Chinese rocket produced an fireworks image of Batman. During their journey, Batman and Robin meet Kubla Khan and Marco Polo. EH/JM WF 42 9-10/49
Fulfilling a promise made to a dying Gotham City policeman, Bruce Wayne temporarily joins the force as a rookie policeman, while Alfred masquerades as Batman to help preserve his secret identity. Officer Wayne apprehends the bandit called the Longshoresman Kid before resigning from the force. ?/LS/CP BATMAN 55 [2] 10-11/49
November 4, 1949: Crooked private eye Joe Flint shoots G-man Terry Collins. After learning that Collins survived the shooting, Flint attempts to join the Bullet-Hole Club, an organization of law-enforcement officials, including Batman, who have been wounded in the line of duty, in order to assassinate Collins before doctors have a chance to remove the bullets that wounded him, which can be traced to Flint’s gun. DV?/WM/CP?
Notes: Batman was the president of the Bullet-Hole Club by virtue of having sustained the most bullet wounds; by the time of this story, he was said to have been shot nine times. This story contained perhaps the most elaborate of the giant props that appeared in many forties and fifties Batman stories: a collection of fully functional giant replicas of handguns.
WF 50 2-3/51
At the personal request of President Camaran of a small Caribbean nation, Batman and Robin travel to his country to train a native crimefighter, Bat-Hombre. They select a young man named Luis Peralda, unaware that he is actually the accomplice of the notorious bandit El Papagayo. DV/DS
Notes: “El Papagayo” means “the parrot” in Spanish.
BATMAN 56 [1] 12/49-1/50
1950
Bruce Wayne begins dating reporter Vicki Vale. ?/BK/LS/CP TEC 155 1/50
When the Batmobile is badly damaged after flying off a demolished bridge, Batman and Robin build a larger, more powerful new model. JSa/DS/SK TEC 156 2/50
Batman and Robin add their thousandth and thousandth-and-first trophies to the Batcave. Their celebration is short-lived, however, as they are stalked by the ruthless Dr. Doom, a cunning criminal who has inadvertently smuggled himself into the Batcave. After attacking the caped crusaders with various artifacts from the Hall of Trophies, Doom is accidentally suffocated while seeking shelter from a bomb blast intended to kill Batman and Robin. BF?/JM TEC 158 4/50
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to witness the Gold Rush in 1854 California. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 58 [2] 4-5/50
Batman’s role as Gotham’s principal guardian is temporarily usurped by a costumed crimefighter called Deadshot, who fights crime with incredibly accurate feats of marksmanship. Batman eventually proves that Deadshot, whose real name is Floyd Lawton, secretly plans to become a Gotham City gang leader. DV/LS/CP
Notes: Deadshot existed on both Earth-Two and Earth-One. The Earth-One Deadshot, whose early history is similar adopted a new costume and weapons in Detective Comics #474 (5-6/77) later became an operative of the covert agency known as the Suicide Squad. A detailed account of his background was provided in the four-issue Deadshot mini-series, written in 1988 by John Ostrander and Kim Yale with art by Luke McDonnell.
BATMAN 59 [1] 6-7/50
Professor Carter Nichols accidentally sends Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson 100 years in the future, where they meet Rekoj, a descendant of the Joker who has become Gotham City’s chief of police. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 59 [3] 6-7/50
After the criminal Boley Brothers steal the Batplane and carry out a series of daring aerial hijacks with the stolen plane and two hastily constructed duplicates, Batman and Robin build an advanced new aircraft, dubbed Batplane II. EH/DS/CP BATMAN 61 [1] 10-11/50
Late 1950: After being struck on the head with a brick while saving Batman from another criminal, the Catwoman reveals to Batman that her real name is Selina Kyle. She tells him that she had been suffering amnesia since a plane crash ten years earlier, and claims that her entire career as Catwoman was a product of that loss of memory. After helping Batman and Robin to apprehend the villainous Mister X, she turns her Catwoman costume over to Commissioner Gordon and departs to start a new life on the right side of the law. BF?/LS/CP
Notes: This was the first time Catwoman’s real name was revealed.
BATMAN 62 [1] 12/50-1/51
Batman and Robin meet the Knight and the Squire, secretly the Earl of Wordenshire and his young son Cyril, a pair of armor-clad English heroes who have modeled themselves on Batman and Robin. EH/DS/LS
Notes: According to Young All-Stars #22 (1/89), the Earl (whose name was also Cyril) began his heroic career — as the first Squire — in 1942, battling the Nazis. It is unknown if this was true in pre-Crisis continuity.
BATMAN 62 [2] 12/50-1/51
1951
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to ancient Egypt, where, as Batman and Robin, they meet Cleopatra. BF/DS/CP TEC 167 1/51
For unknown reasons, the Joker briefly resumes his guise as the Red Hood and begins a new series of crimes while Batman is teaching a seminar in criminology at State University. With the help of his students, Batman ultimately unmasks the Red Hood as the Joker and learns the origin of the Joker’s bizarre features. BF/SM/GR TEC 168 2/51
Batman and Robin face Killer Moth, a criminal who has established himself as an underworld counterpart of Batman, complete with “mothmobile” and “moth cave.” BF/LS BATMAN 63 [3] 2-3/51
Many of the remaining active costumed heroes come under pressure as the U.S. government grows increasingly concerned about their loyalty. Thanks to their relationship with Commissioner Gordon, Batman and Robin are cleared of suspicion, as are Wonder Woman and Superman. RT/RK/AA (AMvJSA 1) (1/85)
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson are in the audience when the Justice Society of America is brought before the Combined Congressional Un-American Activities Committee to answer questions about their involvement with the agents of a foreign power. Asked by the committee chairman, Senator O’Fallon, to unmask and reveal their true identities to the committee, the JSA instead chooses to vanish dramatically. Its members, except for Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, opt to retire quietly. PL/JSt/BL
Notes: This story sought to explain the JSA’s disappearance after their final appearance in All-Star Comics #57 (2-3/51). The Combined Congressional Un-American Activities Committee was the Earth-Two version of the real-world House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC), which carried out a witch hunt for alleged Communists and subversives throughout the forties and fifties. Senator O’Fallon, not named until the recap of this story in America vs. the Justice Society #1 (1/85), was obviously modeled on notorious real-world anti-Communist demagogue Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin). America vs. the Justice Society reveals that O’Fallon took over the crusade after Earth-Two’s Joseph McCarthy died in a car crash in 1950.
(ADV 466) (11-12/79)
Batman and Robin meet the Wingman, a European crimefighter who briefly fills in for Robin after Robin has broken his leg. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 65 [1] 6-7/51
Selina Kyle opens a pet shop in Gotham City. She briefly resumes her role as Catwoman to bring about the arrest of gangster “Whale” Morton, who had attempted to lure her back to a life of crime. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 65 [3] 6-7/51
Killer Moth, seeking to usurp the identity of some wealthy citizen, abducts Bruce Wayne and has a plastic surgeon transform him into a perfect double for Bruce. In this guise, the Moth manages to fool Dick Grayson and quickly learns that Bruce Wayne is Batman. He is later shot and nearly killed by his own disgruntled henchmen. The resultant brain damage robs him of his knowledge of Batman’s true identity. ?/LS/CP
Notes: This was the last Golden Age appearance of Killer Moth. His Earth-One counterpart, whose early history was similar, next appeared in Justice League of America #35 (6/65).
TEC 173 7/51
Batman and Robin star in the film Crime Crushers. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 66 [2] 8-9/51
When Commissioner Gordon’s life is threatened by Sheik Hanson, a criminal he once sent to prison, Batman disguises himself as Gordon and takes his place until Hanson can be apprehended. He ultimately discovers that Hanson is dead and has himself been impersonated by another criminal. ?/DS WF 53 8-9/51
The Joker, fearing that he is “going stale,” borrows a page from professional comedians by hiring criminal “gag writers” to plan his crimes. DV/LS/CP BATMAN 67 [2] 10-11/51
Robin meets Brane Taylor, the Batman of the 31st century, and travels with him to the year 3051 to battle a villainous space pirate called Yerxa. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 67 [3] 10-11/51
Robin battles Crazy Quilt. FH/JM
Notes: Crazy Quilt was originally a recurring antagonist of the Boy Commandos. He first appeared in Boy Commandos #15 (3/46). Credit for his creation is unclear, but he may have been devised by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, who created the Boy Commandos in Detective Comics #64 (6/42). The Earth-One Robin also battled Crazy Quilt, whose next appearance was in Batman #316 (10/79).
STARSP 123 12/51
Television actor Paul Sloane is hideously scarred during a recreation of the life of the original Two-Face, becoming convinced that he is Two-Face. BF/LS/CP Despite a televised plea by Harvey Kent, Sloane carries out a series of crimes before being captured by Batman and Robin.
Notes: Harvey was referred to as Harvey Dent in this story and all subsquent appearances, although Superman Family #211 (10/81) later established that Harvey Kent was the Earth-Two Two-Face and Harvey Dent his Earth-One counterpart.
