Immediately below these links,.... on this page , are many tips on how to do speech enrichment with your child. Some of these are what a speech therapist would do. You can learn to do these .
The links directly below ,   are information  so you can understand the structure of your child's speech as it is developing. Included is a link to a vocabulary list.
 This information is important to have .
In the beginning , we may work with our children on nouns and verbs , and it may not be all that difficult to understand where to go in teaching. But where to go when  sentences are developing can be overwhelming. The links below shows how a child starts with one word and grows from there.

((( As Well READ ARTICLE By Dr Camarata at this link : http://www.geocities.com/speppera/CamarataArticle.htm  )))))
Attention ! When going to these links you will need to hit your back button to go back, or click the home page link on those pages. Sorry for the inconvenience.
Noun phrase      http://www.geocities.com/speppera/NounPhraseElaboration.htm
     Speech negationhttp://www.geocities.com/speppera/SpeechNegationChild.htm
 Verb phrase     http://www.geocities.com/speppera/VerbPhraseElaboration.htm
 Speech Complex      http://www.geocities.com/speppera/SpeechComplex.htm
 The Wh Questions      http://www.geocities.com/speppera/SpeechChildWhQuestions.htm
HOME www.latetalking.org
Vocabulary Word List Link
Recasting is a child-led treatment which is embedded into the ongoing flow of play and :
1. Follows the child's lead
2. Recasts the child's immediate verbal utterance or referent of the child's attention
3. Does not require a verbal response from the child.
What is a recast ? A recast is an utterance in response to a verbalization or play act ( where attention is verified ) by a child . This response contains verbal information from the child's previous utterance and adds minimal additional information ; in this situation , the specific target.
One can recast utterances in which the child 1) attempts the target unsuccessfully 2) attempt the target successfully  , or 3) in the child utterances that do not attempt the utterance at all.  With children in the very early Brown Stages I or II , it is acceptable to recast the child's play acts. To do this the clinician must determine that the play act being recasted is the focus of the child's attention. A criteria for this is that the child's hand is involved ( holding , pointing , pushing , etc. ..) with the particular item or action and the child's eye gaze is focused to this action or object as well.
Recasting is best when it 1) immediately follows the child's utterance or play act 2) is as short as possible and contains the target 3) flows and reinforces the play , and 4) has  natural supersegmentals
1. Environmental arrangement ( EA)- This technique is essential in facilitating an engaging environment that holds the child's interest and contains things the child wants or needs. Thoughtful arrangement of the space and materials creates the need/motivation for the child to initiate language . Strategies of environmental arrangement include a) strategic placement and storage of therapy materials c) controlling play sets and parts d) absurdity & e)predictable routines
2. Attention engagement - The higher the child's attention and interest in the scenario the greater the learning efficiency . The child's interest and engagement in play is higher in objects of the child's own choosing. Remember to keep the materials interesting to the child but not overwhelming ; introducing a moderate amount a novelty of successive sessions.
3. Follow the child's lead - Children will be more motivated to verbalize about things of their choosing . Proper choices of materials and environmental arrangement is likely to produce high attentional engagement. From this point the therapist follows the child and attends and responds to what the child is attending. Joint attention maximizes meaning , likelihood of response, and learning. One should also follow the child's lead in terms of communicative match. Be aware to keep your verbalizations at or only slightly above that of the child.One does not want to overwhelm or take away from the saliency of the therapist's interaction with superfluous verbalization.
4. Do not give feedback on the correctness of incorrectness of utterances.
"Concentrated play " refers to play scenarios in which the parent structures the play  environment to hold multiple opportunities to "recast" specific language targets . The goal of Concentrated Play is to provide the child many opportunities for the language target(s) ( what you want them to learn) in meaningful contexts with lots of predictability and repetition. It provides the same environment which children typically learn  language.The difference is in "Concentrated play" the language structures that are actually spoken to the child are not as varied as language structures in everyday speech.The child hears their specific language targets multiple times.To restate , the amount of linguistic interaction containing multiple linguistic features , it contains the same redundancy of the language feature also increases the language opportunities.And , of critical importance , the increased learning opportunities take place in meaningful interaction.Meaningful interaction is where language is typically learned and used.Let's look at an example of a typical interaction and a concentrated one.
