From the discovery of solarization in 1857 until Man Ray and Lee Miller's rediscovery of the technique around 1930, solarization was mainly a curiosity. It was discussed occasionally in popular photographic literature in brief, descriptive articles, and, more rarely, in technical literature as a perplexing subject of scientific investigation. There is little evidence from this early period to show that the Sabatier effect was purposely used as an artistic device in photography.
Evidence for an artistic application of solarization may exist in the form of a positive collodion plate made by Edgar Degas sometime before 1881, that now resides in the collection of the Bibliotheque Nationale. Janet Buerger36,37 points out that this photograph shows clear evidence of solarization during the development of the original negative. The image is that of a ballerina; several areas of deep shadow appear white, and there are dark border lines around the hand, the outstretched arm, the shoulder, neck, ear, and bust. Although it is not known whether Degas carried out the solarization intentionally or by accident, Buerger claims that the photograph had a profound influence on his work. She argues that the luminous effects caused by the solarization are remarkably similar to the luminosity in many of his drawings.
Fig. 3.1. It is claimed that this is a print from a solarized negative of Edgar Degas. Clearly partial reversal has occurred. Notice that the dancer's face is in dark shadow, as expected, whereas the underside of her raised arm is brighter than the upper side. [From Buerger, ref. 36, p. 17.]
For example, students of Degas have noticed that the modelling of some of his ballerinas and singers is the reverse of normal modelling, and Buerger proposes that such reverse modelling is derived from the solarized photograph. The halo effect that appears as a result of the Sabatier border lines occurs not only in his ballet pictures throughout the 1870s and 1880s but also in a series of non- ballerina pictures, mainly monotypes of various genre scenes. The monotype Femme au Bain, ca. 1880- 5, is an example: the glowing outline of the ear of this bather resembles the halo- line of the ear of the dancer in the photograph.
Buerger points out that the solarized picture of the dancer, in which the head is reversed in tone, displays a motif common in Degas' work, that of a head with an obliterated face. Degas uses this motif as early as 1868- 9 in The Interior, where the face of the woman is erased by shadow, and in a strange monotype called The Fireside (ca. 1880), where the face glows, just as in the solarized photograph.
There is no question that Degas used photographs to aid his drawing.52 The question is, did this one solarized photograph exert the profound effect suggested by Buerger? Even if her arguments are not completely convincing, she has at least drawn attention to the fact that Degas was impressed enough by this solarized photograph (a product of "defective" development) to keep it, rather than to discard it. Perhaps he liked the solarization because its luminosity resembled that in scenes that he was fond of depicting. If the solarization had no further significance to Degas, it was nevertheless an artistic application of solarization, unwitting or not.
Various authors have claimed that Alfred Stieglitz used "solarization" in his photography, but it appears that in some cases they confused Sabatier solarization with overexposure solarization. Schwarz210 claims that "Man Ray first saw a 'solarized' print around 1919, a photograph that Stieglitz had discarded as ruined by overexposure." Livingston,165 when discussing the collaborative rediscovery of Sabatier solarization by Lee Miller and Man Ray, claimed that "Stieglitz had actually done it first."
I have found no evidence that Stieglitz ever used Sabatier solarization in his work. On the other hand, there is no question that he used overexposure solarization, and it appears that he restricted its use to palladium printing. Palladium printing, like platinum printing, gives prints with a wide tonal range and rich, velvety blacks. However, palladium printing is much cheaper, and the image is warmer.189
In 1923, Strand probably was unaware of Sabatier solarization. Man Ray had not yet rediscovered and popularized it. Hence Strand then surely was referring to overexposure solarization when he wrote, in reference to Stieglitz:224 "Observe also how he has used solarisation, really a defect, how he has used it as a virtue consciously, made the negative with that in mind. That is truly creative use of material, perfectly legitimate, perfectly photographic." Later he wrote:225 "Then in the printing of certain negatives, never letting it become a trick or mannerism, he used the solarization deliberately to emphasize the linear elements, as for instance in the beautiful `Hands with Thimble.' Here is an example of Stieglitz' creative use of materials and their importance to the making of his prints." This palladium print, of the hands of Georgia O'Keeffe, and a similar print of the hands of Helen Freeman, when viewed as good reproductions,35 show dark lines around the hands because of the overexposure solarization of the surrounding background area. These lines are reminiscent of the dark border lines in second- generation Sabatier solarizations, and wrongly suggest that the negatives may have been Sabatier- solarized.