BATMAN 68 [1] 12/51-1/52
A group of criminals accidentally discovers the network of caves beneath Wayne Manor, but Batman and Robin manage to convince the crooks that the caves are simply being used in the filming of a Batman movie and are not the real Batcave. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 68 [2] 12/51-1/52
Bruce Wayne fires Alfred from his role as butler. Although Alfred is despondent over his dismissal, it is ultimately revealed to be a temporary ruse to mislead Slippery Willie Willis, a Chicago gangster who suspects Bruce Wayne is secretly Batman. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 68 [3] 12/51-1/52
1952
Bruce Wayne is selected to fill in as mayor of Gotham City while Mayor Bradley Stokes takes a week vacation. His role is complicated by the necessity of protecting his secret identity from notorious con man Deuce Chalmers, who is determined to prove that Bruce Wayne is secretly Batman. Meanwhile, Robin is sent to a Pacific island to guard “the new atomic experiments” taking place there. BF/DS/CP TEC 179 1/52
The Joker briefly reforms after inheriting a fortune from his one-time gangland rival, “King” Barlowe. After discovering that much of Barlowe’s bequest is counterfeit, however, he returns to crime to raise money to pay his inheritance taxes, unwilling to admit that he has been gypped. WG?/DS/CP Notes: This story was later adapted as an episode of The New Batman Adventures animated series, entitled “Joker's Millions,” scripted by Paul Dini. It originally aired February 21, 1998. TEC 180 2/52
Selina Kyle’s brother Karl turns to crime as the King of the Cats, leading Selina to once again become Catwoman to help Batman and Robin bring her brother to justice. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 69 [3] 2-3/52
Apocrypha: While traveling aboard the luxury liner Varania, Bruce Wayne shares a cabin with Clark Kent. During the voyage, the two men accidentally discover each other’s secret identity and join forces to capture a criminal. EH/CS/John Fischetti
Notes: This was the first time in the comic books that Batman and Superman learned each other’s identities. However, although the story’s date places it within the later Golden Age period, it is apocryphal in terms of Earth-Two continuity. As established in World’s Finest Comics #271 (9/81), the Adventures of Superman radio serial was part of Earth-Two continuity. In the radio series Batman and Superman first joined forces and learned each other’s true identity in March 1945. World’s Finest #271 established that those events were Batman and Superman’s first case together on Earth-Two, while the events of Superman #76 took place only on Earth-One. The story is noted here in the interests of completeness.
SUP 76 5-6/52
Clark Kent, affected by spell cast by the Wizard, temporarily forgets that he is secretly Superman. During his period of amnesia, he courts and finally marries Lois Lane. He later recovers his memory and shares with Lois the secret of his dual identity. At some unspecified later point, he also reveals that his friend Batman is secretly Bruce Wayne. CB/CS/JG
Notes: The exact date of the wedding of Clark Kent and Lois Lane was never established; it was in the early fifties sometime prior to February 1953 (Superman Family #207 (5-6/81)). Lois learned Bruce’s secret identity sometime between this story and the events of Superman Family #201 (5-6/80). The Wizard, a frequent adversary of the Justice Society of America, debuted in All-Star Comics #34 (5/47), by Gardner Fox and Irwin Hasen.
ACTION 484 6/78
Bruce Wayne pretends to be a crime lord in order to apprehend the villainous Kingpin, who is unmasked as Wayne’s friend Spotswood Hartley. Meanwhile, Batman narrates the radio series “Underworld, Incorporated” for Gotham radio station WPO, broadcasting live from the Batcave. BF?/LS BATMAN 71 [1] 6-7/52
Commissioner Gordon makes a concerted but unsuccessful attempt to discover Batman’s secret identity. He abandons his efforts after a criminal, assuming that Gordon knows the secret, threatens to murder Gordon’s family unless he reveals Batman’s true identity. DV/DS/CP BATMAN 71 [2] 6-7/52
When Batman loses his utility belt while escaping from a death-trap, the belt begins a strange odyssey as it passes from hand to hand, while Batman and Robin try to recover the belt before anyone discovers that it contains a small disc that will reveal Batman’s true identity. The disc is eventually discovered by gangsters, but Batman manages to mislead and capture the gang with the help of his friend Bill Weaver and his son Don, who bravely agree to masquerade as Batman and Robin’s alter egos. DV/DS/CP TEC 185 7/52
After gangster Diamond Lang forces Batman to promise not to set foot in Gotham City for an entire week, Batman and Robin construct the Flying Batcave, an enormous rotary-wing flying headquarters that allows them to fight crime entirely from the air. ?/LS/CP TEC 186 8/52
Bruce Wayne deliberately swallows a deadly poison, is pronounced dead, and revived by artificial respiration in order to join Death-Cheaters’ Club, an organization of men revived from apparent death, whose members are being murdered by one of their fellows. DV/JM BATMAN 72 [3] 8-9/52
Harvey Kent agrees to play himself in a theatrical recreation of his criminal career for the Gotham Theater. During the production, he is kidnapped by gangster George Blake, who takes his place and attempts to convince the world that the strain of reenacting his traumatic experience has caused Harvey’s mind to snap. Batman quickly realizes that this Two-Face is not Harvey Kent, captures Blake, and frees Harvey. DC/DS/CP TEC 187 9/52
A con man who has sought Batman’s true identity for years concludes that Bruce Wayne is Batman. He attempts to sell the secret to a wealthy black marketer for $100,000, but Batman manages to convince both men that they have made a mistake when they discover that Bruce Wayne’s handwriting does not match Batman’s. ?/LS/CP
Notes: This story first established that Batman and Robin sign their names with their right hands as Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson and their left hands in their costumed guises in order to safeguard their true identities. The villain claims to have studied Batman’s identity for 15 years, but the majority of stories indicate that the Golden Age Batman’s career began in 1939, the date of his textual debut, which was only 13 years before this story.
WF 60 9-10/52
Vicki Vale pretends that her life is in mortal danger as part of an elaborate plot to prove her suspicions that Bruce Wayne is secretly Batman. Batman manages to thwart her efforts after he notices the microphone (intended to record potentially incriminating remarks between Batman and Robin) hidden in her apartment. DV/LS/CP BATMAN 73 [2] 10-11/52
The Joker unveils his own version of Batman’s utility belt, stocked with gag and novelty items. DV/DS/CP
Notes: This story partly inspired the plot of the first episodes of the 1960s Batman television series to feature the Joker. The two-part story, entitled “The Joker is Wild”/“Batman is Riled,” was written by Robert Dozier, and originally aired on January 26-27, 1966.
BATMAN 73 [3] 10-11/52
After Batman and Robin apprehend a wanted criminal based on information gathered from a wire tap on the Joker’s headquarters, Gotham newspapers dub the Joker “Sherlock” for his unwitting aid to the forces of law and order. Infuriated, the Joker attempts to avenge himself on Batman by kidnapping Robin and using him as a hostage to force Batman to become a criminal, making him promise to steal, cheat, and kill. BF/JM WF 61 11-12/52
Afflicted with amnesia by the villainous Dr. Sampson, Batman and Robin cleverly manage to deduce their own secret identities. BF/LS/CP TEC 190 12/52
1953
Batman and Robin meet Hugo Marmon, a circus acrobat who once performed under the name Bat Man, wearing a costume uncannily similar to Batman’s. Marmon, eager to regain his one-time glory, defies the Gotham City ordinance prohibiting anyone other than “the original Batman of Gotham City” from dressing as Batman, on the grounds that his career preceded that of the more famous Batman, and briefly pursues his own crimefighting career. Robin ultimately discovers that although Marmon was indeed the first to wear the Bat Man costume, it was not within Gotham, meaning that he was not technically the city’s “original” Batman. ?/DS/CP TEC 195 5/53
Commissioner Gordon organizes the Secret Star, an organization of five highly trained men who will collectively take Batman’s place in the event of the real Batman’s death. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 77 [2] 6-7/53
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson visit Gotham City in the year 1753. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 79 [2] 10-11/53
1954
Selina Kyle becomes the subject of a series of newspaper articles in the Gotham Gazette about her exploits as Catwoman and her humiliating defeats at the hands of Batman. Infuriated, she reclaims her Catwoman identity and returns to crime with a vengeance. Although her schemes are thwarted by Batman and Robin, she eludes capture and remains at large. EH/SM/CP TEC 203 1/54
Apocrypha: While attempting to thwart a robbery, Harvey Dent is caught in an explosion that undoes the plastic surgery that repaired his face. Once again hideously scarred, he resumes his criminal career as Two-Face. DV/DS/CP
Notes: The presence of Harvey Kent, unscarred and still an honest citizen, at Bruce Wayne’s wedding in the summer of 1955 (Superman Family #211 (10/81)) strongly suggests that these events did not take place on Earth-Two. Although this was a Golden Age story, it is exclusively a part of Earth-One continuity.
BATMAN 81 [1] 2/54
A gang of crooks learns that Batman has been stranded in the mountains after crashing the Batplane. They coerce ex-convict Harry Larson, who coincidentally is a perfect look-alike for Bruce Wayne, into impersonating Batman. Larson is afflicted with amnesia after a blow to the head and found by Robin, who believes him to be the real Batman. He later regains his memory, but he has a change of heart and dies saving the life of the real Batman. DV/SM/CP BATMAN 83 [1] 4/54
A dying man appearing on Commissioner Gordon’s doorstep clad in a deep-sea diving suit leads Batman and Robin to apprehend a gang of counterfeiters working to steal the special paper used in printing money. ASch/DS/CP
Notes: This story later became the basis of a 1953 episode of the Superman television series entitled “Perry White’s Scoop.” The teleplay was written by Roy Hamilton.