Child                                    Adult
( child rolls car )                Car !
(makes car sound)            Car go.
( looks , makes sound )    Car go.
                                            Car go !! Go ! Go !
Comment . : in this scenario the child hears two forms over and over.car and go. ( object , & object + action ) ( Brown's stage two ) He hears them in direct relationship to play which he has chosen and which already has his attentions. The parent "recasts" the child's initiation , and , in doing so , does not expend effort , into directing the child's attention or trying to get the child interested in something the adult has chosen.By following the child's lead , all the energy is focused on meaningful language at the appropriate developmental level of the child.The repetitiveness and predictability add to the language support.There is NO request for imitation or prompting , which often  1) deter the child 2) produces unnatural speech that is not readily generalized
Typical interaction
child                                              adult
( rolls car)                                     Oh ! What do you have ?
( makes car sound )                    Car. say Car.
( puts car down)                          Can I have a car ?
( picks up the car )                      For me ? Oh boy . Say Car.
( puts down car , shifts play)
In this scenario the child hears multiple syntactic structures which are significantly over his developmental language level.The child is requested to repeat.This interrupts the play with a less meaningful  and intimidating request.The child is experiencing difficulty discerning what is meaning from all the different linguistic structures. ( questions , forms , auxiliaries , prepositions , pronouns , and more ) said by the adult. The words have little meaning for him and he gives more attention to play and less to the verbal interactions paired with the play.
In "Concentrated Play " the situation is structured so your child will learn language in much the same way as ta child with typical language.The difference is "Concentrated Play" limits the wide variation in language feedback , increases redundancy, and accentuates the predictability of the play to provide increase learning support.
Practical Tips.
You may find a few trips to the store to construct some toy sets to be very useful in optimizing your play times. Shop for inexpensive toys that are likely to produce opportunities for the language target you are working on with your child. For example , if you are targeting a core vocabulary , then go and purchase a variety of objects or toys that will elicit those words , ( in the case of nouns  , the objects themselves, in the case of verbs, object that produces the action ). Say your target is adjective + verb , then having many objects that are the same with the exception of one aspect  , are likely to produce many opportunities to "recast"   "big ball " or " fast car" or " yucky bug " etc. If your goals are dealing with articulation , then pick up toys that will initiate those sounds or sound contrasts that you are targeting.
  Next , storing this collection of toys in a large container ( like the rubber made variety ) makes it easy to pull out for your special concentrated play times.The toys stay together and the child is often motivated to interact because the toys are special and are paired with play that includes Mom and Dad. Lots of fun !
Finally , swap out the toys as you need to.If the child is not motivated by the toys any longer a few new ones may do the trick.Keep in mind that your child's language targets will be continually changing. As your child acquires the language structure you are working on , you will need to move on to the next developmentally appropriate target ( s) .  New toy will likely be required . Remember , this is supposed to be fun. Learning occurs best when the child is engaged and motivated .So follow his lead and enjoy your child !
* A speech pathologist or language pathologist can help you in picking new language parts as your child begins to demonstrate use of his present targets.
Modeling Language
small change goes to---> BIG IMPROVEMENTS  --->
Often the easiest way to improve your  child's language skills is by making a few small changes , which can  lead to big improvements. The first step is to choose a few daily routines , such as meal time , bath time, and bed time , when you talk with your child using special techniques.
During these times, pay special attention to the way you are talking . Here area  few tips :
talk about what you are doing NOW, not about things that happened earlier in the day or that will be happening later.
Use short sentences and basic vocabulary , but use correct grammar instead of "baby talk"
Speech and Language is best learned under natural conditions of playing and growing up.Language is learned but is not taught. The best environment for language development is natural and spontaneous. As a parent  you play a unique role in your child's speech and language development .Your pre-school child spends the majority of the day with his family.You are his world.You share many life experiences which require the use of language. Your child does not learn the complicate use of language  and the complex processes of speech in formalized instruction . He learns language best in the give and take of everyday life.