It is easy to be confused by such borderlines. Dark borderlines are sometimes found in the complete absence of any kind of solarization. When a rounded, light subject is photographed in front of a light background, with the light coming mainly from the direction of the camera, the edges of the subject appear dark, mimicking Sabatier border lines. There are several examples of this phenomenon in the nude photographs of Edward Weston.241
Sarah Greenough, of the National Gallery of Art, says94 "It appears that Stieglitz stumbled onto overexposure solarization sometime in late 1918 or 1919. I can't be absolutely certain which year; the negatives of some of our solarized prints were made in 1918, but he may not have actually made the prints until 1919. ... There is nothing to indicate he knew that palladium paper would solarize with prolonged exposure, but rather in attempting to achieve the rich, velvety tones he wanted, he exposed the paper to more and more light. We have at least two examples where there are two prints from the same negative, one solarized and one not. To me, this clearly indicates that Stieglitz, once he discovered the effect, intentionally employed it for aesthetic purposes." The National Gallery has two versions of a Stieglitz portrait of Georgia O'Keeffe. The overexposure- solarized version is lighter than the other version in the areas that should be very dark, such as her hair.
Man Ray and Lee Miller19,85,92,176
Emmanuel Radnitsky was born in 1890 in Philadelphia. In 1897 the family moved to Brooklyn, and around 1911 their last name was changed to Ray. Soon thereafter "Manny" Ray, who by then had embarked on an artistic career, shortened his name to Man Ray to avoid classification as an artist with an ethnic identity - a type of pigeonholing he abhorred.
Soon Man Ray was well known as a painter, a maker of objects, a photographer, and a participant in New York's modernist movement. In 1921, after several of his artist friends had moved to Paris, he followed them and soon became part of the Dada and Surrealist avant- garde of Paris. Man Ray was a great poseur, but in spite of his desires to be recognized as a painter, he became best known as a portrait photographer among the artists, composers, and writers of the twenties and thirties. Stanley Hayter, an artist neighbor of Man Ray during Man Ray's Parisian days, called Man Ray "the photographer who thought he was a painter."19
An event which was crucial to the development of Man Ray's creativity occurred in the summer of 1929. A beautiful young woman named Lee Miller came to him from America with a letter of introduction from Stieglitz and essentially told him that she was to be his student. In fact, they ended up living together for three years. But it was not quite that simple. When Lee arrived, Man Ray was having an affair with Kiki de Montparnasse, a cabaret artist well known for giving her lovers both affection and jealousy with equal passion. But after a while she accepted the inevitable and became quite friendly toward Lee.193 Lee posed for Man Ray, and he tutored her in photography. Lee learned fast, and soon Man Ray was passing on a lot of his photographic work to Lee to free himself for painting.
Their best known joint achievement was their rediscovery, probably in the winter of 1929- 1930, of solarization. The most widely quoted account of this event is that of Lee Miller as told in a 1975 interview with Amaya.4 "Something crawled across my foot in the darkroom and I let out a yell and turned on the light. I never did find out what it was, a mouse or what. Then I quickly realized that the film was totally exposed: there in the development tanks, ready to be taken out, were a dozen practically fully- developed negatives of a nude against a black background.
Fig. 3.2. Man Ray: Nude, 1929. [From Time-Life's "Great Photographers," p. 131. c/r Man Ray Trust/A.D.A.G.P.]
Fig. 3.3. Man Ray: Fingers, 1930. [From Fotofolio postcard. c/r Man Ray Trust/A.D.A.G.P.]
"Man Ray grabbed them, put them in the hypo and looked at them later. He didn't even bother to bawl me out, since I was so sunk. When he looked at them, the unexposed parts of the negative, which had been the black background, had been exposed by this sharp light that had been turned on and they had developed, and came right up to the edge of the white, nude body. But the background and the image couldn't heal together, so there was a line left which he called a `solarization.'"
This mouse story is highly suspect. Thirty- four years earlier, Lee Miller had written an article about Man Ray in which she had the opportunity to express herself more carefully.184 In that article she said that solarization was discovered when a faulty lighting connection caused some film to be accidentally exposed to a strong light in the middle of the development process.