BATMAN 83 [2] 4/54
After unearthing a mysterious pottery fragment in the Batcave threatening “death to the man with two identities,” Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to the mid-17th century, where they meet colonial spy Jeremy Coe and learn about the early history of the cave that is now their headquarters. BF/SM/CP TEC 205 3/54
Catwoman returns to Gotham City and enters a beauty contest under her real name as part of an elaborate scheme. Batman and Robin initially are unable to arrest her because they realize there is no real evidence that Catwoman and Selina Kyle are the same person. After Catwoman further incriminates herself, however, she is arrested and returned to prison. DV/SM/SK BATMAN 84 [2] 6/54
Wealthy heiress and former motorcycle stuntwoman Kathy Kane becomes Batwoman. Batman and Robin, eager to dissuade her from her new crimefighting career, uncover her true identity and attempt to convince her to retire on the grounds that criminals could also discover her real identity. Kathy reluctantly agrees, although she eventually resumes the role of Batwoman on many occasions. EH/SM/CP
Notes: Although Batwoman’s comics debut was in 1956, Brave and the Bold #197 (4/83) indicated that the Earth- Two Batwoman was already working with Batman and Robin by 1955. Batwoman also had an Earth-One counterpart, whose early history was similar. Earth-One’s Kathy Kane, who reappeared in Batman Family #10 (4-5/77), later retired as Batwoman to run a traveling carnival. She was murdered by agents of the League of Assassins in Detective Comics #485 (8-9/79).
TEC 233 7/56
After crimelord “Brain” Beldon is executed in Gotham City’s electric chair, his brain is stolen by his former henchmen, who carry out an elaborate ruse to make it appear that Beldon’s still-living brain is masterminding a new crime wave. WG?/DS/CP
Notes: This story was probably written by Walter Gibson, the primary author of the pulp adventures of the Shadow.
TEC 210 9/54
Having escaped from prison, the Catwoman steals a shipment of diamonds and then, fleeing from Batman and Robin aboard her Cat-Plane, forces Batman and Robin to crash-land on a remote island. Catwoman and her underworld allies hunt down the Dynamic Duo and attempt to kill them, but Catwoman surreptitiously provides Batman with the means to escape. Batman and Robin successfully capture Catwoman’s henchmen, but Catwoman herself escapes. EH/DS/CP
Notes: This story was Catwoman’s final Golden Age appearance. The Earth-One Catwoman, whose early history was substantially similar, next appeared in Lois Lane #70 (11/66).
TEC 211 10/54
Batman’s career is recounted on the Your Life Story television program on Gotham’s station GCTV, culminating in a vicious attack by the Joker. BW/SM
Notes: The fictional television program in this story was based on This Is Your Life, a popular weekly series hosted by Ralph Edwards that ran on NBC from 1952 to 1961.
BATMAN 87 [1] 10/54
The Catwoman turns herself in to police and is sent back to prison. AB/JSt/GF (BRAVE 197) (4/83)
While visiting Metropolis, Bruce Wayne is briefly held hostage by Superman’s old enemy, the Ultra-Humanite, still in the body of Dolores Winters. ENB/KS/FC
Notes: The Ultra-Humanite first appeared in Action Comics #13 (6/39). He took the body of actress Dolores Winters in Action Comics #20 (1/40), and made his final Golden Age appearance in Action Comics #21 (2/40).
SUPFAM 201 6-7/80
1955
A group of international heroes, including Great Britain’s Knight and Squire, Italy’s Legionary, France’s Musketeer, South America’s Gaucho, Australia’s Ranger, and the European hero Wingman, form the Batmen of All Nations, an organization of heroes inspired by Batman and Robin. EH/SM
Notes: The Knight and Squire first appeared in Batman #62 (12/50-1/51), Wingman in Batman #65 (6-7/51). According to Infinity, Inc. #34 (1/87), in post-Crisis continuity these heroes were inspired by the JSA, not by Batman, and went on to form the Dome, the parent organization of the Global Guardians. On Earth-Two, the Batmen of All Nations had no connection to the Global Guardians, who existed on Earth-One.
TEC 215 2/55
Brane Taylor, the Batman of the 31st century, visits the 20th century, where he fills in for the injured Batman. EH/DS/CP TEC 216 2/55
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to the year 1854, where they meet an ancestor of Commissioner Gordon. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 89 [1] 2/55
Back in the 20th century, Bruce and Dick’s lives are complicated by a visit from Bruce’s elderly Aunt Agatha. Although Agatha unmasks Bruce as Batman, she refuses to believe that her foppish nephew — who she still thinks of as a small boy — is the famous hero. BF/SM/SK BATMAN 89 [3] 2/55
Batman and Robin battle Nicholas Lucian, alias Brimstone. MWB/DG
Notes: This story alludes to a previous encounter between Batman and Brimstone that was never depicted in any published story.
(BRAVE 200) (7/83)
Batman and Robin meet Marcus and Guy Tiller, two students of 13th-century scientist/philosopher Roger Bacon sent through the time barrier by their master. The two boys help the Dynamic Duo apprehend the Speedboat Bandits before returning to their native time. BF/DS/CP TEC 220 6/55
Former handwriting expert Vincent Crail attempts to determine Batman’s true identity by comparing his handwritten signature from various autographs to the handwriting of several prominent citizens, including Bruce Wayne. He is thwarted by Batman’s habit of signing his name with his left hand as Batman and his right as Bruce Wayne to disguise his handwriting. BF/SM/CP
Notes: This story is very similar to that of World’s Finest Comics #60 (9-10/52).
BATMAN 92 [1] 6/55
John Wilker’s German shepherd Ace, wearing a bat-insignia on his collar and a black mask to conceal the distinctive markings on his forehead, aids Batman and Robin as Ace the Bat-Hound. BF/SM/CP
Notes: Artist Sheldon Moldoff has said that Ace was consciously modeled on famous TV canine Rin Tin Tin, the star of an enormously popular half-hour Western series that aired on ABC from 1954 to 1959. The television dog was actually the second Rin Tin Tin; the original starred in a long-running series of Warner Brothers silent films in the 1920s and on the radio in 1930 and 1955. Alfred uses the alias “Thaddeus Crane” in this story, remarking that Thaddeus and Crane are his middle names.
BATMAN 92 [3] 6/55
Pursuing a cannister of microfilm, Batman and Robin journey to the Himalayas, where they ascend Mount K-4, “the world’s most unclimbable peak,” eventually reaching an altitude of more than 27,000 feet. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 93 [1] 8/55
Bruce Wayne babysits for the infant son of his cousin Jane. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 93 [2] 8/55
Batman and Robin travel back in time to the Stone Age. EH/DS/CP BATMAN 93 [3] 8/55
A gang of criminals swindles eccentric millionaire Ned Judson by claiming that the four crooks themselves take turns filling the role of Batman. They convince Judson to join their ranks and pay them large amounts of money for training and equipment. Batman and Robin discover the scheme, but decide to play along with the hoax so as not to demoralize Judson. They reveal the truth only after he has helped them round up the swindlers. BF/DS/CP TEC 222 8/55
Alfred suffers a bout of amnesia after being struck on the head while trying on a spare Batman costume in the Batcave, and becomes convinced that he is really Batman. Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson decide to humor him by allowing him to play the role of Batman until his memory returns. ?/SM/SK BATMAN 94 [2] 9/55
Racketeer “Big Jim” Jarrel attempts to tunnel into the Batcave in hopes of using it as a hide-out, as his former cell mate, deceased gangster Whitey Weir, did in the years before the construction of Wayne Manor. Batman and Robin are forced to move their special equipment out of the cave and temporarily flood it with the waters of one of the nearby underground rivers in order to dissuade Jarrel and his men from moving into the cave. ?/SM/SK TEC 223 9/55
Bruce Wayne attends the wedding of his former girlfriend, Linda Page, whose affections he lost as a result of his shiftless playboy guise. He wonders if his role as Batman has cost him any chance at happiness. Shortly afterward, Batman is affected by a cartridge of fear gas prepared by the Scarecrow, which provokes an intense fit of autophobia, the fear that he has been abandoned by his friends and comrades. To apprehend the Scarecrow, he enlists the aid of an enemy, the Catwoman, securing her release from prison in exchange for her help. Selina Kyle confesses that her earlier claim that she became Catwoman while suffering from amnesia was a lie, told so that she could end her criminal career. During their pursuit of the Scarecrow, Batman and Catwoman finally admit their true feelings for one another. AB/JSt/GF (BRAVE 197) (4/83)
Summer 1955: Bruce Wayne marries Selina Kyle in a ceremony attended by Alfred Beagle, Dick Grayson, Clark Kent Lois Lane Kent, Selina’s brother, Karl Kyle, James, Barbara, and Tony Gordon, and Harvey and Gilda Kent. Superman thwarts an attempt on the life of Harvey Kent ordered by a man Harvey sent to prison during his time as Gotham City’s district attorney. Later, Clark Kent reveals to Selina Wayne that he is secretly Superman. PL/JSt/BL (DC Super-Stars) / ENB/KS/FC (Superman Family)
Notes: The wedding was first shown in flashback in DC Super-Stars #17 and fully depicted in Superman Family #211. As noted above, this story strongly uggests that Earth-Two’s Harvey Kent may never have returned to crime. It also implies that there may have been some distant relationship between Harvey Kent and Clark Kent’s adoptive family.