By paying special attention to the language you use with your child , you create a communication situation that is better for language learning.
Once you become comfortable with these special talking times, there are additional techniques that you want to use during these interactions.
SELF-TALK  : Describe what you are doing as you do it. Name the actions as you perform them in your daily routines.Use sentences only slightly longer or more complex than the speech pattern your child is using.
PARALLEL TALK :  Describe what your child is doing as he does it.Again , use sentence patterns only slightly longer than what your child is using.
EXPANDING :  Add sentence structure to what your child says .Respond with a slightly longer or more complex sentence.
Child " ball"
Adult " Big Ball . This is ball . It is Joey's ball ."
EXTENDING : Add meaning to what your child says.Respond by telling your child additional information.
Child: "Ball"
Adult. " Ball is round . Roll the ball.We can catch the ball.The ball is red."
When you don't understand what your child is trying to tell you .
Be responsive to your child's attempts to communicate.If you don't understand ,  be honest and tell him.This will help reduce frustrations and tantrums.The following steps may prove helpful.
A. First tell your child you didn't hear him and ask him to tell you again.
B. If you still do not understand him , ask him to show you what he means or wants.
C. If communication is still unsuccessful , tell your child you would like to help but don't understand.Let him know you will try again later.
Avoid correction of your child's speech pattern.Your child may often say words that do not sound like real words to you ( e.g. tani for candy). Show your approval for his attempt to communicate.Repeat the word he said in the correct adult term.Avoid telling your child that what he said was incorrect.Negative feedback may decrease his attempts to speak.
Child " tani"
Adult "Candy , Her is candy. Candy is sweet . Candy ."
A child learns to talk by listening to those around him.This makes you an important model and a valuable source of language input. You show your child that things have names , words have meaning and language will get him what he wants.
( the section on self talk and parallel talk is mentioned here again)
For the activity "talking a bath " you might say : "Joey taking a bath" . Mommy turn on water . Water feels warm . Space . Slash. Splash the water . Joey has duck . Duck is yellow . Duck swims . Here's the soap .Soap makes bubbles .Mommy wash Joey . Mommy wash Joey's ear .Mommy wash Joey's nose.Joey laughs.Joey is all washed.All done.
1. Speak in a slow but natural pattern. Use short phrases with short but correct grammar. Your speech pattern should be only slightly more complex that your child's .
2. Comment on what is happening .( e.g. self talk , parallel talk)
3. Talk about what you and your childare doing now.Describe what you are doing as you do it.
4.Let your child determine the direction of activity. You follow his lead.He will be more apt to attend longer to an activity he finds interesting.
5. Avoid excessive use of wh and yes/no question patterns . ( e.g. what is it ? , What's the doggie's name ? . Comment instead of  questioning.
6. Be responsive to your child's attempts to communicate.If you don't understand , be honest and tell him.This will help reduce frustrations and tantrums .remember the ABC's
A. First tell him you didn't hear him and ask him to tell you again.
B. If you still do not understand him , ask him to show you what he means or wants.
C. If communication is still unsuccessful , tell your child you would like to help but don't understand.Let him know you will try again later.
7. Avoid correction of your child's speech patterns. Your child may often say words that do not sound like real words to you ( e.g. tani for candy)Show your approval of his attempt to communicate.Repeat the word he said in the correct adult form.Avoid telling your child that what he said was incorrect. Negative feedback may further decrease his attempts to speak.
Child : "tandi"
Adult : "Candy . Here is Candy . Candy is sweet . Candy . "
8. Encourage requesting behavior.Your child will not develop language skills for which he has no use.Encourage him to express his wants and needs with words instead of gestures.(i.e. pointing)
Situation :  A child is reaching for a toy which has been placed out of reach.He is gesturing and vocalizing that he needs help.