In any event, Man Ray realized the potential of the process and set about determining how to control it and to make it come out exactly the way he wanted to each time. "The changes start in the dense areas and progress," Man Ray said.20,210 "That's how you get variation in tone. You must know when to stop. I used this on some portraits to accent the contours of a face with a black line. ... I was trying to master, to dominate, the technical side of photography to explore new areas. The technique in itself was not important to me, I was interested only in the result; the technique enabled me to get away from photography, to get away from banality, what I seek above all is to escape from banality, and here was a chance to produce a photograph that would not look like a photograph."
The process was kept "secret" until 1933. At that time Maurice Tabard published228 the process and thereby ended his friendship with Man Ray.85 The published procedure is a paper- negative process that starts with a normal print, on low- contrast glossy paper, made from a normal negative. This is "rephotographed" (presumably by contact printing), using a sheet of contrasty glossy paper which is then developed in the darkroom. The development is stopped before the shadows or unexposed parts of the paper turn grey. The surface of the print is drained or sponged with a piece of dry cotton to avoid rapid fogging of the image; then the solarization takes place, by exposure of the paper for 3 seconds to a 45- watt lamp at a distance of one meter. After the white light is switched off, development "by saturation" proceeds slowly for one or two minutes without returning the paper to the developer. The print is then fixed normally. Finally, this paper negative is used to make a contact print on normal- contrast matte paper.
This solarization procedure is obviously a modification of the procedure that he and Lee Miller accidentally used when they rediscovered the effect. In that rediscovery event, the original negatives were solarized, making it impossible to make a normal print. In Tabard's published procedure, the original negative is developed normally, and therefore it is possible to make both normal and solarized versions of the same picture. Indeed this is essentially the procedure that some modern photographers use when they want to obtain black Sabatier border lines. It is a safe procedure, with no danger of ruining an irreplacable negative. Perhaps Tabard described this paper- negative procedure, rather than the original- negative solarization procedure, because it was less risky for the reader to try out.
There is no doubt that Man Ray sometimes used this paper- negative solarization procedure, in view of the facts that many of his solarized prints have normal negatives and that some of his images are known in both solarized and normal versions. On the other hand, there also is no doubt that he sometimes solarized original negatives; many such solarized negatives are to be found in his large collection of negatives.86
At a 1934 meeting of the French Society of Photography, Charles Hurault demonstrated the original- negative solarization procedure (which, he said, Man Ray was one of the first to use) and outlined the procedure as follows.114
"Exposure of the negative. - The subject, uniformly lit, should be placed in front of a black background. The exposure time is determined as exactly as possible to avoid, above all, overexposure.
"Development. - Any organic developer, in the usual solution, can be used: diaminophenol, metol- hydroquinone, glycine, etc. One must take all precautions necessary to avoid fog formation.
"Partial inversion. - Before completion of the development, the plate is removed from the bath and dried carefully to remove all droplets of developer. The negative is exposed for several seconds to the action of a white light. The exposure time depends on the emulsion used; for a Lumichrome plate, correctly exposed, it should be about 8 seconds at a distance of 50 cm. from a 40- watt lamp.
"Completion of development. - The development is continued under the safelight using the developer retained in the sensitive layer, that is, without again immersing the plate in the developing bath. The fixing and the final washing are carried out as in normal processing.
"Any skillful worker can, by this procedure, obtain highly interesting results. The choice and lighting of the subject, the nature of the emulsion, its treatment, etc. ... are among the factors that the photographer can vary according to the effects that he seeks."
Sandra Phillips wrote194 that solarization "produced a sense of disembodiment in images. ... Man Ray's fascination with artificial light and with isolating objects to enhance their mystery intensified with solarization. His earlier fashion- related images that focussed on the heads of women - Kiki or Tityana for the cover of Vu - evolved into a varied assortment of disembodied anatomical parts. Floating faces, hands, masklike heads, etherealized torsos with an unhealthy glow - all beautifully printed - were the products of this invention. The strange new aura that solarization gave to fashion and celebrity portraits was also very appealing - even more so because Man Ray refused to overindulge in the technique."
In the paper- negative solarization process, the first step involves the preparation of a solarized print with white Sabatier border lines. Man Ray seldom made this print (the "paper negative") his final photographic product, probably because in those days one- step print solarization usually did not give images as bright as can be routinely obtained today. He therefore usually used the print as a paper negative, thus producing a final image with black Sabatier border lines and increased contrast and brilliance. However, one of his solarized prints, "Fingers," 1930, looks much like a contemporary solarization, with white borders around all the fingers. The white lines are so bright that I suspect that the print was made by using a black border line print as a paper negative, i.e., that the print was a third- generation solarization.
