Obstacles to naval reform until 1883
- party stalemate in Congress
- corruption - John Roach for Phil Navy Yard
- no steel industry until Carnegie
- naval prejudice - "frigate, sloop, sails"
- defensive strategy
Foreign navies changing
- Austrian ram Ferdinand Max 1866
- Robert Whitehead's torpedo
- HMS Devastation 1873, Majestic 1893
Chet Arthur 1881-5
- appoints Wm. Chandler, Rodgers Board
- Navy Act of 1883 - ABCD ships
- Gun Foundry Board 1883
- Navy Act of 1885 - 30 new steel ships
Naval War College
Benjamin Harrison 1889-93
- "Billion Congress" - T. Reed, N. Aldrich
- appoints Ben. Tracy - "Blue Water" admirals
- crises: Haiti, Chile, Italy, Samoa
- Squadron of Evolution sent around world
- First Annual Report Dec. 1889 - "a fighting force"
- Navy Act of 1890 - Hale, Boutelle, Lodge, Hawley
- "sea-going coast-line battleships" of 10,000 tons
- 2 fleets replace "distant stations"
Hilary Herbert 1893-96
- Hagan, Kenneth. American Gunboat Diplomacy and the Old Navy, 1877-1889. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1973, and This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power. New York: Free Press, 1991. Subjects: United States -- History, Naval. CL Book Stacks 359.00973 H141t.
- Gray, Edwyn. The Devil's Device: Robert Whitehead and the History of the Torpedo. Rev. and updated edition. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1991. 310 p.: ill.; bibliographical references (p. 293-299) and index. V855.W5 G7 1991 (my thanks to Rod Greenhalgh for recommending this book).
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