Response to behavior : "Ball. You want Ball. Ball. I'll give it to you "Pause and provide your child time to ask. If he doesn't ask , provide an opportunity to learn .Pick up an object . Say , "ball" . "tell me . " "Ball".Pause and give him time to approximate the target word .If unsuccessful repeat again .If he still does no respond , give the child the desired object.As you give it to him , state the name and tell him about the object. For example , "Ball. Joey's Ball .Play Ball. Ball. "

The following suggestions are carried out with a set of early phonetic reading series.The purchase information is attached to this sheet.There are several reasons why I prefer this set of books.
1. they are a good length
you can use the whole story or part of the story and accomplish the objectives.
2. the pictures are very nice . They are colorful and engaging and realistic.The pictures are very large.
3.The story lines are simple and fun.
4. The cost is reasonable , and one receives plenty of storybooks.
5.Finally they are good initial readers  with an excellent phonics structure .Reading skills are not our primary goal.However if your child is beginning to take an interest in reading , these books are a nice assistance.Reading often supplements progress in language.
Some technics. "Tell" the story picture by picture . Do not focus on reading the text word for word . Use the key words and keep your language at about the same utterance length ( MLU) of your child.One can ask a simple question about each page.These can range in difficulty from "Where's the car" to "What do you think will happen?".As your child becomes familiar with the stories , and the routines in terms of how you interact with the stories , then   you can change up your questions as your child's competency increases.
You can cut the spine off the books and tell the story frame by frame . Then let your child order the pictures in the order of the stories. Here, again , you can adjust for difficulty.At first , you may only present two picture frames after you tell the story , and ask "which came first ? " . Or , you may only present a beginning , middle and end picture , and ask your child to order them.
After either of the activities , above a) you telling the story to your child or b) telling the story and having your child order them to some degree , you can ask your child to tell you the story or tell you one thing about each page.
The stories are simple and many of the objects in the stories are common. One could collect some of the "objects" from a particular story.Next , you and your child would play and interact with the familiar characters whom they are familiar ( i.e. Blues Clues , Pokemon , Thomas the Train) During this play you can present specific language targets and recast your child's verbal initiations.The familiar and redundant nature of the topic matter will support and maximize the potential for language learning.
( the link below does not work , I need to fix this)
Website is http://www.pearsonlearning.com/plearn/htmal/cat_3.cfm?prog_id=357&ser_id=149
See the Day.
Keep a gallon -sized ziplock bag with you. They store easily in purses , backpacks , or pockets. As your child progresses through his or her day , periodically collect some material from memorable activities , and store them  in the bag. For example , if lunch was at McDonalds , one might put a straw from a favorite soda in the bag. Or if cookies were made that day , a cookie could be put in the bag.Let your child know you are doing this . At a routine time each day get out the bag and one by one "talk" about the day.This activity is dynamic and can be tailored to the many different levels of language development. Child care workers can contribute to your collection too.
Homemade books
A photo album and a camera is all you need to provide motivating and meaningful "language books".You will need inexpensive photo albums with the self adhesive photo protectors that pull back from the page.Next all one does i point and shoot.Select pictures of meaningful things , in your child's environment . Some good choices are family members , toys , or a series of pictures that depict a familiar routine of a child, like " Tommie Gets ready for Bed " or "Brian plays  In the Park " or "Jane visits Miss Rita" . Go over these books regularly and use similar language as you talk about these pictures.You will discover that language interaction with these books will grow along with your child's language.
Videos starring me !
Many children experiencing language difficulties , in particular children who have difficulty with linguistic comprehension as well as expression , enjoy watching their favorite videos.In fact sometimes their speech contains learned scripts from these videos when related contexts come up in the child's environment.
It is appealing that video contain highly interesting and engaging visual material.AND that the paired language STAYS CONSTANT.This allows the child to listen and compare the visual with the auditory over and over again.In " Videos Starring Me" you try to recreate the same motivating factors that make videos enjoyable for your child.
 This time ,however , we will tailor the video to contain developmentally targeted language . So get your video camera and think of creative ways to make a video that includes your child's language targets over and over again, in meaningful situations.It is always nice to include the family in them. It helps engage your child.Watch them together , over and over again , interact with the videos .When your child is ready to move on in their language goal , get out the camera and make some more !