When Man Ray's solarizations were first exhibited, some people accused him of touching up his prints. He became somewhat defensive about this, and later wrote in his autobiography:176 "Solarization [is] a process of developing by which the contours of the visage are accentuated by black, as in a drawing. Although it is a purely photographic process, I was accused of retouching and tampering with the negatives. Nowadays it is common practice among amateurs who are fascinated by newer techniques, applying them indiscriminately whether they suit the subject or not. Whenever I deviated from orthodox practice it was simply because the subject demanded a new approach; I applied or invented techniques for emphasis of the points that seemed important. Only superficial critics could accuse me of trickiness; if ever I had any doubts of the value of my departure from the norm, such criticism convinced me that what I was doing was valid, that I was on the right track. Many so- called tricks of today become the truths of tomorrow. Besides, trickery is often the result of hard work."
It seems that Man Ray and Lee Miller were the first photographers to use Sabatier solarization as a purposeful artistic device. Man Ray certainly deserves credit for making solarization a reproducible and useful technique. However, he may have received too much credit for the solarizations that emanated from the darkroom he shared with Lee Miller during 1930 and 1931. Some of the solarizations which have been attributed over the years to Man Ray probably represent collaborative efforts by him and Lee Miller. Notable among the solarizations with ambiguous origins are the nude study Primat de la Matiere sur la Pensee and the image of Lee's head La Dormeuse.19,165 Indeed, it would not be unreasonable to claim that all of Man Ray's solarizations in which Lee was the model were artistic collaborations. After Lee moved out of Man Ray's apartment and set up her own studio and darkroom in Paris (and, later, in New York), she continued using solarization. One well- known print, based on a solarized negative, is that of Lilian Harvey, the film star, made in 1933 in New York.193
Fig. 3.4. Man Ray: The primacy of matter over thought, 1931. [From Fotofolio postcard. c/r Man Ray Trust/A.D.A.G.P.]
Fig. 3.5. Lee Miller: Lilian Harvey, film star. New York, 1933. [From Penrose, ref. 193, p. 50.]
Man Ray's exploitation of solarization brought the technique to the attention of many photographers, some of whom then began to use it in their own work - sometimes to good effect, and at other times just for the sake of novelty. Let us consider some of the better known photographers who put the technique to good use in the thirties and forties.
Maurice Tabard, born in 1897 in Lyon, France, went to New York in 1914 to study photography. After returning to France in 1928, he joined the Parisian group of artists and became a close acquaintance of Man Ray. Tabard was fond of interpreting images as the "dimmed reflections of reality, seen in a dream," and said "Photography is the art of light. Why limit it to a simple documentary role? Why not allow the imagination to play with it?"90
It is not surprising that Tabard became enchanted with Man Ray's solarization. He picked up the essentials of solarization from Man Ray, spent long hours of experimentation while mastering the technique, and then employed it in many of his photographs, often combining it with multiple printing. In view of his acquired expertise, it is understandable that Tabard consented when asked by the editor of Arts et Metiers Graphiques to write a short description of the solarization process.228 Although he gave due credit to Man Ray in the article, Man Ray felt betrayed by his revelation of the "secret" process (described earlier in this chapter). Tabard, like Man Ray, had a sense of the exotic and a facility for using studio lighting decoratively and ambiguously. He became an important fashion photographer in the thirties.85
Fig. 3.6. Tabard: L'homme a la guitare, ca 1930. [From Gassmann et al., ref. 90, p. 76.]
Francis Bruguiere, born in San Francisco in 1879, studied in the eastern U.S. and toured Europe, where he gained an appreciation for music, painting, and poetry.80 In New York, he studied photography with Frank Eugene and met Stieglitz. As a portraitist and free- lance photographer in San Francisco, New York, and London, he was always experimenting - using multiple- exposure, solarization, cliché-; verre, relief printing, the gum- bichromate and autochrome processes, photograms, and unusual light sources. Bruguiere's solarizations were generally made during the development of prints, and so usually had white Sabatier border lines, as opposed to Man Ray's typical black border lines. Thus a single master negative would often yield several versions of the same image.
