Warfare in the Byzantine World

This page is a collection of resources relevant to the subject of Warfare in the Byzantine World. It covers material from the late fifth century (post-476) to the fifteenth century (1453). The main Bibliography is sorted by subject matter. There are also separate bibliographies on Warfare in the Roman World and the Late Roman Army. I have added some annotations of my own. If an author's name is marked as a link, this means the paper is also found in a collection of his/her work. If a work title is marked as a link, then the contents page of the work is also available. This is not an attempt to list all work done on the Byzantine army, but it is my attempt to create a reasonably short, up-to-date and useful list. However, the small amount of modern work means that more attention is paid to material published before 1945 than in the other bibliographies.

Questions?

This is very much work in progress and I would be grateful for more bibliography. Please send any additions, comments or corrections, to eltonh@fiu.edu.

Last updated: 16th June, 2003


Imperial Forces

Fleet

Guard Troops

The Thematic System

Regional Studies

Recruiting

Equipment

Pay

Logistics

Enemies

Strategy

Sieges

Collections of Papers

Command

Sources a separate bibliography

Military History

a separate bibliography which deals with details of particular battles and campaigns

Fortifications

a separate bibliography


Imperial Forces

Aussaresses, F., L'Armée byzantine à la fin du VIe siècle d'après le Stratégicon de l'empereur Maurice (Paris, 1909)

Bartusis, M.C., The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204-1453 (Philadelphia, 1992)

Birkenmeier, J., The Development of the Komnenian Army (2002)

Greatrex, G., Rome and Persia at War, AD 502-532 (Leeds, 1998)

Grosse, R., Römische Militärgeschichte (Berlin, 1920)

Haldon, J.F., Warfare, state and society in the Byzantine world 565-1204 (London 1999)

Hannestad, K., 'Les forces militaire d'après la guerre gothique de Procope', Classica et Medievalia 21 (1960), 136-183

Kühn, H.J., Die byzantinische Armee im 10. und 11. Jahrhundert: Studien zur Organisation der Tagmata (Vienna, 1991), Byzantinische Geschichtsschreiber. Erganzungsband 2

McGeer, E., 'Infantry versus Cavalry: The Byzantine Response', REB 46 (1988), 135-145

concerning tenth century tactics

Müller, A., 'Das Heer Justinians nach Prokop und Agathias', Philologus 71 (1912), 101-138

Oikonomidès, N., 'A propos des armées des premiers Paléologues et des compagniès des soldats', Travaux et Mémoires 8 (1981), 353-372

Teall, J., 'The Barbarians in Justinian's Army', Speculum 40 (1965), 294-322

Treadgold, W., 'Notes on the Numbers and Organisation of the NInth-Century Byzantine Army', GRBS 21 (1980), 269-288

Treadgold, W., 'The Army in the Works of Constantine Porphyrogenitus', Rivista di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici 29 (1992), 77-162

Treadgold, W., Byzantium and its Army, 284-1081 (Stanford, 1995)

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Fleet

Ahrweiler, H., Byzance et la mer: la marine de guerre, la politique et les institutions maritimes de Byzance au VIIe-XVe siècles (Paris, 1966)

Casson, L., Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Princeton, 1971)

Dolley, R.H., 'Naval Tactics in the Heyday of the Byzantine Thalassocracy', Atti del VIII Congresso internazionale di studi bizantini (Rome, 1953), 1.324-329

Eickhoff, E., Seekrieg und Seepolitik zwischen Islam und Abendland: Das Mittelmeer unter byzantinischer und arabischer Hegemonie (650-1040) ( , 1966)

Makrypoulias, C.G., 'The Navy in the Works of Constantine Porphyrogenitus', Graeco-Arabica 6 (1995), 152-171

Reddé, M., Mare Nostrum (Paris, 1986)

reviewed by Le Bohec, Y., JRA 2 (1989), 326-331

Sesan, M., 'La flotte byzantine á l'époque des Comnènes et des Anges (1081-1204)', Byzantinoslavica 21 (1960), 48-53

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Guard Troops

Benedikz, B.S. 'The Evolution of the Varangian Regiment in the Byzantine Army', Byzantinische Zeitschrift 42 (1969)

Blondal, S., The Varangians of Byzantium (Cambridge, 1978)

Frank, R. I., Scholae Palatinae (Rome, 1969)

Haldon, J. F., Byzantine Praetorians (Bonn, 1984)

Schmitt, O., 'Die Buccellarii', Tyche 9 (1994), 147-174

Whitby, Mary, 'On the Omission of a Ceremony in Mid-Sixth Century Constantinople: Candidati, Curopalatus, Silentiarii, Excubitores and Others', Historia 36 (1987), 462-488

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The Thematic System

Haldon, J.F., Recruitment and Conscription in the Byzantine Army c550-950: a study on the origins of the stratiotika ktemata (Vienna, 1989)

Haldon, J., 'Seventh-century continuities: the Ajnad and the "Thematic Myth"', The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East 3: States, Resources and Armies, ed. Cameron, Averil, (Princeton, 1995), 379-423

Howard-Johnston, J., 'Thema', Maistor: Classical, Byzantine and Renaissance Studies for Robert Browning (Canberra, 1984), 189-198

Kaegi, W.E., 'Notes on Hagiographic Sources for some institutional changes and continuities in the early seventh century', Byzantina 7 (1975), 61-70

Lilie, R., 'Die zweihundertjährige Reform, zu den Anfängen der Themenorganisation im 7. und 8 Jahrhundert', Byzantinoslavica 45 (1984), 27-39, 190-201

