ELEVENTH CENTURY CHRONOLOGY

985-1025  Personal rule of Basil II
1001-5    Renewed campaign against Bulgars under Khan (now Tsar) Samuel
1005      Byzantine recovery of Durazzo (with aid of Chryselioi)
1014-18   Further campaign against the Bulgars; Basil advances to the capital Ohrid, wins major defeat, visits Athens to give thanks to Virgin and celebrates a triumph at Constantinople
1018-ca. 1081  Michael Psellos
1021-22   Basil II campaigns in Armenia and Georgia
1025      Plans for the reconquest of Sicily from Arab control
1025      Death of Basil, his brother Constantine VIII rules alone
1025-36   Pecheneg incursions in northern Balkans
1027-8    Western embassy negotiates Byzantine bride for Conrad II
1028      Constantine VIII's daughter Zoe marries Romanos Argyros
1028      Two days later Constantine dies, Zoe and Romanos acclaimed as imperial rulers
1029      Norman forces established at Aversa, southern Italy
1030      Romanos III suffers defeat by Emir of Aleppo
1031-2    Byzantine forces under George Maniakes capture Edessa, force the
Emir of Aleppo to become a vassal of the empire
1034      Romanos murdered, Zoe marries Michael the Paphlagonian, brother of finance minister, John the Orphanotrophos
1034-41   Reign of Michael IV
1035      Truce between Byzantium and Arab Sicily
1037-40   Byzantine reconquest of Sicily under George Maniakes
1040 ca.  Zoe "adopts" Michael, nephew of Michael IV, and proclaims him caesar, with right to inherit the throne
1040 ca.  Seljuk Turks threaten the Byzantino-Armenian border
1040-1    Revolt in Bulgaria led by Peter Delian, who lays siege to Thessalonike; defeated by Michael IV
1041      Death of Michael IV, succeeded by his nephew Michael V
1041-2    Byzantine revolt in southern Italy in Norman alliance
1042      Michael V exiles John the Orphanotrophos and confines Zoe to a nunnery; popular riots in Constantinople acclaim Zoe and her sister Theodora empresses; Michael V blinded and deposed
1042     Zoe marries Constantine Monomachos (her fourth marriage, which provokes ecclesiastical protest)
1042-55   Reign of Constantine IX
1042-3    Revolt of George Maniakes, proclaimed emperor by his troops in southern Italy, killed in battle in Macedonia
1043      Russian attack on Constantinople
1043-5    University of Constantinople reorganized under Michael Psellos (philosophy) and George Xiphilinos (law)
1043-58   Patriarch Michael Keroularios (Cerularius)
1043-6    Normans under Robert Guiscard plunder central Italy
1047      Revolt of John Vatatzes and Leo Tornikes
1047      First debates over use of unleavened bread (azymes) in communion
1048      Seljuk invasion in Armenia defeated
1048-53   Pechenegs cross the Danube, devastate Thrace and take Preslav; Byzantium forced to bestow land, gifts and court titles to obtain peace; John Mauropous write in praise of 'bloodless victories'.