Bruguiere wrote:33,34 "The process, which was observed from the beginning of photography, termed 'solarization,' has been technically perfected by Man Ray. It is accomplished by exposing a fully developed negative or print to the light for a few seconds, and then continuing development and fixing. It is, as far as I know, the most promising process in the hands of the modern photographer. Here there is no hand work, the results being controlled by light and chemicals: there is what might be termed 'legitimate' manipulation of the light, similar to that used in 'dodging' - and what photographer does not 'dodge' his prints? The possibilities of the resultant image range from a slight to a complete transformation of the photographic image."
When discussing methods for making "unnatural" photos, he said "Such processes involve a certain amount of patience on the part of the photographer. They are none of them commercial, unless some advertiser may fall for 'the novelty of an idea.' By referring to patience, I do not mean that it takes anything like 20 or 30 hours to produce a photograph: most of the photographs I have made have not taken me as many minutes.
"A critic once said to me: 'It must take you many hours to do one of those photographs; is it worth the expenditure of time?' He might well ask the question, for he considered that all steps in the direction of making the photograph a medium of expression are doomed to failure by the fact that the photograph is believed to be impermanent, that anyone who wants to can easily do something of a similar nature. In fact, he echoed the general opinion held by those who know little about the medium. It would appear from this that photography is considered a kind of journalism: not a thing of beauty and a joy for ever, but something quickly to be discarded.
"But however that may be, for many who practise it, it is a fascinating medium, capable of expansion in the right hands. One looks to the amateur for whatever advance may be accomplished in the future; for he alone has the leisure and money, and is not beset by the practical problems of a commercial photographer. Photography may be considered an expensive medium in which to experiment."
Konrad Cramer, born in Germany in 1888, attended the Karlsruhe Academy of Fine Arts from 1906 to 1909. After a year in the German Army, he set up a painting studio in Karlsruhe and made frequent trips to Munich, where he made contacts with the German avant- garde. In 1911 he met and married the American artist Florence Ballin, who was touring Europe. They soon moved to America and settled in Woodstock, New York, where they worked and collaborated for the rest of their lives.
Cramer was always interested in modern and controversial art. But Woodstock was far from the center of the art world, and most of his work was rather provincial, being influenced mainly by his artist friends in Woodstock. Perhaps the most controversial work Cramer produced were his outdoor figure studies and erotic drawings. In the mid 1930s he became interested in photography. His photographs were those of a painter, often using experimental techniques. Starting in 1939, Cramer began very serious experimentation in solarization. Much of this work involved the use of solarized prints as paper negatives, so that the final prints showed the texture of the paper negatives and had figures with black outlines. Unfortunately, when he tried to get his work shown in galleries or museums, he was usually rebuffed. For example, the response of Edward Steichen, at the Museum of Modern Art, to some of his photo- drawings was, "These are very interesting, but come too late."56 An understandable comment, inasmuch as Cramer was out of touch with current artistic trends. However, some of his photographs were included in a travelling exhibition with two of his friends, Manuel Komroff and Nathan Resnick, called The Third Eye, and pictures from this show were published in a book of the same title.146 A retrospective exhibition of his paintings, drawings, and photographs was published in 1981.246
Muspratt and Ramsey
In the 1920s, young Helen Muspratt lived with her parents in the Dorset seaside town of Swanage,9,243 where she was influenced by the town's thriving artistic community, led by F. H. Newbury, former head of the Glasgow School of Art. She became interested in photography as a lifetime career and, in 1929, opened a portrait studio on High Street, Swanage. The studio was such a success that, around 1932, she opened a second studio, in Oxford. There she met another young woman, Lettice Ramsey, whose husband, Frank Ramsey, a famous mathematician, philosopher and economist,93 had recently died. Because Lettice had children, she was in great need of a job, and Helen provided her with one in the Oxford studio. Although Lettice knew little about photography, she quickly learned. Both Muspratt and Ramsey learned about Man Ray's work and began using solarization in much of their work. Professor John D. Bernal, the crystallographer and supporter of left-wing causes, helped them in their initial experimentation in this area. In fact, the Oxford chemists G. W. W. Stevens and R. G. W. Norrish became so intrigued by Muspratt and Ramsey's solarizations63 that they were inspired to carry out one of the most careful scientific studies of solarization ever made,222,223 to be discussed in Chapter 5.
