Faculty Profiles - Robert Hudec


Robert E. Hudec (13026 bytes)

Professor Emeritus
Formerly Melvin C. Steen and Corporate Donors Professor
Kenyon College, B.A.
Cambridge University, M.A.
Yale University, LL.B.
Kenyon College, LL.D. (Hon.)

Professor Robert E. Hudec, an international trade law expert, is a leading authority on the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Professor Hudec's scholarship and teaching are in the areas of international economic law and commercial law. In 1987, Professor Hudec became the first holder of the Melvin C. Steen and Corporate Donors Professorship in Law.

Professor Hudec is a summa cum laude graduate of Kenyon College. He received an M.A. from Jesus College, Cambridge University and an LL.B., magna cum laude, from Yale University, where he was Editor-in-Chief of the Yale Law Journal. He also has been awarded an honorary LL.D. degree from Kenyon College. After graduation from law school, Professor Hudec served as a law clerk to Justice Potter Stewart of the United States Supreme Court and then as Assistant General Counsel to the Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations. He served on the faculty of the Yale Law School before joining the University of Minnesota Law School faculty in 1972. Professor Hudec has lectured at numerous conferences on international trade topics and has taught at universities in Canada, China, France, Germany, and Switzerland. Professor Hudec is the author of five books, including Enforcing International Trade Law: The Evolution of the Modern GATT Legal System, which was made possible by an O'Melveney and Myers Centennial Grant.


Essays on the Nature on International Trade (1999).

Fair Trade and Harmonization: Prerequisites for Free Trade? (1996) (edited with Jagdish Bhagwati).

Enforcing International Trade Law: The Evolution of the Modern GATT Legal System (1993).

Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System (1988).

Adjudication of International Trade Disputes (1978).

The GATT Legal System And World Trade Diplomacy (1975, 2nd ed. 1990).


The Relation of International Environmental Law to International Trade, in International Regional And National Environmental Law, Fred L. Morrison & Rudiger Wolfrum, eds., (2000).

"Like Product": The Differences in Meaning in GATT Articles I and 111, in Regulatory Barriers and the Principle Of Non-Discrimination In World Trade Law, Thomas Cottier & Petros C. Mavroidis, eds., (2000).

Regionalism and WTO Rules: Problems in the Fine Art of Discriminating Fairly, in Trade Rules in the Making: Challenges in Regional and Multilateral Negotiations, MR. Mendoza, P. Low and B. Kotchwar, eds., (1999) (with James D. Southwick).

A WTO Perspective on Private Anti-Competitive Behavior in World Markets, 34 New England Law Review 79-102 (1999).

The New WTO Dispute Settlement Procedure: An Overview of the First Three Years, 8 Minn. J. Global Trade 1 (1998).

GATT/WTO Constraints on National Regulation: Requiem for an “Aim and Effects” Test, 32 Int’l Law. 619 (1998).

The Role of the GATT Secretariat in the Evolution of the WTO Dispute Settlement Procedure, in The Uruguay Round and Beyond: Essays in Honor of Authur Dunkel (Jagdish Bhagwati & Mathias Hirsch eds., 1998).

The GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement Process: Can it Reconcile Trade Rules with Environmental Needs?, in Enforcing Environmental Standards: Economic Mechanisms as Viable Means? (Rudiger Wolfrum ed., 1996).

International Economic Law: The Political Theatre Dimension, 17 U. Pa. J. Int’l Econ. L. 9 (1996).

Differences in National Environmental Standards: The Level Playing Field Dimension, 5 Minn. J. Global Trade 1 (1996).

Free Trade and the Regulatory State: A GATT’s-Eye View of the Dormant Commerce Clause, 47 Vand. L. Rev. 1401 (1994) (with Daniel A. Farber).

Circumventing Democracy: The Political Morality of Trade Negotiations, 25 N.Y. U. J. Int’l L. & Pol. 311 (1993).

A Statistical Profile of GATT Dispute Settlement Cases: 1948-1989, 2 Minn. J. Global Trade 1 (1993) (with Daniel L. Kennedy & Mark Sgarbossa).

The Role of Judicial Review in Preserving Liberal Foreign Trade Policies, National Constitutions and International Economic Law (1993) (edited by Meinhard Hilf & Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann) (with Fred L. Morrison).

Judicial Protection of Individual Rights Under Foreign Trade Laws of the United States, National Constitutions and International Economic Law (1993) (edited by Meinhard Hilf & Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann).

Judicialization of GATT Dispute Settlement, In Whose Interest?, Due Process and Transparency in International Trade (1992) (edited by Michael Hart & Debra P. Steger).

Public International Economic Law: The Academy Must Invest, 1 Minn. J. Global Trade 5 (1992).

GATT and the Developing Countries, 1992 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 67.

Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: The Concept of Fairness in U.S. Foreign Trade Policy, Canada, Japan and International Law (1990).

Self-Help in International Trade Disputes, 1990 Am. Soc’y Int’l L. Proc. 32 (1990).

Dispute Settlement, Completing the Uruguay Round (1990) (edited by J. Schott).

Thinking About the New Section 301: Beyond Good and Evil, Aggressive Unilateralism: America’s 301 Policy and the World Trading System (1990) (edited by Jagdish N. Bhagwati & Hugh T. Patrick).

Horitsu-teki Seigi-teki Igi (The Legal and Political Significance of the Uruguay Round), Sekai Boeki Taisei (1990) (edited by Ryutara Komiya, et al.).

Remarks (Symposium: Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property, Part 1), 22 Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 309 (1989).

The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement: New Directions in Dispute Settlement, 1989 Am. Soc’y Int’l L. Proc. 257 (1989).

The Structure of South-South Trade Preferences in the 1988 GSTP Agreement: Learning to Say MFMFN, 1 Developing Countries and the Global Trading System (1989) (edited by John Whalley).

Reforming GATT Adjudication Procedures: The Lessons of the DISC Case, 72 Minn. L. Rev. 1443 (1988).

Tiger, Tiger, in the House: A Critical Appraisal of the Case Against Discriminatory Trade Measures, The New GATT Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Legal and Economic Problems (1988) (edited by Meinhard Hilf & Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann).

Dispute Resolution Under a North American Free Trade Area: The Importance of the Domestic Legal Setting, 12 Can.-U.S. L. J. 329 (1987).

Discussion After the Speech of Louis Sohn and the Comments of Robert Hudec and T. Bradbrooke Smith, 12 Can.-U.S. L. J. 341 (1987) (with Louis B. Sohn & T. Bradbrooke Smith).

Transcending the Ostensible: Some Reflections on the Nature of Litigation Between Governments, 72 Minn. L. Rev. 211 (1987).

Legal Issues in U.S./E.C. Trade Policy: GATT Litigation 1960-1985, Issues in US-EC Trade Relations 17 (1987) (edited by Robert E. Baldwin, Carl Hamilton & Andre Sapir).

The Legal Status of GATT in the Domestic Law of the United States, 4 Stud. Transnat’l Econ L. 187 (1986).

The Legal Status of GATT in the Domestic Law of the United States, The European Community and GATT (1986) (edited by Meinhard Hilf, Francis G. Jacobs & Ernst-Ulrich. Petersmann).

Regulation of Domestic Subsidies Under the MTN Subsidies Code, Interface Three: Legal Treatment of Domestic Subsidies 1 (1984) (edited by Van C. Krikorian, Frank J. Loftus & Don Wallace, Jr.).

Restating the Reliance Interest, 67 Cornell L. Rev. 704 (1982).

Unfair Trade Policy After the Tokyo Round, Interface Two: Conference Proceedings on the Legal Framework of East-West Trade (1982) (edited by David A. Flores & Don Wallace, Jr.).

GATT Dispute Settlement After the Tokyo Round: An Unfinished Business, 13 Cornell Int’l L. J. 145 (1980).

Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Dispute Settlement: A Panel, 1980 Am. Soc’y Int’l L. Proc. 129 (1980) (with Thomas R. Graham, John H. Jackson, Donald E. Dekieffer & Michael Gadbaw).

United States Compliance with the 1967 GATT Antidumping Code, 1 Mich. Y.B. Int’l Legal Stud. 205 (1979).

Retaliation Against "Unreasonable" Foreign Trade Practices: The New Section 301 and GATT Nullification and Impairment, 59 Minn. L. Rev. 461 (1975).

Possible Trade Policy Consequences of the Canadian Foreign Investment Policy, 6 Case W. Res. J. Int’l L. 50 (1973).

GATT or GABB? The Future Design of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 80 Yale L. J. 1299 (1971).

The GATT Legal System: A Diplomat’s Jurisprudence, 4 J. World Trade L. 615 (1970).

Book Reviews

91 Am. J. of Int’l L. 750 (1997) (reviewing E. U. Petersmann, The GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System: International Law, International Organizations, and Dispute Settlement (1996)).

33 J. Legal Educ. 546 (1983) (reviewing Kenneth W. Dam, The Rules of the Game: Reform and Evolution in the International Monetary System (1982)).

5 J. World Trade L. 365 (1971) (reviewing J. Jackson, World Trade and the Law of GATT (1969)).

12 Va. J. Int’l L. 152 (1971) (reviewing C. Fulda & W. Schwartz, Regulation of International Trade and Investment (1970)).


Does the Agreement on Agriculture Work? Agricultural Disputes After the Uruguay Round, IATRC Working Paper (1998) (on file with the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium).


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