1049-50   Emperor Henry III acknowledges Norman control in central Italy
1050      Disgrace of prime minister Constantine Leichoudes and exile of Psellos and his teacher John Mauropous
1050      Death of Zoe, Constantine IX reigns alone
1050-1108 ca. Theophylaktos Hephaistos, later archbishop of Ohrid (from ca. 1090)
1054      Schism between churches of Rome and Constantinople over unleavened bread (azymes) and celibate clergy; Niketas Stethatos attacks the Roman use of Filioque clause ("and from the Son") in the creed
1055      Death of Constantine IX Monomachos, Theodora reigns alone
1056      Theodora dies having adopted Michael Stratiotikes as her successor
1056-7    Michael VI challenged by military leaders
1057-9    Reign of Isaac I, member of military family of Komnenos
1057      Robert Guiscard begins conquest of Calabria
1058      Embassy of Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino to Constantinople
1058      Trial of Patriarch Keroularios, exiled
1058-9 Seljuk leader Togrul elected Sultan and Emir of Baghdad, attacks Byzantium
1059      Constitutions of Melfi: Pope Leo IX recognizes Norman authority in Italy
1059-63   Patriarch Constantine Leichoudes
1059      Abdication of Isaac I, who designates Constantine Doukas as his successor
1059-67   Emperor Constantine X
1060      Normans conquer Calabria and begin attacks on Sicily
1064      Magyars capture Belgrade
1065-6    Sultan Alp-Arslan attacks Edessa, Caesarea, Cilicia
1067      On death of Constantine X (in May) his three sons succeed  under
the regency of mother Eudocia, with their uncle John Doukas and Michael Psellos
1067      Marriage of Eudocia to Romanos Diogenes (December)
1069-71   Long campaign of Romanos Diogenes against Seljuk Turks, successful at first but later disastrous
1071      Fall of Bari to Normans after three year siege; Battle of Mantzikert, Romanos taken prisoner, ransomed for large sum
1071     Senate deposes Romanos; Michael Doukas, son of Constantine X proclaimed emperor
1071-8    Reign of Michael VII "Parapinakes"
1072      Fall of Palermo and Sicily to Robert Guiscard
1072-5    Negotiations between Michael VII and Robert Guiscard for a marriage alliance. Simultaneous negotiations with Pope Gregory VII for military alliance.
1072-5     Pecheneg incursions in Balkans, with connivance of natives in Paristrion
1076     Turkish incursions in Asia Minor
1077     Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem
1077     Revolt of Nikephoros Bryennios, duke of Durazzo, proclaimed emperor at Adrianople
1078     Revolt of Nikephoros Botaniates, domestikos of the scholai in Asia Minor, proclaimed at Nicaea
1078     Abdication of Michael VII in favour of his son Constantine, but Nikephoros Botaniates crowned emperor
1078-81  Reign of Nikephoros III, challenged by Robert Guiscard, protector of Michael VII, excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII
1080     Revolt of Nikephoros Melissenos
1080 ca. Seljuks under Suleiman create Sultanate of Rum in Asia Minor
1081     Revolt of Alexios Komnenos, proclaimed emperor in Thrace, allies with Nikephoros Melissenos, enters Constantinople and is crowned
1081-1118  Reign of Alexios I Komnenos Komnenos 1081     Durazzo falls to Robert Guiscard; Normans enter Greece
1082     Alexios I concedes commercial privileges to Venice
1082-3   Guiscard's son Bohemond conquers Macedonia, Thessaly and besieges Larissa; retires to Kastoria and later to Italy
1082     Trial and condemnation of John Italos for pagan philosophy
1083     Alexios I's daughter Anna betrothed to Constantine Doukas, son of Michael VII
1084     Norman fleet defeats Byzantine and Venetian forces off Corfu
1085     Robert Guiscard dies; brother Roger occupies Cephalonia
1086-8   Pechenegs and Cumans invade Thrace, defeat Alexios I and advance to Constantinople.  Alexios imposes truce
1088-9   Negotiations to re-establish union between the churches; patriarchal synod restores mention of popes in diptychs
1090-1   Seljuk attacks on Bithynia; Tzachas leads piracy in Aegean; Cumans and Pechenegs ally with Seljuk Turks
1091     Alexios defeats Pechenegs at decisive battle of Lebounion (Levunium)
1092     Alexios I names his son John caesar in place of Constantine Doukas
1092-4   Combined Turkish and Cuman raids, Diogenes revolt
1092     Pope Urban II appeals for a crusade at Clermont
1095     Alexios I sends embassy to Council of Piacenza for military alliance against the Turks
1096-7   The First Crusade arrives at Constantinople
1097     Alexios I marries daughter Anna to Nikephoros Bryennios
1097     Crusaders capture Nicaea (Iznik)
1098     After long siege Antioch falls to crusaders, Bohemond proclaims himself prince of Antioch
1099     Jerusalem captured by crusaders, Godfrey of Bouillon becomes Defender of the Holy Sepulchre, founds Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem


5 October 1998