Over the years, Muspratt and Ramsey photographed many British artists, writers, radicals and other notables, such as Julian Bell, Quentin Bell, Vanessa Bell, Anthony Blunt, David Brynley, Guy Burgess, Alistair Cooke, Dorothy Hodgkins, Donald McLean, Lord Rothschild, C. P. Snow, and Virginia Woolf. Their studio was still in operation at least as late as 1978.9
Fig. 3.7. Lettice Ramsey: Solarized portrait, ca 1932. [From Williams, ref 243, p. 105.]
Wynn Bullock was born in 1902 in Chicago.41,68 In high school he found that he had a good voice and decided upon a singing career. He studied music and voice in New York, and from 1921 to 1924 he performed in Irving Berlin's Music Box Revue. In 1929, while studying and performing in Paris as a professional concert singer, he discovered the paintings of the French Impressionists and the photography of Moholy- Nagy and Man Ray. Although he had not yet settled on his main vocation, at that time he felt that photography was a medium with which he could become seriously involved. Bullock believed that through photography he could achieve levels of meaning comparable to those found in the work of the great painters. He decided to give up his singing career because he felt that his singing was mainly interpretive. He wanted to be creative. The Depression forced him to manage his wife's family real estate business in West Virginia, but he pursued photography as a hobby and experimented with solarization. He then moved to California and enrolled in law school, a move undoubtedly influenced by his mother, who was California's first woman superior court judge. But the law soon became distasteful to him, and in 1938, at 36 years of age, he enrolled in the Los Angeles Art Center School. Bullock himself said109 "The influence that the painters had on me began to emerge, and it was then that the technique that I really went to the school to learn got sufficient enough so that I could begin to experiment. I did all kinds of experimentations, particularly solarization. That was the thing that I was interested in, and the other students started to get interested in what I was doing. But the head of the school called me in and told me that I had to stop it because it was interfering with my studies. But I didn't think so at all because I was doing very good work. So I just went out on my own and I don't think I brought in my personal work. There was one teacher, whose name was Edward Kaminski, who encouraged all types of experimentation. He was a kind of inspiration to the students because he encouraged them to become involved in going out and looking. And so, when school was over, the work that had been rejected by the school, except Kaminski, formed my first show at the Los Angeles County Museum. It was all solarization and experimental work. That was in 1941."
Fig. 3.8. Bullock: Solarization portrait, ca 1940. [From Bullock-Wilson and Bullock, ref. 41, p. 14.]
After that experience, professional portrait photography was his main source of income. During his spare time, when he could express his creativity, he experimented with many special photographic techniques. But of all these, the one that intrigued him the most was solarization. With solarization, both alone and in combination with other techniques, Bullock was able to imbue photographs with a sense of motion and to combine fantasy with realism. He found that solarization allowed him to express emotion and mood in portraits, and to emphasize a model's voluptuous curves in figure studies.
During the forties, Bullock spent a lot of time learning how to control the solarization process so as to produce "partial reversal line photographs." These efforts culminated in U.S., Canadian and British patents for the process. This work is discussed later in the section on Line Drawing and Outlining in Chapter 4.
In a reversal of his own, during the last twenty- five years of his life (from 1950 to 1975), Bullock adhered almost exclusively to straight images. He said109 "I just decided that solarization does not have the power to create the subtle and beautiful light values and the nuances that a straight photograph has. I don't think solarization has the power to create this realism. Solarization produces a controlled image in the darkroom. This is not to say that I think this is wrong. Heaven knows I went through fifteen years of it, and as I say, my patent still stands and I think it always will. It's the only way to control solarization. I simply felt that the artist could do distortion better than the photographer because he had this plasticity which could control the nuances. When he wanted to change something in the tone values, he could paint over it. But the photographer doesn't have the same absolute control in that area of symbolism."
Among other photographers who used solarization artistically in the 1930s and 1940s were Raoul Ubac,147 Somerset Murray,188 Edmund Kesting,51,142 and Marta Hoepffner.28 Fraprie and O'Connor's book "Photographic Amusements," published in 1937, contains a section on solarization that undoubtedly introduced the technique to numerous photographers, both professional and amateur.87 After 1950, the technique almost exploded in popularity, probably because of many how- to- do- it articles that appeared in amateur photography magazines.
Fig. 3.9 Ubac: Group III, 1939. [From Krauss and Livingston, ref. 147, p. 73.]
Go to Chapter 4
Last Modified: 8/14/97