UNIT II: The Ancient Near East ca 3000 to ca 1200 BCE



PART I: SOUTHWEST ASIA

       I. Mesopotamia in the middle of the third  millennium  BCE

          A. Agricultural technology and settlement patterns

             1. Water management; the Ensi
             2. Land management; the En
             3. Farming and Animal usage

          B.Cities:   Construction, Social Structures, and
               Function

          C. Inter-city Relations

      II. Mesopotamia, to 1200 BCE

          A. The SUMERIANS

             1. Religion [Consult also APPENDICES I and III]
             2. Economy, Society, Education
             3. The STATE
                a. KINGDOMs, EMPIREs, TRIBUTARY SYSTEMs
                b. EN, ENSI, LUGAL

          B. AKKAD and SUMER: The SUMERO-AKKADIANS

             1. The Status of KISH, NIPPUR, UR, URUK, LAGASH
             2. The Rise and Fall of LUGALZAGISSI, 2400-2350 BCE
             3. SARGON of AKKAD [AGADE], CA. 2375-2330 BCE
                a. Origins
                b. The Empire of Sargon
             4. The Empire after Sargon
                a. EBLA
                b. NARAM SIN

          C. The GUTI, ca. 2230-2130 BCE

          D. The THIRD DYNASTY of UR [UR III], 2127-2006

             1. GUDEA  of Lagash, Uruk, and the expulsion of the
                Guti
             2. UR-NAMMU and the founding of Ur III
             3. SHULGI
             4. The fall of Ur III

     III. ELAM, ASSYRIA, AMORITES, and INDO-EUROPEANS

          A. AMORITIC and ELAMITE Intrusions

          B. The ISIN-LARSA Period

          C. The Rise of BABYLON

             1. The Empire of HAMMURABI, ca. 1800-1750 BCE
                a. Hammurabi, Mari, and the Valley States
                b. Law and Society in the days of Hammurabi
             2. Babylon after Hammurabi, ca. 1750-1600 BCE
             3. The Fall of the Old Babylonian Empire, 1590 BCE

          D. HITTITES, IRANIANS and KASSITES

             1. INDO-EUROPEAN intrusions into IRAN and ASIA MINOR
/ANATOLIA/ TURKEY began about 3000 BCE. The Indo-European tribes
spread from their homelands in the great central EURASIAN Plains
into the DANUBE RIVER valley possibly as early as 4500 BCE, where
they may have been the destroyers of the Vinca Culture. Iranian
tribes entered  the plateau which now bears their name in the
middle of the third MILLENNIUM BCE [3000-2000 BCE], and reached
the ZAGROS Mountains which border Mesopotamia to the east by
about 2250 BCE. The GUTI may have been Indo-European.

     HITTITES and related tribes began entering ANATOLIA [modern
Turkey] from both the northwest (the European BALKANS) and the
northeast (Russian GEORGIA) after 3000 BCE. They conquered and
partially absorbed the former residents [the HATTI, from whom the
Hittites drew their name]. Small kingdoms were formed and there
was some trade with OLD ASSYRIA. At some time after 2000 BCE the
separate Hittite kingdoms CONFEDERATED under the leadership of a
KING called KING, GREAT KING, KING OF KINGS.

     This title was common in the ancient world and is frequently
translated as EMPEROR. Like many other early Indo-European
KINGSHIPS, the top position was not passed by way of
PRIMOGENITURE; the successor could be any male member of the
ruling family. As a result, civil wars frequently determined the
succession; and the "Empire" of the Hittites could not maintain a
consistent strength because of quarrels over succession. The same
is true of related peoples like the Hurrians and the Mitanni. In
1600 BCE the Hittite Empire was very powerful, but after the
successful

             2. Raid on Babylon in 1590, the Hittites entered a
period of weakness. Consequently, their allies in the raid took
over and  created the

             3. KASSITE KINGDOM OF BABYLONIA, which endured
almost four hundred years in spite of comparative economic and
military weakness and a lack of social or technological
innovation.
                a. Kassite Babylonia, 1530-1160
                b. Elamites, 1160-1138
                c. CHALDEA, 1137-729
                d. Assyrians, [1300]-625

          E. The Older ASSYRIA, 2000 BCE to ca. 1200 BCE

             1. The Old Assyrian Kingdom, ca 2000-1800 BCE
             2. International and Trade Relations
             3. The Hurri and the Mitanni, 1700-1300 BCE
             4. The Assyrian Revival after 1400 BCE

PART II.  EGYPT to 1200 BCE

          A. The OLD KINGDOM, 3000-2400 BCE [See Appendices I and II]

             1. THEOCRACY
             2. Egypt as a SLAVE Plantation
             3. The Decay of the Pharoanic Monopoly on Heaven

          B. The FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD and the DEMOCRATIZATION
             OF HEAVEN

          C. The MIDDLE KINGDOM and the HYKSOS, 2200-1600 BCE

             1. The Theban Reunification of Egypt, 2200-1750 BCE
             2. Canaan in the Old Kingdom: "Story of Sinuhe"
             3. The Hyksos, 1750-1600 BCE

          D. The Empire of Egypt, 1600-1200 BCE

             1. The Theban Expulsion of the Hyksos
             2. The Egyptian Occupation of CANAAN
             3. International Relations in the Imperial Age
             4. The Atenist Heresy
             5. The Late Empire

PART III. CANAAN, ARABIA, TURKEY and the BARBARIANS to 1200 BCE

          A. CANAAN

             1. Before the AMORITES, To 2000 BCE
             2. Barbarized CANAAN
             3. Egyptian, Hittite, and Mitanni Conquests

          B. Arabia's migrant Conquerors

          C. Turkey

             1. Hatti
             2. Hittites et al.
             3. The Hurri and the Mitanni

          D. The Role of BARBARIAN MIGRATIONS before 1250 BCE

             1. The INDO-EUROPEANS, SEMITES, et al.

             2. HARAPPAN [ INDUS RIVER VALLEY ] CIVILIZATION

                1. HARAPPA and MOHENJO DARO
                2. The ARYAN Invasion

          E. The End of the BRONZE AGE: The GREAT DARK AGES of
             the ANCIENT WORLD, 1250-800 BCE

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Last modified January, 2001