(DCSUP 17)

SUPFAM 211
(11-12/77)
10/81
Batman, Robin, and Superman visit tenth-century Baghdad, where they meet Aladdin. EH/DS/SK WF 79 10-11/55
While Batman is out of town speaking at a police convention, he and Robin arrange a “Batman for a Day” event, in which various wealthy individuals fill in for Batman (under Robin’s supervision) in exchange for a charitable contribution. Commissioner Gordon tries his hand as Batman, and, after returning to Gotham, so does Bruce Wayne, giving him a unique opportunity to act as Batman without concern for his secret identity. EH/SM/CP TEC 225 11/55
November 29, 1955: Batman and Robin retire the Batmobile for a new model. Dick Grayson marks the occasion by inscribing his initials and the date on the old Batmobile’s frame. AB/JA (BRAVE 182) (1/82)
In order to safeguard the crown jewels of the small European nation of Norania, Batman temporarily exchanges identities with Norania’s King Eric, taking the king’s place while the monarch fills in as Batman. BATMAN 96 [1] 12/55
Bruce Wayne’s bitter former college classmate Joe Danton deduces that Bruce is secretly Batman after noticing a scar on Batman’s wrist that Danton inflicted on Wayne during a fencing match years before. Although Danton initially plans to reveal Batman’s secret to the world, he later has a change of heart. He dies shortly afterward of a long-standing illness, taking the secret with him to the grave. BF/SM/CP BATMAN 96 [2] 12/55
Bruce Wayne receives a package from his one-time mentor, detective Harvey Harris, who has recently passed away. The package contains the costume Bruce wore to conceal his identity while working with Harris (while Bruce was still a teenager) and a letter revealing that before his death Harris deduced that Bruce is Batman. EH/DS/CP TEC 226 12/55
1956
Batman gives a lecture at the Kean School of Makeup, the school founded by famed impersonator Barrett Kean, who trained Batman in the art of disguise in the early days of his career. ?/SM/CP TEC 227 1/56
Professor Carter Nichols sends Batman and Robin to Paris in 1900 to meet Jules Verne, who briefly returns with them to the present. AD/DS/CP
Notes: This was the first time that Professor Nichols sent Batman and Robin back in time, as opposed to Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson; he was not aware of their secret identities.
BATMAN 98 [1] 3/56
When the television program Man to Man broadcasts a live interview with Batman from the Batcave, a gang of crooks uses the opportunity to surreptitiously make a microfilm copy of Batman’s punch-card crime files. ?/DS/CP
Notes: The Man to Man program in this story is clearly based on the real-life primetime interview series Person to Person, which ran on CBS from 1953 to 1960 (and briefly revived in the summer of 1961). The weekly series, created and hosted until 1959 by journalist Edward R. Murrow, used the then-new technology of the coaxial cable to allow Murrow, in his studio in New York, to conduct live interviews with celebrities in their homes. The show’s first guests were famed conductor Leopold Stokowski, fashion designer Gloria Vanderbilt, and Brooklyn Dodgers catcher Ray Campanella.
TEC 229 3/56
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to 1880, where they meet Bat Masterson. EH/SM/CP BATMAN 99 [2] 4/56
When both Superman and Batman are invited to a wedding anniversary party thrown by Perry White for Clark and Lois Lane Kent, Dick Grayson impersonates Superman to protect the secret of Superman’s dual identity. ENB/KS/FC SUPFAM 216 3/82
Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson, and Clark Kent are sent back in time to France in 1696 to investigate the identity of the Man in the Iron Mask. EH/DS/SK WF 82 5-6/56
Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson are sent back in time to ancient Babylon, circa 1000 B.C. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 102 [2] 9/56
Batman discovers that the man responsible for his parents’ murder was Lew Moxon, a gangster that Thomas Wayne sent to prison (wearing, ironically, a masquerade bat-man costume) while Bruce Wayne was still a young boy. Joe Chill, the murderer of Thomas and Martha Wayne, was a hired killer in Moxon’s employ. Although Moxon no longer remembers his involvement in Thomas Wayne’s death, the result of a head injury sustained in an auto accident, Batman successfully shocks him into regaining his memory by donning his father’s old bat-man costume. Moxon confesses his guilt, but is hit by a delivery truck and killed before he can be arrested. BF/SM/SK
Notes: As previously noted, the chronology of this story is not easily reconciled with the dates of Bruce Wayne’s births or the murders of Thomas and Martha Wayne. Thomas ’s diary is also accompanied by a sound film of Wayne’s run-in with Moxon; film with synchronized sound was not generally available until several years after the Waynes were killed. This story more appropriately belongs to Earth-One continuity, although this chronology assumes that similar events took place on Earth-Two, albeit not necessarily exactly as depicted.
TEC 235 9/56
Batman is feted on a coast-to-coast television program celebrating Gotham City’s annual Batman Day. BF/DS BATMAN 103 [1] 10/56
1957
Commissioner Gordon briefly adopts the identity of Mysteryman to capture a gang of crooks who have eluded the police and Batman and Robin. EH/SM/CP TEC 245 6/57
After the sinister Professor Milo causes him to develop a paralyzing phobia of bats, Batman is forced to temporarily assume a new identity as Starman. BF/SM/CP
Notes: This story apparently inspired writer James Robinson to introduce the mysterious 1950s Starman in the modern Starman series; the character’s existence was first revealed in Starman Secret Files & Origins #1 (4/98).
TEC 247 9/57
September 7, 1957: Helena Wayne, the daughter of Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle Wayne, is born in Gotham City.
Notes: The date of Helena’s birth was given as September 7, 1959 in Infinity, Inc. #7, but Helena’s first appearance in DC Special #17 said she was born “two years” after her parents’ wedding in 1955. The 1957 date is confirmed by her tombstone in Last Days of the JSA.
(DCSUP 17)
(INF 7)
(LAST DAYS)
(11-12/77)
(10/84)
(1986)
Batman and Robin travel back in time to rescue Professor Carter Nichols, who has been captured by King Phorbus of Rhodes. EH/DS/CP
Notes: This story shows Nichols to have devised a “time ray,” replacing his traditional “time hypnosis” method.
BATMAN 112 [2] 12/57
1958
Senator O’Fallon, the man responsible for driving the Justice Society into retirement, dies in a mysterious fire. His son, who goes on to become the owner of the Washington, D.C. newspaper Capitol Globe, later assumes that the JSA was responsible for O’Fallon’s death. RT/RK/AA (AMvJSA 1) (1/85)
Batman and Robin travel back in time to the Middle East circa 700 A.D. BF/FM/CP BATMAN 115 [3] 4/58
Batman unveils the Whirly-Bat, a remarkable one-man rotary aircraft. BF/SM/CP TEC 257 7/58
Bruce Wayne is roundly criticized by his elderly uncle, Silas Wayne, for failing to live up to the heroic legacy of the Wayne family, which includes General Horatio Wayne, a hero of the American Revolution, Caleb Wayne, a frontier scout, and Ismael Wayne, a New England whaler. Bruce eventually reveals to the dying Silas that he is really Batman, allowing the old man to die happy, knowing that Bruce is continuing in the Wayne tradition. BF/SM BATMAN 120 [2] 12/58
Batman, Robin, and Superman witness the launch of the first manned space mission, flown by an astronaut named Brice Rogers. After his spacecraft is bathed in the radiation of a passing comet, Rogers undergoes a strange transformation whenever he is exposed to moonlight, turning him into a super-powered villain called Moonman. His powers eventually fade permanently and he makes amends by helping Superman and Batman apprehend Moonman’s gang. EH/DS/CP
Notes: Although Rogers’ flight is described as the first manned space flight, on Earth-Two, “unofficial” flights began as early as 1942, when the JSA was launched into space by a Nazi scientist (All-Star Comics #13 (10-11/42)). On Earth-Prime the first manned space flight was that of Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961. These events also took place on Earth-One; Rogers’ Earth-One counterpart subsequently appeared in World’s Finest Comics #266 (12/80-1/81).
WF 98 12/58
1959
While preparing an experimental “ice gun,” a criminal scientist accidentally saturates himself in the weapon’s freezing solution, which somehow alters his metabolism so that he cannot survive at temperatures above zero degrees. Calling himself Mr. Zero, he carries out a series of crimes in Gotham City before being apprehended by Batman and Robin. During the battle leading to his capture, Zero is doused with steam, restoring his body to normal. DW/SM/CP
Notes: On Earth-One Mr. Zero, whose early history was similar, was not restored to normal. He next appeared in Detective Comics #373 (3/68), changing his name to Mr. Freeze.
BATMAN 121 [3] 2/59
“Slugsy” Kyle, the first criminal ever apprehended by the Batman, leaves prison and attempts to begin a new criminal career as the costumed villain called the Clock. BF/SM/CP TEC 265 3/59
Batman and Robin visit 17th century Venice to verify the authenticity of a painting. On their return, Robin is accidentally sent three days into the future before returning to his own time. In the future he sees a newspaper article that announces Batman’s death. The events in the article subsequently take place, but Batman survives and Robin discovers that the article he saw was erroneous. BF/SM/CP BATMAN 125 [2] 8/59
Batman and Robin apprehend the Brady Brothers, a trio of criminal brothers who have stolen a set of diamonds intended as a gift for the government of Alaska in recognition of its newly acquired statehood. ?/SM/CP
Notes: Alaska officially became a U.S. state on January 3, 1959.
BATMAN 126 [1] 9/59
The Sixties
Crooked fortune teller Swami Ymar adopts the costumed identity of the Spinner. BF/SM/CP BATMAN 129 [1] 2/60
Batman and Robin are temporarily stranded in the fourth century B.C., during the time of Alexander the Great, before being rescued by Superman. BF/DS/SM WF 107 2/60
Robotman’s old friend and Dick Grayson’s distant cousin Charles Grayson passes away. As specified by his will, his body is cryogenically preserved and bequeathed to Robotman with the intention that Robotman’s human brain someday be transplanted into Grayson’s body, allowing him to begin a new life. Unfortunately, Robotman is accidentally left in suspended animation and does not learn of his friend’s bequest until 20 years later. BR/AS/VC (DCCP 31) (3/81)
June 14, 1961: Barry Allen, the Flash of Earth-One, accidentally crosses over to Earth-Two, where he meets Jay Garrick. They learn that many of the adventures of Earth-Two’s Golden Age heroes were published as fictional comic book stories on Earth-One, apparently as a result of the writers receiving psychic impressions from Earth-Two. GF/CI/JG
Notes: This story introduced the multiverse and the concept of the multiple Earths. Earth-One, home of Barry Allen, and Earth-Two, the JSA’s world, were not named until Justice League of America #21 (8/63). Barry Allen, the second Flash and generally considered the first major Silver Age superhero, first appeared in Showcase Comics #4 (10/56). He was created by editor Julius Schwartz, writer Robert Kanigher, and artist Carmine Infantino.
FLASH 123 9/61
Former members of the JSA, including the Atom, Dr. Mid-Nite, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Johnny Thunder, and Wonder Woman, are captured by Vandal Savage and freed through the combined efforts of Jay Garrick and Barry Allen. The heroes decide to revive the Justice Society. GF/CI/JG
Notes: This story, the third teaming of Jay Garrick and Barry Allen, was the Silver Age debut of the Justice Society of America and the first appearance (discounting a flashback in Flash #129) of the Golden Age Atom, Dr. Mid-Nite, Green Lantern, and Hawkman since All-Star Comics #57 (2-3/51) and Johnny Thunder’s first appearance since All-Star Comics #39 (2-3/48).
FLASH 137 6/63
Bruce Wayne reveals to his young daughter that he is secretly Batman. PL/JSt/BL (WW 286) (12/81)
The JSA holds the first of what will be annual meetings with the Justice League of America of Barry Allen’s Earth, which is dubbed Earth-One, while the JSA’s Earth is dubbed Earth-Two. The combined JSA and JLA battle a group of villains from both Earths. GF/MS/BSa
Notes: This story was the first meeting between the JSA and JLA, and the first time their respective Earths were named.
JLA 21-22 8-9/63
Imaginary Story: After the Earth-One Batman defeats the Bouncer, the story’s author postulates an alternate ending in which Batman is instead killed by the villain. GF/CI/JG In that version of the story Earth-Two’s Batman moves to Earth-One to take his counterpart’s place as guardian of Dick Grayson.
Notes: Although the alternate ending is explicitly described as an Imaginary Story, this is nevertheless the first Silver Age appearance of the Golden Age Batman.
TEC 347 1/66
Robin, now wearing a costume combining elements of his original uniform and that of his mentor (with a grey bodysuit, yellow utility belt, and high-collared yellow cape), joins the JSA. He reveals that Batman has gone into semi-retirement. GF/MS/SG
Notes: This was the first Silver Age appearance of the Golden Age Robin.
JLA 55-56 8-9/67
The Seventies
Batman briefly attends a JSA meeting as the JSA confronts the threat of Creator2, although he does not take part in the JSA’s subsequent team-up with Earth-One’s Justice League of America. DON/DD/JG
Notes: This was the first actual Silver Age appearance of the Golden Age Batman, discounting flashbacks and imaginary stories.
JLA 82 8/70
During a joint mission of the JLA and JSA Robin meets his teenaged Earth-One counterpart, who briefly acquires a new costume designed by Earth-Two’s Neal Adams. MF/DD/JG
Notes: Earth-Two’s Clark Kent is said to have become the editor of the Metropolis Daily Star. Justice League of America #92 was the first modern appearance of the Earth-Two Batcave.
JLA 91-92 8-9/71
Robin joins the combined efforts of the JSA and Earth-One’s JLA to rescue the time-lost members of the Seven Soldiers of Victory and protect Earth-Two from their old adversary, the Iron Hand. MF/DD/DG Notes: The Seven Soldiers of Victory, whose members include Green Arrow and Speedy, the Crimson Avenger and his sidekick Wing, the Star-Spangled Kid and Stripsey, the Shining Knight, and the Vigilante, first appeared in Leading Comics #1 (Win 41), by Mort Weisinger and George Papp. The Iron Hand (originally called simply the Hand) was their adversary in that first published story. JLA 100-102 8-10/72
Robin and other members of the Justice Society are accidentally slain by their colleagues of Earth-One’s Justice League during a battle with the renegade Cary Bates of Earth-Prime. The deceased JSA members are later resurrected through the intervention of the Spectre, who appeals to the Voice for the souls of his comrades, returns Bates to his native world, and strips all involved of their memories of what has transpired. ESM/CB/DD
Notes: Earth-Prime, the world on which superheroes existed only in comic books, first appeared in Flash #179 (5/68).
JLA 123-124 10-11/75
1976
Dick Grayson is appointed the United Nations ambassador to South Africa. As Robin, he adopts the new red, yellow, and green costume designed by Neal Adams for Earth-One’s Robin. Joined by new members Power Girl and the Star-Spangled Kid, Robin helps the JSA battle Brain Wave and Per Degaton. GC/RE/WW ALL-STAR 58-59 1-4/76
Batman briefly emerges from retirement to attend a dinner honoring Robin, the first time Robin has been publicly feted since beginning his solo crimefighting career. He and Robin are enlisted to join a group of heroes fighting to prevent King Kull from wiping out all human life on Earth-One, Earth-Two, and Earth-S. Traveling to Earth-S, Batman and Robin take on several villains, including their old foe, the Joker. ENB/MPa/DD/FM
Notes: This was the first modern appearance of the Golden Age Joker, and the only JLA/JSA adventure in which Batman took an active role. King Kull first appeared in Marvel Family #67 (1/52); he was created by Otto Binder and Kurt Schaffenberger.
JLA 135-137 10-12/76
Late Summer 1976: Selina Kyle Wayne is blackmailed by a former henchman, “Silky” Cernak, who possesses a doctored photograph purporting to show Selina killing a policeman — something she had sworn to her husband she had never done. Donning her Catwoman costume for the first time in years, Selina is forced to aid Cernak in robbing the Gotham Civic Center. Commissioner Gordon receives an anonymous tip that Catwoman’s old gang is once again active and summons Batman, who goes to the Civic Center to stop the robbery. In the ensuing struggle Selina is accidentally shot and falls four stories. She dies in her husband’s arms, begging forgiveness. Cernak takes advantage of Batman’s distraction to make good his escape. Following his wife’s death, a grief-stricken Bruce Wayne lights a symbolic funeral pyre for the Batman, vowing never to wear his costume again. PL/JSt/BL DCSUP 17 11-12/77
Following the death of Commissioner Gordon, Bruce Wayne becomes police commissioner of Gotham City. PL/JSt/BL (ALL-STAR 66) (5-6/77)
Bruce Wayne discovers that he has terminal cancer. He tells no one other than his daughter, and asks her to keep the information to herself. RT/HW/AA (AMvJSA 4) (4/85)
1977
Dr. Fate enlists Robin’s help in seeking confidential medical care for Hourman, who has been badly injured in a battle with the Injustice Society. Fate makes remarks that lead Robin to believe that the JSA members are behaving erratically. Seeking advice, Dick sends a telegram to Bruce Wayne for advice. PL/JSt/BL ALL-STAR 66 5-6/77
Green Lantern, under the influence of the villainous Psycho-Pirate, begins a rampage in Gotham City, pursued doggedly by the police and Bruce Wayne. Bruce suspicions are exacerbated when he himself falls under the Psycho-Pirate’s domination, leading him to issue a warrant for the JSA’s arrest. PL/JSt/BL
Notes: Bruce Wayne’s domination by the Psycho-Pirate was not revealed until All-Star Comics #69.
ALL-STAR 67 7-8/77
The JSA is forced to battle an out-of-control Green Lantern. Meanwhile, Dick Grayson returns to the U.S. with the recovering Hourman and meets with Bruce Wayne to devise a plan to apprehend the rest of the Justice Society. PL/JSt/BL ALL-STAR 68 9-10/77
Per Degaton is paroled from prison. On his way out he taunts Bruce Wayne with a cryptic reference to his long-term plans for world conquest. Bruce Wayne deduces Degaton’s plan, but, still under the influence of the Psycho-Pirate, does not share his discovery with the JSA. Instead, he composes a false diary, accusing the JSA of treason during World War Two, in the subconscious hope that it will lead them JSA to investigate Degaton’s whereabouts and stop him in time. As Batman, he delivers the diary to Professor Carter Nichols, asking him to turn it over to Clark Kent at the Daily Star in November 1984.
Notes: This sequence of events is conjecture, intended to reconcile the discrepancies between the events of these issues with those of the later America vs. the Justice Society mini-series.
(AMvJSA 1, 4) (1/85, 4/85)
Helena Wayne, unwilling to let her mother’s killer escape justice, devises a costumed identity of her own, combining elements of both her parents’ guises: the Huntress. As the Huntress, she tracks down and captures Silky Cernak, avenging her mother’s death. She decides to continue her crimefighting career, although she elects not to tell her father of her new identity. PL/JSt/BL DCSUP 17 11-12/77
Bruce Wayne attempts to arrest the active members of the JSA, resulting in a clash between the Justice Society and Gotham City police that leaves Power Girl badly injured. Bruce enlists Robin, Hourman, and the inactive members of the JSA, including Dr. Mid-Nite, Hourman, Starman, and Wonder Woman, to help apprehend the other Justice Society members. The divided heroes clash in a grim fight in the Batcave that is eventually halted by the intervention of Superman. Dr. Fate discovers that Bruce is under the Psycho-Pirate’s thrall and magically releases him. Teary-eyed, Bruce apologizes for his actions. Nearby, the Huntress watches unseen, relieved to see that her father is back to normal. PL/JSt/BL ALL-STAR 69 11-12/77
All the members of the JSA, including Bruce Wayne, are briefly reunited at JSA headquarters before going their separate ways. Later, the Star-Spangled Kid and Wildcat take on the Strike Force and have their first encounter with the Huntress. PL/JSt/BL ALL-STAR 70 1-2/78
The Huntress helps the Star-Spangled Kid and Wildcat defeat the Strike Force, and reveals her true identity to the two JSAers. PL/JSt/BL ALL-STAR 71 3-4/78
Bruce Wayne begins writing a journal about his life, including an account of the events surrounding his marriage to Selina Kyle. AB/JSt/GF
Notes: The text of this 1983 story indicated that it took place “two years ago” (i.e., 1981), but other accounts agree that Bruce Wayne died in 1979.
(BRAVE 197) (4/83)
1978
The Huntress is formally admitted to the JSA. Shortly afterward, she is confronted by her villainous namesake, the first Huntress. PL/JSt/BL
Notes: The original, villainous Huntress, an enemy of Wildcat, debuted in Sensation Comics #68 (8/47). Her first appearance was drawn by Mort Meskin and possibly written by Robert Kanigher.
ALL-STAR 72 5-6/78
The Huntress defeats the original Huntress with a little help from Green Lantern. PL/JSt/JG ALL-STAR 73 7-8/78
Seeking advice on her crimefighting career, the Huntress uses the JSA’s equipment to travel to Earth-One, where she meets that world’s Batman, Robin, Batwoman, and Batgirl. She helps Batgirl defeat the Earth-One counterpart of her mother, the Catwoman, and promises to keep in touch with Earth-One’s Bruce Wayne, whom she calls her “Uncle Bruce.” GC/BR/JA/DH/BW/VC
Notes: Despite the cover date, the Huntress’s use of the JSA’s matter-transmitter equipment suggested that she was already a member of the JSA by the time of these events, placing them after those of All-Star Comics #72-#73.
BATFAM 17 4-5/78
At a remarkably young age, Helena Wayne graduates valedictorian from Harvard Law School and becomes a junior partner in the public interest law firm of Cranston, Grayson and Wayne. As the Huntress, she investigates a series of deadly arson fires masterminded by Councilman Franklin Gresham in an effort to bring federal funds to his poor South Gotham district. PL/JSt/BL BATFAM 18-20 6-11/78
Helena Wayne befriends Power Girl and helps her develop her secret identity as Karen Starr. The Huntress and Robin help the JSA defeat the Master Summoner. PL/JSt/BL
Notes: This was the final issue of the revived All-Star Comics.
ALL-STAR 74 9-10/78
July 15, 1978: The Huntress visits Earth-One with the JSA for their annual meeting with the JLA, giving her the opportunity to catch up with Earth-One’s Batman (who muses to himself that he always wanted a daughter). She is subsequently drawn with several of the other heroes into a battle with heroes from other eras of history, including the Black Pirate, Hans Von Hammer, Jonah Hex, Miss Liberty, and the Viking Prince, orchestrated by the Lord of Time. GC/DD/FM JLA 159-160 10-11/78
The Huntress and the rest of the JSA pursue but fail to capture the Secret Society of Super-Villains after the SSoV, led by the Wizard, attempts to attack individual JSA members. GC/DD/FM
Notes: The JSA’s appearance in this story is a flashback to a story intended for the never-published Secret Society of Super-Villains #16 (which would have had a cover date of August-September 1978). That story (written by Bob Rozakis with art by Dick Ayers and Mike Vosburg) appeared only in DC’s mimeographed Cancelled Comics Cavalcade #2, but was summarized in Justice League of America #166. The Secret Society of Super-Villains was created by Gerry Conway and Pablo Marcos, debuting in their own magazine in May 1976.
(JLA 166) (5/79)
1979
Bill Jensen, a man convicted of murder during Bruce Wayne’s tenure as police commissioner, escapes from prison. He soon reappears atop Gotham’s Trade Tower, now possessing mysterious new super-powers strong enough to stagger even Dr. Fate and Green Lantern. He threatens to lay waste to Gotham City unless Bruce Wayne surrenders to him. PL/JSt/BL
Notes: The two-part story in Adventure Comics #461-#462 was originally intended to run in the never-published All-Star Comics #75 (10-11/78). The text of the story says that Selina Kyle died “last summer,” despite the fact that DC Super-Stars #17 (11-12/77) specifically showed her death as occurring in late summer 1976. The later Last Days of the JSA (1986) says that Batman died “in 1979 -- several years after the death of his late wife.”
ADV 461 1-2/79
Bruce Wayne is forced to become Batman a final time to battle Bill Jensen. During their fight, Jensen’s energy blasts rip away a portion of Batman’s mask. When Jensen sees who his foe really is, his power runs out of control in a final burst of rage, killing both men. Batman is laid to rest next to the graves of his wife and parents. His funeral is attended by Helena Wayne, Dick Grayson, Alfred Beagle, and the Justice Society. At the funeral, a grieving Helena Wayne persuades Dick Grayson not to take up Batman’s mantle, preferring to let her father’s memory and legacy rest in peace. PL/JSt/BL ADV 462 3-4/79
The Justice Society tracks down Frederic Vaux, the sorcerer who gave Bill Jensen his powers, and avenge Batman’s death. To safeguard Dick Grayson and Helena Wayne’s secret identities, Dr. Fate casts a spell to ensure that everyone who did not previously know Batman’s true identity believes that Bruce Wayne and Batman died separate deaths and were buried in separate graves. PL/JSt/BL ADV 463 5-6/79
In the wake of Bruce Wayne’s death, police chief Clancy O’Hara becomes Gotham City’s new police commissioner. PL/JSt/BL
Notes: The Earth-Two O’Hara first appeared in All-Star Comics #67 (7-8/77).
(WW 281) (7/81)
Some time after Bruce Wayne’s death, Alfred resumes his career in the theatre, becoming a player with the New Stratford Repertory Company in a small town north of Gotham City. PL/JSt/JO (WW 294) (8/82)
The Huntress and the rest of the JSA try to locate a capsule of poison gas before it can be unleashed against the citizens of Gotham City. PL/JSt/BL ADV 465 9-10/79
The Huntress joins the JSA for their annual meeting with Earth-One’s Justice League, where she tells Earth-One’s Batman of his counterpart’s death. The reunion becomes a murder investigation after JSA member Mr. Terrific is killed on board the JLA satellite. The Huntress, who, with Earth-One’s Batman, leads the investigation, is nearly killed in an explosion after discovering the killer’s identity, but she is healed thanks to the magical powers of Dr. Fate. The murderer is revealed to be Mr. Terrific’s old foe, the Spirt King, who had possessed the body of Jay Garrick. GC/DD/FM
Notes: The death of Earth-Two’s Batman was said to have taken place six months prior to these events. Mr. Terrific, created by Chuck Reizenstein and Hal Sharp, first appeared in Sensation Comics #1 (1/42).
JLA 171-172 10-11/79
Following the funeral of Mr. Terrific, the Huntress tells Power Girl the story of how the JSA was forced to disband in 1951. PL/JSt/BL ADV 466 11-12/79
The Eighties
1980
With her father dead, the Huntress takes over Batman’s role as the principal guardian of Gotham City. As Helena Wayne, she meets new Gotham D.A. Harry Sims, while as the Huntress she takes on Solomon Grundy. PL/JSt/BL
Notes: The Huntress began appearing in an eight-page back-up strip in Wonder Woman starting with issue #271.
WW 271-273 9-11/80
En route to the annual reunion of the JSA and Justice League, the Huntress and several of her comrades are transported to New Genesis, where they join the New Gods in a battle against Darkseid, the lord of Apokolips. The Huntress helps Earth-One’s Batman, Mister Miracle, and Big Barda infiltrate the citadel of Darkseid himself. GC/DD/GP/FM
Notes: Robin makes a brief appearance in the first part of this adventure, but he is not one of the JSAers transported to New Genesis, and does not take part in this adventure. Darkseid, Mister Miracle, Big Barda, and the rest of the New Gods are the creations of Jack Kirby. Darkseid first appeared in Jimmy Olsen #134 (12/70), Mister Miracle in Mister Miracle #1 (4/71), Barda in Mister Miracle #4 (10/71), and Orion, Highfather, and Apokolips in New Gods #1 (3/71). This storyline continued some plotlines from Adventure Comics #459-#460 (9-12/78), which were also written by Gerry Conway. The first part of this story was pencilled by Dick Dillin. Dillin died shortly after completing #183, and the remainder of the story was pencilled by George Pérez.
JLA 183-185 10-12/80
The Huntress and Power Girl confront Harry Simms about his new campaign against vigilante heroes in Gotham. They ultimately discover that he is under the control of the Thinker and thwart the villain’s plan to cause chaos in Gotham. Unfortunately, careless remarks made by Power Girl lead Harry Sims to realize that the Huntress is secretly Helena Wayne. PL/JSt/BL
Notes: The Thinker (Clifford Sims), an opponent of the Golden Age Flash and the Justice Society, first appeared in All-Flash Comics #12 (Fall 43). He was created by Gardner Fox and artist E. E. Hibbard.
WW 274-276 12/80-2/81
1981
Robotman recovers from 20 years in suspended animation and discovers that his old friend Charles Grayson, Dick Grayson’s distant cousin, has bequeathed his cryogenically preserved body to him. Robotman’s human brain is transplanted into Grayson’s revived body, and he begins a new life. BR/AS/VC DCCP 31 3/81
Helena Wayne and Harry Sims have an awkward discussion about his knowledge of her secret identity and their budding romantic interest in each other. Their conversation is interrupted when the Huntress must respond to a prison riot on Gotham’s Gull Island Penitentiary led by Lionmane, a brutal former henchman of her mother, the Catwoman. Meanwhile, the Joker escapes from prison and nearly kills Harry Sims with his deadly laughing gas. PL/JSt/BL WW 277-280 3-6/81
The Huntress pursues the Joker, eventually enlisting the aid of Robin, who masquerades as Batman in order to draw the Joker out of hiding. PL/JSt/BL WW 281-283 7-9/81
The Huntress and Robin join forces again to clear their law partner, Arthur Cranston, of a bogus fraud charge. Later, they save Harry Sims, still in the hospital recovering from the Joker’s attack, from a vengeful escaped convict. PL/JSt/BL WW 284-285 10-11/81
Helena Wayne and Karen Starr (Power Girl) go to Metropolis to visit Clark Kent and Lois Lane, leaving Robin to watch over Gotham City in their absence. AB/JA (BRAVE 182) (1/82)
After decades of near paralysis following his last battle with Batman and Robin, Professor Hugo Strange regains some of his mobility thanks to a derivation of his glandular serum. Having uncovered the secret of Batman’s true identity, Strange begins a campaign of terror in Gotham City using weapons stolen from the Batcave and Starman’s stolen Cosmic Rod. He is ultimately defeated by Robin, Batwoman, and Earth-One’s Batman, and then, rather than face capture and prison, destroys himself with the Cosmic Rod. AB/JA
Notes: Despite the cover date, these events take place before the events of Justice League of America #195 and World’s Finest Comics #271, because the Earth-One Batman does not immediately recognize Earth-Two’s Robin in his new costume. This story established that Earth-Two’s Batwoman eventually married and had children, but their names were not revealed.
BRAVE 182 1/82
Robin and Superman help the Earth-One Superman and Batman defeat the Atom Man, a Nazi supervillain that the Earth-Two Superman vanquished in the fall of 1945. RT/RiB/FM
Notes: The villain’s name is rendered “Atoman” in this story. This story established that at least some of the events of the forties Adventures of Superman radio series were part of Earth-Two continuity.
WF 271 9/81
Robin and the Huntress briefly attend the JSA’s annual meeting with the JLA to catch up with Earth-One’s Batman, although they play no part in the JLA and JSA’s subsequent battle with the Ultra-Humanite. GC/GP/JBe JLA 195 10/81
The Huntress battles a heavily armed underworld enforcer called Karnage. PL/JSt/BL WW 286-287 12/81-1/82
Late December 1981: The Huntress travels to Earth-One to spend Christmas with the Earth-One Batman, her “Uncle Bruce,” and helps him investigate disturbing evidence that suggests that Earth-One’s Thomas Wayne helped to finance a notorious gangster. MWB/JA BRAVE 184 3/82
1982
The Huntress joins Power Girl and other heroines from Earth-One and Earth-X, including Black Canary, Madame Xanadu, Phantom Lady, Raven, Starfire, Supergirl, Wonder Girl, Earth-One’s Wonder Woman, and Zatanna, to stop the Adjudicator, who has unleashed the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse on Earth-One, Earth-Two, Earth-X, and Earth-I. PL/RT/GC/FM
Notes: The hithertofore-unseen Earth-I is an alternate Earth on which aging and death have been conquered by advanced science. The events of this story probably took place before those depicted in the Huntress back-up strip in Wonder Woman #289-#290.
WW 291-293 5-7/82
The Huntress is attacked by the Crimelord, a vicious costumed criminal who has learned her secret identity and taken Harry Sims and Alfred Beagle hostage. The Crimelord accidentally falls to his death during their final skirmish, but the Huntress is still faced with the challenge of finding and rescuing her friends. PL/JSt/BP/MC
Notes: The Crimelord is Mr. Stenville, the same Gotham City mobster whom Robin and the Huntress confronted in Wonder Woman #284. Curiously, his full name was not revealed. There was no Huntress back-up strip in Wonder Woman #288, displaced by a longer-than-normal main feature.
WW 289-290 3-4/82
The Huntress rescues Alfred Beagle and Harry Sims from the Crimelord’s henchmen. Alfred has a brush with death after being poisoned with a time-release capsule, but the Huntress is able to concoct an antidote in time to save him. PL/JSt/JO
Notes: The events of these issues immediately follow those of the Huntress strip in Wonder Woman #290 (4/82). There was no Huntress strip in issues #291-#293.
WW 294-295 8-9/82
Commissioner O’Hara appoints Helena Wayne the liaison between the police department and the district attorney’s office, working with Harry Sims. As the Huntress, she comes to the rescue of Cranston, Grayson and Wayne attorney Charlie Bullock, who has adopted a Batman-like identity as Blackwing to break up a protection racket run by the villainous Boa. PL/JC/JSt
Notes: Charlie Bullock first appeared, as a young man, in Adventure Comics #464 (7-8/79), by Paul Levitz, Joe Staton, and Bob Layton. Wonder Woman #296 was plotted by Paul Levitz, but the script was written by Joey Cavalieri, who took over as sole writer of the Huntress strip with #297 and wrote all the subsequent Huntress strips in Wonder Woman.
WW 296-299 10/82-1/83
October 2, 1982: The Huntress attends the annual JLA/JSA reunion and joins her JSA comrades in a time- and dimension-spanning mission to stop Per Degaton from conquering Earth-Two in 1942 with the help of Earth-Three’s Crime Syndicate of America and nuclear weapons stolen from Earth-Prime in 1962. In the process, the Huntress confronts and defeats Owlman, her father’s evil Earth-Three counterpart. The assembled heroes ultimately defeat Degaton and his allies, restoring the histories of Earth-One, Earth-Two, and Earth-Prime to their rightful course and causing all involved to lose their memories of these events. GC/RT/JO/DH
Notes: Despite being labeled “Book Two,” the events of All-Star Squadron #14 actually take place before those of Justice League of America #207, labeled “Book One.” Owlman, Batman’s Earth-Three counterpart, was created by Gardner Fox, Julius Schwartz, and Mike Sekowsky. He first appeared (along with the rest of the Crime Syndicate) in Justice League of America #29 (8/64). Very little about his background and origin (including his real name) was ever revealed.
JLA 207-209
A*SQ 14-15
10-12/82
1983
The Huntress rounds up a series of small-time crooks, including the Mechanic and Pat Pending. Both crooks apparently die during their capture, arousing public sentiment against the Huntress. In reality, the villains have been given a death-simulating drug by the villainous Undertaker, enabling them to escape arrest while painting the Huntress in a bad light. JC/DH/LM (#301) / JC/MDC (#302-#304)
Notes: There was no Huntress strip in Wonder Woman #300 (2/83), an oversized anniversary issue.
WW 301-304 3-6/83
April 24, 1983: At the Arkham Institute, Nicholas Lucian, alias Brimstone, regains consciousness after a 28-year coma following his final confrontation with Batman and Robin in 1955. He awakens to discover his body has atrophied from years of disuse and that his hated enemy is dead, denying him his revenge. Lucian is somehow able, however, to exert his mental control over his Doppelganger on Earth-One, a law-abiding citizen, and force him to carry out a campaign of terror against Earth-One’s Batman. The Earth-One Lucian eventually breaks free of his counterpart’s control. The psychic strain returns the Earth-Two Lucian to his own body, leaving him conscious but completely paralyzed. MWB/DG
Notes: Lucian is informed of Batman’s death by the Joker, also an inmate of Arkham and now looking far older and more decrepit than in his previous appearances. This was the Earth-Two Joker’s final appearance.
BRAVE 200 7/83
The Undertaker’s allies, Dr. Amos Tarr and his accomplice, Professor Fether, abduct the Huntress and take her to Arkham Asylum, which they have commandeered for their own sinister purposes. Despite being injected with a potent hallucineogenic drug, the Huntress manages to escape with the aid of undercover policeman Gary Minelli, who learns her secret identity. JC/MH WW 305-308 7-10/83
The Huntress takes on a vicious child-selling racket run by the grotesque Earthworm. Meanwhile, Helena Wayne’s relationship with Harry Sims falls apart, and reporter Nedra Borrower and politician Terry Marsh stir up public sentiment against vigilantism, culminating in a violent anti-Huntress march. Despite these obstacles, the Huntress breaks up the Earthworm’s operation, although the villain himself manages to escape. JC/TB (#309-#311, #313) / JC/DSp (#312) WW 309-313 11/83-3/84
Although still vilified by public opinion, the Huntress defeats the Sea Lion. JC/MB/GM WW 314-316 4-6/84
The Huntress and the rest of the JSA join the JLA to battle the evil Johnny Thunder of Earth-One and the Crime Champions. They also learn that Black Canary is actually the daughter of the original heroine, who is now deceased. RT/GC/CP/RoT JLA 219-220 10-11/83
December 24, 1983: In protest of the JSA’s rejection of several young heroes — all of them the children or protégés of older JSA members — Power Girl and the Huntress temporarily leave the JSA to join the neophyte heroes, who, led by JSA member Star-Spangled Kid, have dubbed themselves Infinity, Incorporated. Meanwhile, Superman, under the mental influence of the Ultra-Humanite, lures the Atom, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Robin, and Wonder Woman to a Colorado cave, where he drowns them in the waters of the Koehaha, the Stream of Ruthlessness. RT/JO/MM
Notes: The Stream of Ruthlessness was first seen in All-Star Comics #36 (8-9/47).
INF 1-3 3-5/84
December 25, 1983: The Infinitors are called to Colorado to identify the bodies of the JSA, all of whom are apparently dead following their dip in the Stream of Ruthlessness. RT/JO/MM INF 4 6/84
The JSA members revive from their apparent death, but their immersion in the Stream of Ruthlessness has brought out their most negative traits, making them selfish, power-hungry, and vicious. In Gotham, the Huntress stops Robin from murdering Boss Zucco, the man who killed his parents in 1940, who is now an invalid confined to a prison hospital, with little memory of his earlier life. She imprisons Robin in the Batcave and enlists the help of Alfred to watch over him until a cure can be found for his condition. RT/JO/MM INF 5-9 7-11/84
Thanks to the unexpected sacrifice of the JSA’s old enemy, the Brain Wave, the Ultra-Humanite is defeated and the JSA is freed from the effects of the Stream of Ruthlessness. RT/JO/MM/TDZ INF 10 12/84
1984
At an Infinity, Inc. press conference in Los Angeles, the Huntress reveals to the world that she is Batman’s daughter. She and Power Girl leave the group to return to the JSA. RT/JO/MM/TDZ
Notes: This story takes place before America vs. the Justice Society #1.
INF 12 1/85
Helena Wayne travels to Los Angeles to investigate the murder of her college friend Myra Liebe. As the Huntress, she confronts the sword-wielding Nightingale. JC/MB/GM (#317) / JC/MB/SW (#318) / JC/SW (#319)
Notes: These events take place after those of Infinity, Inc. #3-#12.
WW 317-319 7-9/84
Tormented by a persistent feeling of being watched and troubling nightmares of becoming a criminal like her mother, the Huntress seeks therapy with Dr. June Moonman. She soon discovers that the doctor is an accomplice of Dr. Tarr and Professor Fether, still seeking revenge for the capture of her colleagues. Shortly after that attack, her budding involvement with policeman Gary Minelli disintegrates when she learns that he has been surreptitiously following her. Unbeknownst to Helena, Minelli was not the only one watching her. High above, in orbit, the Monitor and his assistant Lyla observe her unseen. JC/SW (#320) / JC/RW/RM (#321)
Notes: This was the final Huntress back-up feature in Wonder Woman. A Huntress solo mini-series, to be written by Joey Cavalieri and drawn by Eduardo Barreto, was announced, but never appeared.
WW 320-321 10-11/84
November 25-26, 1984: Professor Carter Nichols delivers the diary given him by Batman shortly before his death to Clark Kent, editor of the Metropolis Daily Star. The diary, the authenticity of which Clark immediately confirms, accuses the JSA of having been agents of Nazi Germany during the second world war. The Justice Society, with the exception of the younger members who were not part of the JSA in the forties, are arrested and brought to trial before a joint session of Congress on charges of treason. They are accused of both swearing allegiance to Adolf Hitler and sabotaging an experimental “bomb defense formula” developed shortly before America’s entry into the second world war. Helena Wayne, prepared to defend her comrades even if it means proving her father was no longer in his right mind towards the end of his life, signs on to defend the JSA. Dick Grayson, unwilling to defame his mentor even in death, reluctantly joins the prosecution, which is led by Senator William Hopkins and secretly bankrolled by Charles O’Fallon, the son of the man who drove the JSA to retire in 1951. RT/RK/AA
Notes: As revealed in All-Star Squadron #2 (10/81), it was Per Degaton who really sabotaged the bomb defense formula. Curiously, that fact was mentioned only in passing in this storyline.
AMvJSA 1 1/85
November 27, 1984: Testifying before Congress, the JSA begins a detailed account of their origin and illustrious career, from their debut to America’s entry into World War Two. The session is interrupted by the arrival of the Spectre, who, outraged by the “travesty in the name of justice,” threatens to destroy the Earth if the Justice Society is not set free. RT/MH/AA AMvJSA 2 2/85
November 28, 1984: The JSA continues to related their activities from 1942 to 1947. Their case is damaged by incriminating testimony given by their old enemy, the Wizard, but the Wizard undermines himself by attempting to escape. Meanwhile, Charles O’Fallon’s silent partner, the JSA’s old foe, Per Degaton, decides to take a more active hand. RT/HB/AA AMvJSA 3 3/85
November 29, 1984: With the trial drawing to a close, Dick Grayson learns that Per Degaton was released from prison shortly before Bruce Wayne’s death. He deduces, as Bruce did, that Degaton is preparing for the imminent return of Professor Zee’s time machine, lost in 1947, but scheduled to return on the day of Zee’s 100th birthday. The JSA arrives in time to see the machine appear, whereupon the mortally wounded Zee, shot by Degaton in 1947, emerges and names Degaton as his killer before perishing. Seeing no way to escape, Degaton takes his own life rather than face capture. Later, Dick Grayson and Helena Wayne realize that Batman’s subconscious intention in writing the false diary was to lead the JSA to investigate Degaton’s whereabouts and stop him in time. Helena reveals that her father had terminal cancer in the last months of his life and attributes his irrational behavior to the disease’s degenerative effects. RT/HB/AA AMvJSA 4 4/85
1985
July 23, 1985: Robin and the Huntress join their JSA comrades to attend the wedding of Alan Scott (the Green Lantern) and Molly Mayne (the Harlequin) at St. Christopher’s Cathedral in Los Angeles. RT/TM/Ron Harris/TDZ/DG/RHow/AA INF Annual 1 1985
Following the wedding reception for Alan Scott and Molly Mayne, the JSA is summoned to the Monitor’s satellite by Harbinger. There they and other heroes discuss the Crisis, which has caused the surviving Earths and various eras in time to intersect, resulting in widespread chaos. After the meeting Robin and the Huntress reconoiter with Earth-One’s Batman and Robin at the Earth-One Wayne Manor. RT/TM/TDZ (Infinity, Inc.) / MW/GP/JO (Crisis on Infinite Earths) INF 21
CRISIS 5
12/85
8/85
The Huntress and Robin are among the many heroes who join the battle with the Anti-Monitor at the Dawn of Time. As a result of the Anti-Monitor’s clash with the Spectre, the multiverse is destroyed and the surviving Earths recombined into one. MW/GP/JO CRISIS 10 1/86
The survivors of the battle at the Dawn of Time awaken on the new, unified Earth. Dick Grayson and Helena Wayne discover that there is no record of their existence on Earth. Along with Earth-Two’s Superman and Wonder Woman, they realize to their horror that they were never born in the new history. Their Batman simply never was, and their existence has been spared solely by their presence at the Dawn of Time. MW/GP/JO CRISIS 11 2/86
The Earth is drawn into the anti-matter universe, where its assembled heroes engage in a cataclysmic final battle with the Anti-Monitor. Earth-Two’s Superman eventually succeeds in destroying the villain once and for all, but during the battle the Huntress and Robin are killed by the Anti-Monitor’s Shadow Demons. MW/GP/JO
Notes: The closing pages of this issue indicate that the bodies of Robin and the Huntress were never found. Fearing that this passage would be misinterpreted as leaving an opportunity for them to return, writer Roy Thomas later had their bodies recovered by the JSA.
CRISIS 12 3/86
The Justice Society of America mourns the loss of Superman and Wonder Woman and the deaths of Robin and the Huntress, who are buried on the grounds of Hall Manor, the home of Carter Hall, the Hawkman. The Justice Society is drawn away by the Spectre to engage in a final battle in another dimension, apparently never to return. RT/DR/MGu
Notes: The text implies that Helena Wayne and Dick Grayson were buried alongside the bodies of Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle, which is clearly impossible. Bruce and Selina were buried in a public cemetery in Earth-Two’s Gotham City, and (as shown in Crisis on Infinite Earths #11) their graves ceased to exist when the Earths were combined. Presumably, the JSA erected markers to honor their fallen friends at the same time Dick and Helena were buried.
LAST DAYS 1986
Power Girl, Dr. Fate, and the Star-Spangled Kid, the only surviving JSA members, and the members of Infinity, Inc., the children and proteges of the JSA, mourn the loss of their friends and loved ones. RT/TM/TDZ
Notes: This story was the final textual reference to Earth-Two’s Robin, Huntress, and Superman.
INF 30 9/86
The goddess Aphrodite and the android Mekanique, each of whom has been holding back the effects of the Crisis for her own purposes, allow the full, reality-altering effects of the merging of Earths to take hold. The Golden Age Aquaman, Batman, Catwoman, Green Arrow, Huntress, Robin, Speedy, Superman, Wonder Woman (and all other Earth-Two doppelgangers) cease to exist along with all memory of their existence. RT/AJ/MC (All-Star Squadron) / Kurt Busiek/Trina Robbins (Legend of Wonder Woman) A*SQ 60
LEGENDWW 4
7/86
8/86
The Future: What Might Have Been
c. 2043: A laboratory accident creates a temporary space-time warp that sends lab worker Rob Callendar to the year 1943, where he attempts to use his knowledge of the future to steal artifacts that will be worth a fortune in his native era. He is ultimately returned to his own time empty-handed when the time warp finally fades. BF/JR/FR WF 11 Fall 1943
2050: Accidentally transported to the future by Professor Carter Nichols, Batman and Robin visit the Gotham City of the 21st century and meet its police chief, Rekoj, a law-abiding descendant of the Joker. BF/LS/CP BATMAN 59 [3] 6-7/50
April 19, 3000: The Earth is invaded and subjugated by the forces of the warlord Fura, a native of the planet Saturn. In the weeks that follow, a man named Brane (a descendant of Bruce Wayne) and his young friend Ricky, inspired by newsreel footage of the original Caped Crusaders, assume the identities of Batman and Robin. Together, they lead the people of the Earth in an armed revolt against the Saturnian invaders, eventually liberating both Earth and Saturn from Fura’s domination. JG/DS BATMAN 26 [3] 12/44-1/45
3051: Interplanetary businessman Brane Taylor and his nephew become the 31st century Batman and Robin, inspired by the history of the original 20th century heroes. Headquartered in their “bat belfry” and armed with an array of high-tech devices, they fight crime and evil throughout the solar system. When Taylor’s nephew breaks his leg, Taylor travels back to the 20th century to enlist the help of the original Robin in battling the villainous space pirate Yerxa. BF/DS/CP BATMAN 67 [3] 10-11/51
Brane Taylor once again visits the 20th century, where he fills in for the injured Batman. EH/DS/CP TEC 216 2/55

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