Lilie, R., 'Araber und Themen: zum Einfluss der arabischen Expansion aud die byzantinischen Militärorgansation', The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East 3: States, Resources and Armies, ed. Cameron, Averil, (Princeton, 1995), 425-460

Oikonomides, N., 'Une liste arabe des stratèges byzantins du VIIe siècle et les origines du Thème de Sicilie', Rivista di Studi Bizanini e Neoellenici 11 (1964), 121-130

 

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Regional Studies

Brown, T.S., Gentlemen and Officers: Imperial Administration and Aristocratic Power in Byzantine Italy: AD 554-800 (Rome, 1984)

Maspéro, J., Organisation militaire de l'Égypte byzantin (Paris, 1912)

Oikonomides, N., 'Une liste arabe des stratèges byzantins du VIIe siècle et les origines du Thème de Sicilie', Rivista di Studi Bizanini e Neoellenici 11 (1964), 121-130

Trombley, F., 'Warfare and Society in sixth-century Syria', BMGS 21 (1997), 154-209

 

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Recruiting

Bartusis, M.C., 'On the Problem of Smallholding Soldiers in Late Byzantium', DOP 44 (1990), 1-26

Fotiou, A., 'Recruitment Shortages in Sixth Century Byzantium', Byzantion 58 (1988), 65-77

Haldon, J.F., Recruitment and Conscription in the Byzantine Army c550-950: a study on the origins of the stratiotika ktemata (Vienna, 1989)

only 80 pages long and not for the faint of heart

Haldon, J.F., 'Military Service, Military Lands, and the Status of Soldiers: Current Problems and Interpretations', DOP 47 (1993),1-67

Oikonomides, N., 'Middle-Byzantine Provincial Recruits: Salary and Armament', Gonimos: Neoplatonic and Byzantine Studies presented to Leendert G. Westrink, eds. Duffy, J. and Peradotto, J., (Buffalo, 1988), 121-136

Whitby, Michael, 'Recruitment in Roman Armies from Justinian to Heraclius (ca. 565-615)', The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East 3: States, Resources and Armies, ed. Cameron, Averil, (Princeton, 1995), 61-124

 

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Equipment

Anastasiadis, P., 'On handling the menavlion', BMGS 18 (1994), 1-10

Bivar, A.D.H., 'Cavalry Equipment and Tactics on the Euphrates Frontier', DOP 26 (1972), 273-307

Dain, 'Saka dans les Traités militaires', BZ 44 (1951), 94-96

Davidson, H.R.E., 'The secret weapon of Byzantium', BZ 66 (1973), 66-74

Dawson, T., 'Kremasmata, Kabadion, Klibanion', BMGS 22 (1998), 38-50

Dennis, G.T., 'Flies, Mice and the Byzantine Crossbow', BMGS 7 (1981), 1-5

Dennis, G.T., 'Byzantine battle flags', Byzantinische Forschungen 8 (1982), 51-59

Haldon, J.F., 'Some aspects of Byzantine military technology from the sixth to the tenth centuries', BMGS 1 (1975), 11-47

Haldon, J. and Byrne, M., 'A possible solution to the problem of Greek Fire', BZ 70 (1977), 91-99

Kolias, T., Byzantinische Waffen (Vienna, 1988)

McGeer, E., 'Menaulion - menaulatoi', Diptyhcha 4 (1986-7), 53-57

Nicolle, D., 'No way overland? Evidence for Byzantine arms and armour on the 10th-11th century Taurus frontier', Graeco-Arabica 6 (1995), 226-245

Nishimura, D., 'Crossbows, arrow-guides and the solenarion', Byzantion 58 (1988), 422-435

Roland, A., 'Secrecy, Technology and War: Greek Fire and the Defense of Byzantium, 678-1204', Technology and Culture 33 (1992), 655-679

Wada, H., 'Über den Ursprung des griechischen Feuers', Journal of Classical Studies 24 (1976), 67-74

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Pay

Carrié, J.-M., 'L'Etat à la recherche de nouveaux modes de financement des armées (Rome et Byzance, IVe-VIIIe siècles)', Cameron, A., ed., The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East 3: States, Resources and Armies (Princeton, 1995), 27-60

Haldon, J., 'The Army and the Economy: The Allocation and Redistribution of Surplus Wealth in the Byzantine State' MHR 7.2 (1992), 133-

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Logistics

I don't know of anything on the whole process of supplying the Byzantine army

Cameron, A., ed., The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East 3: States, Resources and Armies (Princeton, 1995)

Haldon, J., 'The Army and the Economy: The Allocation and Redistribution of Surplus Wealth in the Byzantine State', MHR 7 (1992), 133-

Kolias, T., 'Essgewohnheiten und Verplegung im Byzantinischen Heer', ed. Horander, W. et al., Byzantinos. Festschrift fur Herbert Hunger zum 70. Geburtstag (Vienna, 1984), 193-202

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European Barbarians, 476-1000

Bertolini, O., 'Ordinamenti militari e strutture soziali dei Longobardi in Italia', Ordinamenti militari in Occidente nell'alto Medioevo, Settimane di Studi 15/1 (Spoleto, 1968), 429-607

Burns, T.S., A History of the Ostrogoths (Bloomington, 1984)

Coupland, S., 'Carolingian Arms and Armor in the Ninth Century', Viator 21 (1990), 29-50

Courtois, C., Les Vandales et l'Afrique (Paris, 1955)

Goffart, W., 'Rome, Constantinople and the Barbarians', AHR 86 (1981), 275-306

Khazanov, A.M., Nomads and the Outside World (Cambridge, 1984)

Thompson, E.A., