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Visual Literacy Bibliography - IV. Psychology

Deregowski, J. B. "Pictures as a Means of Communication: A Psychologist's View." Educational Broadcasting International. 11 (March, 1978): 7-12.

Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. 4th ed. (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990).

IV A. Psychology of Art

Arnheim, Rudolph. Toward a Psychology of Art. (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1972).

Gombrich, E. H., Julian Hochberg, and M. Black. Art, Perception and Reality. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972).

Gombrich, E. H. Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation. (New York: Parthenon, 1960).

Hochberg, Julian and V. Brooks. "Compression of Pictorial Space Through Perspective Reversal." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 16 (1963): 262.

Krieger, M. "The Ambiguities of Representation and Illusion: An E. H. Gombrich Retrospective. Critical Inquiry. 11 (1984): 181-194.

Perkins, D. and Leondar, B. (Eds.) The Arts and Cognition. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977).

Wartofsky, Marx W. "The Paradox of Painting: Pictorial Representation and the Dimensionality of Visual Space." Social Research. 51 (1984): 863-883.

 

IV B. Perception

Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and Visual Perception. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

Bloomer, C.M. Principles of Visual Perception. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.

Broadbent, D. E. Perception and Communication. New York: Pergamon, 1958.

Churchland, P. "Perceptual Plasticity and Theoretical Neutrality." Philosophy of Science. 55 (1987): 167-187.

Epstein, W. "The Process of 'Taking-into-account' in Visual Perception." Perception 2 (1973): 267-285.

Fodor, J. and Z. Pylyshyn. "How Direct is Visual Perception?: Some Reflections on Gibson's 'Ecological Approach'." Cognition 9 (1981): 139-196.

Foerstel, Lenora Shargo. "Cultural Influence on Perception." Studies in Visual Communication. 4 (Spring, 1977): 7-50.

Gibson, James J. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986.

Gibson, James J. "A Theory of Direct Visual Perception." In J. R. Royce and W. W. Rozeboom. (Eds.) The Psychology of Knowing. (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1972).

Gibson, James J. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1966).

Gibson, James J. The Perception of the Visual World. (Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).

Gregory, Richard. "Choosing a Paradigm for Perception." In E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Eds.) Handbook of Perception. Vol. 1: Historical and Philosophical Roots of Perception. (New York: Academic Press, 1974).

Gregory, Richard. "Perceptions as Hypotheses." In S. C. Brown (Ed.) Philosophy of Psychology. (London: Macmillan, 1974).

Haber, Ralph N. "The Power of Visual Perceiving." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 3:1 (1983): 9-20.

Haber, Ralph N. and Maurice Hershenson. The Psychology of Visual Perception. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973).

Haber, Ralph N. (Ed.) Contemporary Theory and Research in Visual Perception. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1967).

Hagen, Margaret A. "James J. Gibson's Ecological Approach to Visual Perception." In S. Koch and D.E. Leary (Eds.), A Century of Psychology as a Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985: 231-249.

Harris, C. S. "Insight or Out of Sight? Two Examples of Perceptual Plasticity in the Human Adult." In C. S. Harris (Ed.) Visual Coding and Adaptability. (Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1980).

Heil, J. Perception and Cognition. (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1983).

Hochberg, Julian. "Sensation and Perception" In Eliot Hearst (Ed.) The First Century of Experimental Psychology. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1979).

Hochberg, Julian. Perception. 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliff NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978).

Hochberg, Julian. "The Perception of Motion Pictures" and "Art and Visual Perception." In Handbook of Perception, Edward Carterette and Morton P. Friedman, eds. Vol. X. (New York: Academic Press, 1978).

Hochberg, Julian. "In the Mind's Eye." In Ralph N. Haber (Ed.) Contemporary Theory and Research in Visual Perception. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.)

Hyssop, Alec. "Seeing Through Seeing-In." The British Journal of Aesthetics. 26 (Autumn, 1986): 371-379.

Kolers, P. A. "Perception and Representation." Annual Review of Psychology. 34 (1983): 129-166.

Mace, W. M. "James Gibson's Strategy for Perceiving: Ask Not What's in Your Head, but What Your Head is Inside of." In R. Shaw and J. Bransford (Eds.). Perceiving, Acting and Knowing. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1977).

Macleod, R. B. and H. L. Pick Jr. (Eds.) Perception: Essays in Honor of James J. Gibson. (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1974).

Michaels, C. F. and C. Carello. Direct Perception. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1981).

Murch, Gerald. Visual and Auditory Perception. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.

Navon, D. "Forest Before Trees: The Precedence of Global Features in Visual Perception." Cognitive Psychology ( (1977): 333-383.

Norton, D. and L. Stark. "Eye Movements and Visual Perception." Scientific American. (June, 1964).

Podgorny, P. and R. N. Shepard. "Functional Representations Common to Visual Perception and Imagination." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1978(4): 21-35.

Sanford, D. "The Primary Objects of Perception." Mind 85 (1976): 189-208.

Shaw, R. and J. Bransford (Eds.). Perceiving, Acting and Knowing. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1977).

Sibley, F. N. "Analyzing Seeing." In F. N. Sibley (Ed.) Perception. (London: Methune, 1971).

Ullman, S. "Against Direct Perception." Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 3 (1980): 373-415.

Vernon, M.D. A Further Study of Visual Perception. London: Cambridge University Press, 1952.

Wallach, H. On Perception. (New York: Quadrangle, 1976).

Wartofsky, Marx W. "Art History and Perception." In J. Fisher (Ed.), Art and Perception, (1980).

Winn, W.D. "Perception Principles." In M. Fleming and W.H. Levie (Eds.). Instructional Message Design: Principles from the Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1993).

Zuxne, L. Visual Perception of Form. (New York: Academic Press, 1970).

 

IV B1. Pictorial Perception

Deregowski, J. B. "Pictorial Perception and Culture." Scientific American. 227 (1972): 82-88.

Gibson, James J. "A Theory of Pictorial Perception." Audio Visual Communication Review. 2, 1954: 2-23.

Hagen, Margaret A. (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures (New York: Academic Press, 1980).

Hagen, Margaret A. "Generative Theory: A Perceptual Theory of Pictorial Representation." In M. A. Hagen (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures Vol. 2 (New York: Academic Press, 1980): 3-46.

Hagen, Margaret A., R. K. Jones and E. S. Reed. "On a Neglected Variable in Theories of Pictorial Perception: Truncation of the Visual Field." Perception Psychophysics. 1978 (23): 326-330.

Hagan, Margaret A. "An Outline of an Investigation into the Special Character of Pictures." In H. L. Pick Jr. and E. Saltzman (Eds.). Modes of Perceiving and Processing Information. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978).

Hagen Margaret A. "A Distinctive Characteristic of Pictorial Perception: The Zoom Effect." Perception. 1978 (1): 625-633.

Hagan, Margaret A. "Picture Perception: Toward a Theoretical Model." Psychological Bulletin. 81 (1974): 471-497.

Hochberg, Julian. "The Perception of Pictorial Representations," Social Research, 51 (Winter 1984): 841-862.

Hochberg, Julian. "Pictorial Functions in Perception, Art Education, (March, 1993): 15-17.

Hochberg, Julian. "Pictorial Functions and Perceptual Structures." In Margaret A. Hagen (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures. Vol. 2 (New York: Academic Press, 1980).

Kennedy, John M. A Psychology of Picture Perception, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974).

Nodine, Calvin and Dennis Fisher. (Eds.) Perception and Pictorial Representation. (New York: Praeger, 1979).

Nodine, Calvin and Dennis Fisher (Eds.) Views of Pictorial Representation: Making, Perceiving and Interpreting. (New York: Praeger, 1979).

 

IV B2. Gestalt Perception

Antes, J. R. and R. L. Metzger. "Influence of Picture context on Object Recognition." Acta Psychological. 44 (1980): 21-30.

Attneave, F. "Multistability in Perception." Scientific American, (December, 1971).

Chastain, G. "A Correct Initial Impression Aids Figure Identification." Psychological Research. 40 (1978): 127-138.

Freedman, J. "One Reason Why We Rarely Forget a Face." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 3 (1974): 107-109.

Friedman, Alinda. "Framing Pictures: The Role of Knowledge in Automatized Encoding and Memory for Gist." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 108 (3, 1979): 316-355.

Hochberg, Julian. "Organization and the Gestalt Tradition" In E. C. Carterette and M. Friedman (Eds.) Handbook of Perception, Vol. 1. (New York: Academic Press, 1974).

Hock, H.S. and K. F. Schmelzkopf. "The Abstraction of Schematic Representations from Photographs of Real-World Scenes." Memory & Cognition. 98 (1980): 543-554.

Kanizsa, Gaetano. Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Perception. (New York: Praeger, 1970).

Machotka, Pavel and John P. Spiegel. "Construction of Pictorial Meaning." Studies in Visual Communication. 5:2 (Spring, 1979): 115-131.

Tversky, B. and K. Hemenway. "Categories of Environmental Scenes." Cognitive Psychology. 15 (1983): 121-149.

Wertheimer, M. "Principles of Perceptual Organization." IN D. C. Beardslee and M. Wertheimer (Eds). Readings in Perception (Princeton NJ: Van Nostrand, 1958.)

 

IV B3. Attention/Selection

Becklen, R. and Cervone, D. "Selective Looking and the Noticing of Unexpected Events." Memory & Cognition. 11 (1983): 601-608.

Biederman, I, R. C. Teitelbau and R. J. Massanotee. "Scene Perception: A Failure to Find a Benefit From Prior Expectancy or Familiarity." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 9 (1983): 411-429.

Goldstein, E. B. and S. I. Fink. "Selective Attention in Vision: Recognition Memory for Superimposed Line Drawings." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 7 (1981): 954-967.

Houtmans, M. J. M. and A. F. Sanders. "Perception of Signals Presented in the Periphery of the Visual Field." Acta Psychologica. 55 (1984): 143-155.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "Scanning Visual Images: Some Structural Implications." Perception and Psychophysics. 14 (1973): 90-94.

Lang, Annie. "Involuntary Attention and Physiological Arousal Evoked by Structural Features and Emotional Content in TV Commercials." Communication Research. 15:4 (Summer, 1989): 493-506.

Lewis, M. S. "Determinants of Visual Attention in Real-world Scenes." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 41 (1975): 411-416.

McLeskey J, W. H. Levie and M. L. Fleming. "Selective Attention to Visual Stimuli: The Need to Combine Theory and Research." Journal of Special Education Technology. 5 (1982): 23-32.

Neisser, Ulrich and R. Becklen. "Selective Looking: Attending to Visually Specified Events. " Cognitive Psychology. 7 (1975): 480-494.

Phillips, P. E. "Selective Attention Theory and Its Application to Visual Arts Research: A Review of Theory and Supporting Research." Review of Research in Visual Arts Education. 6 (1977): 13-33.

Rock, I and D. Gutman. "The Effect of Inattention on Form Perception." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 7 (1981): 275-285.

Schiller, H. A. "Transforming Attention into Awareness." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 2:1 (1982): 15-28.

Warshaw, P. R. "Application of Selective Attention Theory to Television Advertising Displays." Journal of Applied Psychology. 63 (1978): 366-372.


IV B4. Pictorial/Image Recognition

Barnard, W. A., M. Breeding and H. A. Cross. "Object Recognition as a Function of Stimulus Characteristics." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 22 (1984): 15-18.

Davies, G. M. "The Recognition of Persons from Drawings and Photographs." Human Learning. 2 (1983): 237-249.

Kiphart, J. J., D. D. Sjogren, and H. A. Cross. "Some Factors Involved in Complex-picture Recognition. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 22 (1984): 197-199.

Hochberg, Julian and V. Brooks. "Pictorial Recognition as an Unlearned Ability." American Journal of Psychology. 75 (1962): 624-628.

Leibrich, J. and K. G. White. "Recognition Memory for Pictorial Events." Memory & Cognition. 11 (1983): 121-128.

Levie, W. Howard. "Picture Recognition Memory: A Review of Research and Theory," Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging, 8 (1): 6-45.

Loftus, G. R. and H. J. Kallman. "Encoding and Use of Detail Information in Picture Recognition." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 5 (1979): 197-211.

 

IV B5. Memory

Adelson, E.H. and J. Jonides. "The Psychophysics of Iconic Storage." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 6 (1980): 486-493.

Baggett, P. "Memory for Explicit and Implicit Information in Picture Stories." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 14 (1975): 21-30.

Bower, G. H. and M. B. Karlin. "Depth of Processing of Pictures and Faces in Recognition Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 103 (1974): 751-757.

Bowling, A. and W. Lovegrove. "Iconic Memory: Fallacies Persist." Perception and Psychophysics. 31 (1982): 194-198.

Cohen, G. "How Are Pictures Registered in Memory?" Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 25 (1973): 557-564.

Costley, Carolyn L. and Duane DeWald, "Cue Modality: Video and Audio Effects on Recall." In Rebecca H. Holman and Michael H. Solomon (Eds.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 18 (1990): 819-825.

Coulter, R. G. M.L. Coulter, and J. A. Glover. "Details and Picture Recall." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 22 (1984): 327-329.

Decker, W.H. and P.C. Wheatley. "Spatial Grouping, Imagery, and Free Recall." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 55 (1982): 45-46.

Di Lollo, V. "Temporal Integration in Visual Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 109 (1980): 75-97.

Durso, F. T. and C. S. O'Sullivan. "Naming and Remembering Proper and Common Nouns and Pictures." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 9 (1983): 497-510.

Egan, D. E. and B. J. Schwartz. "Chunking in Recall of Symbolic Drawings." Memory and Cognition. 7 (1979): 149-158.

Fleming, M. L. and M. Sheikhian. "Influence of Pictorial Attributes on Recognition Memory." AV Communication Review. 20 (1972): 423-441.

Franken, R. E. and J. Davis. "Predicting Memory for Pictures from Rankings of Interestingness, Pleasingness, Complexity, Figure-Ground and Clarity." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 41 (1975): 243-247.

Franken, R. W. and G. L. Rowland. "Organizational Factors in Picture Recognition Memory." Acta Psychologica. 42 (1978): 441-452.

Franzwa, D. "Influence of Meaningfulness, Picture Detail and Presentation Mode on Visual Retention." AV Communication Review. 21 (1973): 209-223.

Gaffan, D. "Measurement of Trace Strength in Memory for Pictures." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 30 (1978): 263-208.

Gillund, G. and R. M. Shiffrin. "Free Recall of Complex Pictures and Abstract Words." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 20 (1981): 575-592.

Goldstein, A. G., J. E. Chance, M. Hoisington and K. Buescher. "Recognition Memory For Pictures: Dynamic vs Static Stimuli." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 20 (1982): 37-40.

Goodman, Gail S. "Picture Memory: How the Action Schema Affects Retention." Cognitive Psychology. 12:4 (1980): 473-495.

Haber, R. N. and B. L. Myers. "Memory for Pictograms, Pictures, and Words Separately and All Mixed Up." Perception 11 (1982): 57-64.

Haber, Ralph N. "How We Remember What We See." Scientific American. 222:5 (1970): 104-112.

Hodes, Carol L. "The Effect of Visual Mental Imagery on Speed and Accuracy of Information Retrieved." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Haring, M. J. "Picture Enrichment of Delayed Recall: Support form a Unique Source." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 52 (1982): 104-108.

Hulme, M. and P. Merikle. "Processing Time and Memory for Pictures." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 30 (1976): 31-39.

Intraub, H. "Conceptual Masking: The Effects of Subsequent Visual Events on Memory for Pictures." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 10 (1985): 284-298.

Katz, Elihu., Hanna Adoni and Pnina Parness. "Remembering the News: What the Picture Adds to Recall." Journalism Quarterly. 54 (1977): 231-239.

Kerst, S. M and J. H. Howard, Jr. "Memory Psychophysics for Visual Area and Length." Memory and Cognition. 1978 (6): 327-335.

Kieras, D. "Beyond Pictures and Words: Alternative Information-Processing Models for Imagery Effects in Verbal Memory." Psychological Bulletin. 85 (1978): 532-554.

Kirasic, K. C. and A. W. Siegel. "Recognition Memory for Pictures: Evidence for a Feature-Analytic Basis of Cognitive Style." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 6 (1975): 453-456.

Levie. W. H. and D. Levie. "Pictorial Memory Processes." AV Communication Review 23 (1975): 81-97.

Loftus, E. F. Eyewitness Testimony. (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1979).

Loftus, G. R., W. W. Nelson, and H. J. Kallman. "Differential Acquisition Rates for Different Types of Information in Pictures." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 35A (1983): 187-198.

Leibrich, J. and K. G. White. "Recognition Memory for Pictorial Events." Memory and Cognition. (1983): 121-128.

Madigan, S. "Picture Memory." In J. C. Yuille (Ed.) Imagery, Memory and Cognition. (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983).

Mandler, J. M. and G. H. Ritchey. "Long-Term Memory for Pictures." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 3 (1977): 386-396.

Marks, David F. "Visual Imagery Differences in the Recall of Pictures." British Journal of Psychology. 64 (1, 1973): 17-24.

McKelvie. S. J. and E. G. Demers, "Individual Differences in Reported Visual Imagery and Memory Performance." British Journal of Psychology. 70 (1979): 51-57.

McKoon, G. "The Representation of Pictures in Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 7 (1981): 216-221.

Moyer, R. S. " Comparing Objects in Memory: Evidence Suggesting an Internal Psychophysics." Perception and Psychophysics. 1973 (13): 180-184.

Paivio, Allan. "Imagery in Recall and Recognition." In John Brown (Ed.) Recall and Recognition. (London: Wiley, 1976).

Ritchey, g. H. and C. R. Beal. "Image Detail and Recall: Evidence for Within-item Elaboration." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6 (1980): 66-76.

Schultz, T. "Iconic Memory: An Artifact of Perceptual Reconstruction Processes." Psychological Research. 41 (1980): 275-294.

Tabachnick, B. and S. J. Brotsky. "Free Recall and Complexity of Pictorial Stimuli. Memory and Cognition. 4 (1976): 466-470.

Thorson, Esther and Annie Lang. "The Effects of Television Videographics and Lecture Familiarity on Adult Cardiac Orienting Responses and Memory." Communication Research. 19:3 (June, 1992): 346-369.

Wixeman, S. and Ulrich Neisser. "Perceptual Organization as a Determinant of Visual Recognition Memory." American Journal of Psychology. 87 (1974): 675-681.

 

IV B6. Visual Perception Cues

Attneave, F. "Some Informational Aspects of Visual Perception." Psychological Review. 1954 (61): 183-193.

Berbaum, K. D. Tharp and K. Mroczek. "Depth Perception of Surfaces in Pictures: Looking for Conventions of Depiction in Pandora's Box. Perception. 12 (1983): 5-20.

Bundesen, C. and A. Larsen. "Visual Transformation of Size." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1 (1975): 214-220.

Butler, D. L. "Predicting the Perception of Three-Dimensional Objects from the Geometrical Information in Drawings." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 8 (1982): 674-692.

Caelli, T. "On Discriminating Visual Textures and Images." Perception and Psychophysics 31 (1982): 149-159.

Carroll, J. M. "Structure in Visual Communication." Semiotica 40 (1982): 371-392.

Cutting, J. E. (Ed.) Perception With an Eye for Motion. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1986): 213-219.

David, Prabu. "Accuracy of Perception of the Different Faces of the Pie." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Fall 1994): 8-9.

David, Prabu. "Accuracy of Visual Perception of Quantitative Graphics: An Exploratory Study." Journalism Quarterly. 69 (Summer, 1992): 273-292.

Freyd, J.J. "The Mental Representation of Movement When Static Stimuli are Viewed." Perception and Psychophysics. 33 (1982): 575-581.

Friedman, S. L. and M. B. Stevenson. "Perception of Movement in Pictures." In M.A. Hagen (Ed.). The Perception of Pictures: Vol. 1. (New York: Academic Press, 1980): 225-155.

Gibson James J. "On the Concept of Formless Invariants in Visual Perception. Leonardo. 1973 (6): 33-35.

Gibson James J. "What is a Form?" Psychological Review. 1951 (58): 403-412.

Haber, R. H. "How We See Depth From Flat Pictures." American Scientist. 68 (1980): 370-380.

Hagen, Margaret A., R. Glick and B. Morse. "The Role of Two-Dimensional Surface Characteristics in Pictorial Depth Perception." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1978 (46): 875-881.

Hagen, Margaret A., and R. K. Jones. "Differential Patterns of Preference for Modified Linear Perspective in Children and Adults." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 1978 (26): 205-215.

Hagen, Margaret A. and R. Glick. "Pictorial Perspective: Perception of Size, Linear, and Texture Perspective in Children and Adults." Perception. 1977 (6): 675-684.

Harris, C. S. "Adaption to Displaced Vision: Visual, Motor or Proprioceptive Change?" Science. 140 (1963): 812-813.

Harris, C. S. (Ed.) Visual Coding and Adaptability. (Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1980).

Hochberg, Julian. "Perception: I Color and Shape; II Space and Movement." In J. W. Kling and L. A. Riggs. (Eds.) Woodworth and Schlosberg's Experimental Psychology. 3rd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1972).Koenderink, J.J. and J. A. van Doorn. "The Shape of Smooth Objects and the Way Contours End." Perception. 11 (1982): 129-137.

Johnson, G. "Visual Space Perception Through Motion." In A. M. Wertheim, W. A. Wagner, and H. W. Leibowitz (Eds.). Tutorials on Motion Perception. New York: Plenum Press, 1980).

Johansson G. "Visual Motion Perception." Scientific American. 232 (1975): 76-88.

Jonmes, R. K. and Margaret A. Hagen. "The Perceptual Constraints on Choosing a Pictorial Station Point." Leonardo. 1978 (11): 191-196.

Kaplan, G. "Kinetic Disruption of Optical Texture: The Perception of Depth at an Edge." Perception and Psychophysics. 1969 (6): 193-198.

Kipper, Philip. "Television Camera Movement as a Source of Perceptual Information." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 30 (1986).

Leeuwenberg, E. and H. Buffart. "The Perception of Foreground and Background as Derived from Structural Information Theory." Acta Psychologica. 55 (1984): 249-272.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Perceptual Factors in the Study of Television Aesthetics," In Judy Clark Bacca, Darrel G. Beauchamp, and Roberts A. Braden (Eds.) Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures, IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1991: 359-375.

Metelli, F. "The Perception of Transparency." Scientific American. (April , 1974).

Moore, David M. "Field Independence-Dependence, Multiple Linear Imagery in a Visual Location Task." Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Anaheim, CA, 1985.

Olson, D. R. and Bialystok, E. Spatial Cognition: The Structure and Development of Mental Representations of Spatial Relations. (Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983).

Paivio, Allan. "Perceptual Comparisons Through the Mind's Eye." Memory and Cognition. 1975 (3): 635-647.

Palmer, S, E. Rosch and P. Chase. "Canonical Perspective and the Perception of Objects." In J. Long and A. Baddeley (Eds.) Attention and Performance IX. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1981): 135-151.

Ratliff, F. "Contour and Contrast." Scientific American. (June, 1972).

Rock, I. The Nature of Perceptual Adaption. (New York: Basic Books, 1966).

Todd, J.T. and E. Mingolla. "Perception of Surface Curvature and Direction of Illumination from Patterns of Shading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 9 (1983): 583-595.

Ullman, S. The Interpretation of Visual Motion. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1979).

Yoshikawa, S. "Classifying Schematic Faces: Reaction Time Analysis Based on the Similarity Structure." Psychologia. 277 (1984): 10-21.

 

IV B7. Subliminal Perception

Sutton, Ron. "Subliminal Seduction or Visual Illiteracy?" In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Whittaker, R. "Subliminal Perception: Myth or Magic? Educational Broadcasting. 8:6 (1975): 17-20, 41.

 

IV. B8 Hemispheres and Visual Perception

Bryden, M. P. and Robert G. "Right Hemispheric Involvement in Imagery and Affect." In Ellen Perecman (Ed.) Cognitive Processing in the Right Hemisphere. (New York: Academic Press, 1983).

Erlichman, H. and J. Barrett "Right Hemispheres Specialization for Mental Imagery: A Review of the Evidence." Brain and Cognition 2 (1983): 55-76.

Farah, M. J. "The Neurological Basis of Mental Imagery: A Componential Analysis. Cognition. 18 (1984): 245-272.

Farah, M. J., M. S. Gazzaniga, J. D. Holtzman, and S. M. Kosslyn. "A Left Brain Basis for Visual Imagery?" Neuropsychologia 23 (1985): 115-118.

Farah, M. J. "Is Visual Imagery Really Visual? Overlooked Evidence from Neuropsychology." Psychological Review. 95 (1988): 307-317.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "Seeing and Imagining in the Cerebral Hemispheres: A Computational Approach." Psychological Review. 94 (1987): 148-175.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. Stephen M., J. D. Holtzman, M. J. Farah, and M. S. Gazzaniga. "A Computation Analysis of Mental Image Generation: Evidence from Functional Dissociations in Split Brain Patients." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 1114 (1985): 311-341.

Lang, Annie. and Marian Friestad. "Emotion, Hemispheric Specialization, and Visual and Verbal Memory for Television Messages." Communication Research. 20:5 (October, 1993): 647-670.

Ratcliff, G. "Spatial Thought, Mental Rotation and the Right Cerebral Hemisphere." Neuropsychologia. 17 (1979): 49-54.

Reeves, Byron, Annie Lang, Esther Thorson and Michael Rothschild. "Emotional Television Scenes and Hemispheric Specialization." Human Communication Research. 15:4 (Summer, 1989): 493-508.

Sergent, J. "Inferences from Unilateral Brain Damage about Normal Hemispheric Functions in Visual Pattern Recognition." Psychological Bulletin. 96 (1984): 99-115.

Springer, S. P. and G. Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1981).

Whitaker, H. A. "Dichotomania: An Essay on Left and Right Brains." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 12:1 (1982): 7-14.


IV C. Information Processing/Cognition

Arnheim, Rudolph. Entropy and Art. (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1971).

Banks, W. P. "Encoding and Processing of Symbolic Information in Comparative Judgments." In G. H. Bower (Ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. Vol. 11 (New York: Academic Press, 1977).

Blevins, T. E. and D. M. Moore. "The Effects of Cognitive Style and a Supplantation Technique on a Picture Detail Recognition Task." International Journal of Instructional Media. 14 (1987): 99-109.

Brown, F. B., D. Hunt and B. S. Randhawa. "Short-Term Free Recall and Sequential Memory for Pictures and Words: A Simultaneous-Successive Processing Interpretation." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 2:1 (1981): 35-44.

Chase, William G. (Ed.) Visual Information Processing. (New York: Academic Press, 1972).

Corcoran, F. "Processing Information from Screen Media: A Psycholinguistic Approach." Education Communication and Technology Journal 29 (1981): 117-128.

Dretske, Fred. "Aspects of Cognitive Representation." In Myles Brand and Robert M. Harnish (Eds.) The Representation of Knowledge and Belief. (Phoenix, AZ: The University of Arizona Press, 1986).

Edell, Julia A. and Richard Staelin. "The Information Processing of Pictures in Print Advertisements." Journal of Consumer Research. 10 (June, 1983): 45-61.

Duradell, A. J. and N. E. Wetherick. "The Relation of Reported Imagery to Cognitive Performance." British Journal of Psychology. 1976 (67): 501-506.

Fitzgerald and Pam Scholder Ellen. "The Effect of Imagery Processing and Imagery Content on Behavioral Intentions." In Marin E. Goldberg, Gerald Gorn, and Richard W. Pollay (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 17 (1989): 449-454.

Bruce, V. "Changing Faces: Visual and Non-Visual Coding Processes in Face Recognition." British Journal of Psychology. 73 (1982): 105-116.

Dwyer, Francis M. and David M. (Mike) Moore. "Effect of Color Coding and Test Type (Visual/Verbal) on Students Identified as Possessing Different Field Dependence Levels." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Grodal, Torben Kragh. "Visual Communication as Textsigns and as Embodied Mental Processes." Nordic Visual Communication Conference, Oslo, 1994 .

Hanley, G. L. and M. Levine. "Spatial Problem Solving: The Integration of Independently Learned Cognitive Maps." Memory and Cognition. 11 (1983): 415-422.

Hobbes, Renee. "Television and the Shaping of Cognitive Skills." In Alan M. Olson, Christopher Parr, and Debra Parr. Video Icons & Values. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1991)

Kennedy, John M. "How Minds Use Pictures." Social Research, 51 (Winter 1984): 885-904.

Kennedy, John M. "What Can We Learn about Pictures from the Blind?" American Scientist 71 (1983): 19-26.

Lang, Annie, Seth Geiger, Melody Strickwerda, and Janine Sumner. "The Effects of Related and Unrelated Cuts on Television Viewers' Attention, Processing Capacity, and Memory." Communication Research. 20:1 (February, 1993): 4-29.

Lang, Annie. "Effects of Chronological Presentation of Information on Processing and Memory for Broadcast News." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 33:4 (Fall, 1989): 441-452.

Loftus, G. R. and H. J. Kallman. "Encoding and Use of Detailed Information in Picture Recognition." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 5 (1979): 197-211.

Loftus, G. R., W. Nelson, and H.J. Kallman. "Differential Acquisition Rates for Different Types of Information from Pictures." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 35A (1983): 187-198.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Cognitive Factors in the Study of Visual Images: Moving Image Recognition Standards." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Moyer, R. S. and R. H. Bayer. "Mental Comparisons and the Symbolic Distance Effect." Cognitive Psychology. 1976 (8): 228-246.

Neisser, Ulrich. "Abstraction and the Process of Recognition." In J. T. Spench & G.H. Bower (Eds.), Advances in Learning and Motivation (Vol. 3). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.

Neisser, Ulrich. Cognitive Psychology. New York: John Wiley, 1967; Posner, M.I.

Nelson, W.W. and G. R. Loftus. "The Functional Visual Field During Picture viewing." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 8 (1980): 391-399.

Osherson, Daniel (Ed.) Visual Cognition and Action. (Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press, 1990).

Osherson, Daniel N., Stephen M. Kosslyn, and John M. Hollerbach (Eds.) Visual Cognition and Action. Vol. 2. (Cambridge Mass, The MIT Press, 1990).

Palmer, S. E. "Fundamental Aspects of Cognitive Representation." In E. Rosch and B. Lloyd (Eds.). Cognition and Categorization. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978).

Parker, R. E. "Picture Processing During Recognition." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 4 (1978): 284-293.

Pinker, S. "Visual Cognition: An Introduction." In S. Pinker (Ed.). Visual Cognition. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1985).

Putnam, W. and R. Klatzky. "Processing Locational Information from Memorial and Perceptual Maps." American Journal of Psychology. 94 (1981): 223-245.

Seymour, Philip H. Human Visual Cognition. (London: Collier Macmillan, 1979).

Shaw, Carla Cooper. "Schema Construction: A Visual Tool for the Organization of Knowledge." In Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1990.

Snyder, Robert. "Information Processing: A Visual Theory for Television News." Journal of Visual Literacy, 14 (1, 1994): 69-76.

Stanny, C. J. and G. F. Weaver. "Effects of Processing Tasks on the Recognition of Pictures." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 23 (1985): 116-118.

Tomkins, S. S. Affect, Imagery, Consciousness, vol. 1 (The Positive Affects) and Vol. 2 (The Negative Affects). (New York: Springer, 1962, and 1963).

Travers, Robert M.W. Man's Information System. (Scranton: Chandler Publishing, 1970).

Turvey, M. T. "Contrasting Orientations to the Theory of Visual Information Processing." Psychological Review 84 (1977): 67-88.

Watkins, M. J., Z. F. Peynircioglu, and D. J. Brems. "Pictorial Rehearsal." Memory and Cognition. 12 (1984): 553-557

 

IV D. Codes/Decoding/Encoding

Biocca, Frank. "The Role of Communication Codes in Political Ads." In Frank Biocca, (Ed.) Television and Political Advertising, Vol. 2 (Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991).

