The Link Controversy Page
by Stefan Bechtold
New!is celebrating its 5th anniversary!
last update: July 13, 2002

The End of the Internet

Index

Overview
Legal Articles
Cases
Technical Solutions
New Technical Developments
Link License Agreements
Hyperlink Patents
New!Hyperlink History
Initiatives
Hypertext Theory
Links to Other Pages


Overview

The Link Controversy Page is intended to provide an overview of the legal problems of using hyperlinks, inline images and frames on the WWW. Right now, this page covers problems in the area of copyright, trademark, trespass law as well as unfair competition law.

Warning! If you know any other legal articles or cases worldwide, please send me an email! (stef@n-bechtold.com)


Legal Articles

EnglishGermanFrenchSwedishJapaneseFinnishSpanishItalianDutchDanish
These flags just indicate the language in which the papers are written (i.e. a paper under the French flag can deal with Canadian law etc.).

English

German French Swedish Japanese Finnish Spanish Italian Dutch Danish


Cases

Dilbert Hack Page
(inline image)
Shetland Times Ltd. v. Wills
("deep" hyperlink)
  • Interim interdict = [1997] F.S.R. 604 = 1997 S.L.T. 669 = 1 Electronic Info. Policy & L. Rep. (BNA) ¶ 723 (Sess. Oct. 24, 1996) (Scot.) = GRUR Int. 1998, 723-724 (German),
  • dismissed upon settlement (Nov. 11, 1997)
New Zealand TV v. 7am
(hyperlink)
IRN v. 7am
("deep" hyperlink)
Washington Post
("deep" hyperlink)
TotalNews I
(frame)
  • Complaint, No. 97 Civ 1190 (PKL) (S.D.N.Y. complaint filed Feb. 20, 1997), dismissed upon settlement (June 5, 1997)
Microsoft v. Ticketmaster
("deep" hyperlink)
  • Complaint, National Law Journal, May 12 1997, p. B02 (First Amended Complaint, CV 97-3055 RAP (C.D. Cal. Filed Apr. 28, 1997))
Yahoo.de v. Austro.NET
(frame)
Playboy v. Web21
(frame)
  • Stapleton: Playboy Settles Internet 'Framing' Trademark Case, Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, May 21, 1997, p. 1
  • Weiss: Metasites Linked To IP Violations, National Law Journal, July 21 1997, p. B09
Nottinghamshire County / JET
(hyperlink)
The Times v. News Index
("deep" hyperlink)
Speedlink v. Symicron
(hyperlink)
L.A. Times / Washington Post v. Free Republic
(frame)
TotalNews II
(frame)
Nando.Net v. 7am News
("deep" hyperlink)
Futuredontics v. Applied Anagramic
(frame)
  • Patent, Trademark & Copyright Journal (Vol. 55, No. 1364, 1998), 315
  • 3 BNA Elec. Comm. & L. Rep. 289 (1998)
Steinhöfel v. Best
(hyperlink)
Bernstein v. J.C. Penny, Inc.
(hyperlink)
  • Bernstein v. J.C. Penny, Inc., 50 U.S.P.Q. 2d 1063 (C.D. Cal. 1998)
Fort Wayne Newspapers v. Ft-Wayne.com
(framing)
Bau-markt.de v. baumarkt.de
(framing)
  • Landgericht Düsseldorf court decision (April 29, 1998, Az. 12 O 347/97) = MMR 1998, 670 with annotation by Heidrich = CR 1998, 763- 765 = K&R; 1998, 553-555 with annotation by Gabel (German)
  • Oberlandesgericht Düsseldorf court decision, MMR 1999, 729 with annotation by Gaster = CR 2000, 184-187 with annotation by Leistner, CR 2000, 187-188 = K&R; 2000, 87-90 (German)
Landgericht Frankfurt Az.: 3/12 O 173/97
(hyperlink)
  • Landgericht Frankfurt/M., CR 1999, 45-47 with annotation by Kloos (German)
RIAA v. Lycos
(hyperlink)
Hotmail
(framing)
weyhe-aktuell.de v. weyhe-online.de
(hyperlink)
  • Wiebe, WRP 1999, 743-740 (German)
  • Schmertz/Meier, 5 International Law Update 101 (1999) (available through Westlaw)
dpa v. Deutsche Telekom
(hyperlink)
  • Wirtschaftswoche vom 30.7.1998, S. 48 (German)
Amnesty International v. amnesty-tunesia.org
(framing)
Symicron v. spartips.com - Telco Explorer
(hyperlink)
Symicron II - FTP-Explorer
(hyperlink)
Journal Gazette v. Midwest Internet Exchange
(framing)
  • Information (Computer Law Strategist)
  • No. 98-CV0130 (N.D. Ind., filed May 4, 1998)
Scientology Church vs. Spaink, XS4All et al. (Netherlands)
(hyperlink)
Universal Studios v. Movie-List
("deep" hyperlink)
IFPI v. Olsson
(hyperlink, MP3)
IFPI v. FAST Search & Transfer ASA
(hyperlink, MP3)
Ticketmaster v. Tickets.com
("deep" hyperlink)
ASCAP v. Travelfinder.com
(hyperlink, MP3)
eBay v. Auctionwatch
("deep" hyperlink, auction site)
International Reserve, Inc. v. Tanner
IFPI Belgium/Polygram Records v. Belgacom Skynet
(hyperlink, MP3)
  • Strowel/Ide, Belgium: Liability for linking to illegal content, Computer und Recht International 2000, 91-92 (English)
IFPI Belgium v. Beckers
RG 99/238320
(hyperlink, MP3)
  • Strowel/Ide, Belgium: Liability for linking to illegal content, Computer und Recht International 2000, 91-92 (English)
  • Antwerp Court of First instance summary proceedings [Prés. Civ. Anvers], December 21, 1999 Word, PDF
Landgericht Munich I 9 HK O 6873/99
(hyperlink)
  • Landgericht Munich I court decision of April 22, 1999, CR 1999, 592-593 = MMR 1999, 552-553 (German)
Landgericht Lübeck
(hyperlink)
  • Landgericht Lübeck court decision of November 24, 1998 (Az. 11 S 4/98), CR 1999, 650-651 = MMR 1999, 686
Intellectual Reserve, Inc. v. Utah Lighthouse Ministry, Inc.
(hyperlink)
DVD Copy Control Association v. McLaughlin et al.
(hyperlink, DeCSS)
MPAA v. NetSphere IT (Austria)
(hyperlink, DeCSS)
DoubleClick v. Slashdot
(hyperlink)
NARM v. Sony
(hyperlink)
Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corp.
framing, "deep" hyperlink, search engine
  • New!Dang: Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corp.: Copyright Limitations on Technological Innovation on the Internet, 18 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 389 (2002)
Mattel, Inc. v. McCullagh
(hyperlink)
IFPI China v. MyWeb Inc.com
(hyperlink, MP3)
Microsoft v. Slashdot
(hyperlink)
MP3board v. RIAA (in California) and
RIAA v. MP3board (in New York)
(hyperlink, MP3)
Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes & Corley
(hyperlink, DeCSS)
  • Ginsburg: Copyright Use and Excuse on the Internet, 24 Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts 1, 9-13 (2000)
  • New!Petteys: The Freedom to Link?: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act Implicates the First Amendment in Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes, 25 Seattle University Law Review 287-340 (2001)
  • New!Note, Second Circuit Classifies the Posting and Linking of Computer Code as Expressive Conduct Rather Than Pure Speech, 115 Harv. L. Rev. 2042 (2002)
eBay v. Bidder's Edge
NO. C-99-21200 RMW
("deep" hyperlink, auction site)
PCM v. kranten.com
("deep" hyperlink)
Landgericht Munich I court decision
4 HKO 18839/98
(hyperlink)
  • Landgericht Munich I court decision (March 31, 2000, Az. 4 HKO 18839/98), MMR 2000, 489-490 (German)
wwj.de
("deep" hyperlink, search engine)
  • Oberlandesgericht Frankfurt court decision (April 13, 2000, Az. 6 U 197/99) MMR 2000, 488-489 (German)
BMG Australia Ltd. v. S11
(hyperlink)
Münz v. Symicron (FTP-Explorer)
(hyperlink)
Symicron v. Dino-Online (FTP-Explorer)
7 HKO 12081/00
(hyperlink, search engine)
  • Landgericht Munich I court decision, September 20, 2000: MMR 2001, 56-57 = CR 2001, 46-47
Symicron v. Fachhochschule Oldenburg (FTP-Explorer)
(hyperlink)
Haymarket v. Burmah Castrol
(framing)
LucasFilms v. AlderaNet/NaboOnline
(hyperlink)
Symicron (FTP-Explorer)
4 HKO 6543/00
(hyperlink)
  • Landgericht Munich I court decision of May 25, 2000, MMR 2000, 566-568
Austrian Supreme Court in Civil Matters
4 Ob15/00k
(deep linking)
Oberlandesgericht Schleswig-Holstein
6 U 51/00
(hyperlink)
Landgericht Frankenthal
6 O 293/00
(hyperlink)
Landgericht Cologne: Stepstone v. Ofir
28 O 692/00
(deep link, database directive)
Landgericht Hamburg: Bundesliga-Manager
312 0 606/00
(hyperlink)
Roche Lexikon
(framing)
  • Landgericht Hamburg decision (July 12, 2000, 308 O 205/00), CR 2000, 776-778 with annotation by Metzger, CR 2000, 778-779 = MMR 2000, 761
  • Oberlandesgericht Hamburg decision (February 22, 2001, 3 U 247/00)
Austrian Supreme Court in Civil Matters
4 Ob 225/00t
(hyperlink)
Austrian Supreme Court in Civil Matters/Jobmonitor v. Austropersonal
4 Ob 274/00y
(hyperlink)
Better Business Bureau
(hyperlink)
derpoet.de
(framing, database directive)
Danish High Court
("deep" hyperlink)
Keljob
Tribunal de Commerce de Paris
(hyperlink)
  • Manara: Brider les liens? Sur la légalité de l'utilisation d'hyperliens. Dalloz, 2001, no. 17, pp. 1389-1391
  • Commentary by Diméglio, 2001 (French)
Faktuell.de
(hyperlink)
New!BSA v. Warez.at
(hyperlink)
New!Ford Motor Co. v. 2600 Enterprises
(hyperlink)
New!The Continuing Episcopal Church v. Griffith
(hyperlink)
New!Meteodata (Austria)
(inline image, framing)
New!NRJ v. Europe 2
(hyperlink)
  • Manara: Quand le lien permet de retenir... la responsabilité, Dalloz, 2002, n° 7, pp. 643-644
New!Scientology Church v. Google/Xenu.net
(search engine)
New!Starbucks v. Backwash
(framing)
New!Danish Newspaper Publishers' Association v. Newsbooster.com
("deep" hyperlink)
New!DallasNews.com v. BarkingDogs.org
("deep" hyperlink)
New!Runnersworld.com v. LetsRun.com
("deep" hyperlink)
New!National Public Radio
(hyperlink)
New!Suhrkamp Verlag v. Schockwellenreiter.de
(hyperlink, weblog)
New!KPMG v. Raettig
(hyperlink)
New!Wolke Inks & Printers v. Imaje
(hyperlink)
New!Mainpost v. Newsclub.de
("deep" hyperlink)


Technical Solutions


New Technical Developments


Link Lincense Agreements

1. Articles

2. Some Examples


Hyperlink Patents

British Telecom patent on hyperlinks
(U.S. patent no. 4,873,662)
  • Text of patent (U.S. Patent and Trademark Office)
  • New!Initial district court ruling: British Telecommunications Inc. v. Prodigy Communications Corp., 189 F.Supp.2d 101 (S.D.N.Y., Mar. 13, 2002)


New!Hyperlink History


Initiatives


Hypertext Theory


Links to Other Pages


New!"Lawyers and interested parties have a one-stop shop now for all they need to know about the legality of links..."
Newsbytes, April 25, 2002

New!"A great resource for those interested in the history, opinions and law on the matter of the legality of linking..."
Slashdot, April 18, 2002

"...a - regularly updated - collection of articles and court decisions worldwide..."
Austrian Supreme Court in Civil Matters, December 2000

"...must-see Web site...amazingly comprehensive..."
New York Times, CyberLaw Journal (by Carl S. Kaplan), June 30, 2000

"...comprehensive and faithfully updated..."
Boston Globe's boston.com (by Keith Dawson), April 12, 2000

"...the ultimate page on linking..."
Richard H. Stern, George Washington University Law School, November 1998

"My dear colleagues, despite prowling the Net since the gopher/WAIS predominated days of 1994, only on a handful of occasions have I stumbled across an emphatically comprehensive resource, such as this one- based overseas, which is regularly updated. A listing of on- and off-line articles written in foreign languages is presented, rivaled only by the wealth of links to American resources. Both the law and the practical aspects of linking [i.e., how to avoid being framed and how to break out of them when using non-modern browsers] are covered. The fact that this gentleman has minimized graphics in favor of text is icing on this treasure-like cake. If there's ever been a site worthy of an award, this HAS to be it!"
Pam Gaines, Attorney, Pennsylvania, August 1998

And so her wish came true:
This page has been rated Top 5of the week by VRP.
(But there is still a lot of space on this page for other awards... ;)


<http://www.jura.uni-tuebingen.de/~s-bes1/lcp.html>
Last update: July 13, 2002
© 1997 - 2002 by Stefan Bechtold