Bisplinghoff, Gretchen. "Decoding 'Field of Dreams': Movies, Baseball, and the American Dream." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art, Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Cobb, N. J. S. Tanhauser and R. Johnston. "Conceptual Encoding of Pictures and Sentences." The Journal of General Psychology. 103 (1980): 139-148.

Gardner, Howard and Leona Jaglom. "Cracking the Codes of Television: The Child as Anthropologist." In Peter D'Agostino, (Ed.) Transmission. (New York: Tanam Press, 1985): 93-102.

Hall, Stuart. Encoding/Decoding. In Hall, Hobson, Lowe and Willis (Eds.) Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972-1979. (London: Hutchinson, 1990).

Hodgkinson, A. W. "Teaching the Screen Language: A Basic Method." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 5:1 (1985): 17-28.

Jaglom, Leona and Howard Gardner. "Decoding the World of Television." Studies in Visual Communication, 7:1 (1981): 33-47.

Lutz, Catherine A. and Jane L. Collins. Reading National Geographic. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).

Meyrowitz, Joshua. "Television and Interpersonal Behavior: Codes of Perception and Response." In G. Gumpert and R. Cathcart (Eds.) Inter/Media: Interpersonal Communication in a Media World. (3rd. ed.) (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986): 253-27.

Moriarty, Sandra E. "Visual Codes and Conventions." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Convention, San Antonio, 1987.

Nelson, Douglas L. and David H. Brooks. "Functional Independence of Pictures and Their Verbal Memory Codes." Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (April, 1973): 44-48.

Nelson, Douglas L. and V.S. Reed. "On the Nature of Pictorial Encoding, A Levels of Processing and Cueing: Sensory vs Meaning Features." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 2:1 (1976): 49-57.

Reaves, Sheila. "Visual Information in the Age of Electronics & Entertainment: A Suggestion for Theoretical Codes." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Montreal, 1992.

Ruby, Jay. "In a Pic's Eye: Interpretive Strategies for Deriving Significance and Meaning From Photographs." Afterimage. (March 1976): 5-7.

Scott, Linda M. "For the Rest of Us: A Reader-Oriented Interpretation of Apple's 1984 Commercial." Journal of Popular Culture . 25 (Summer 1991): 67-81.

 

IV D1. Dual Coding/Channels

Babbitt, B. D. "Effect of Task Demands on Dual Coding of Pictorial Stimuli." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 8 (1982): 73-80.

D'Agostino, P. R., B. J. O'Neill and Allan Paivio. "A Memory for Pictures and Words as a Function of Level Processing: Depth or Dual coding?" Memory and Cognition. 5:2 (1977): 252-256.

Hanson, LuEtt. "Perceptions of Between-Channel Redundancy in Television Messages." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art ,Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Hartan, F. R. "Recognition Learning Under Multiple Channel Presentations and Testing Conditions." AV Communication Review. 9 (1961): 24-43.

Mayer, R.E. and R. B. Anderson. "Animations Need Narrations: An Experimental Test of a Dual-Coding Hypothesis." Journal of Educational Psychology. 83:4 (1991): 484-490.

Paivio, Allan. "dual coding Theory: Retrospect and Current Status." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 45:3 (1991): 255-287.

Paivio, Allan. Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986

Paivio, Allan. "The Empirical Case for Dual Coding." In J. C. Yuille (Ed.) Imagery, Memory and Cognition. (Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983).

Paivio, Allan and W. Lambert. "Dual Coding and Bilingual Memory." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1981 (20): 532-539.

Paivio, Allan and A. Desrochers. "A Dual-coding Approach to Bilingual Memory." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 1980 (34): 390-401.

Paivio, Allan. "Dual Coding: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Evidence." In J. M. Scandura and C. J. Brainerd. (Eds.) Structural/Process Models of Complex Human Behavior. (Leiden: Nordhoff, 1978).

Paivio, Allan. "Coding Distinctions and Repetition Effects in Memory." In G. H. Bower (Ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. Vol. 9 (New York: Academic Press, 1975).

Paivio, Allan. Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1971

Pellegrino, J.W., A. W. Siegel, and M. Dhawan. "Short Term Retention of Pictures and Words: Evidence for Dual Coding Systems." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1975 (104): 95-102.

Simpson, Timothy J. "Message Into Medium: An Extension of the Dual Coding Hypothesis." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Snodgrass, J. G., B. Wasser, M. Finkelstein and L. B. Goldberg. "On the Fate of Visual and Verbal Memory Codes for Pictures and Words: Evidence for a Dual Coding Mechanism in Recognition memory." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 13 (1974): 27-37.

Sonnenschein, S. and G. J. Whitehurst. "The Effects of Redundant Communications on the Behavior of Listeners: Does a Picture Need a Thousand Words? Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 11 (1982): 115-125.


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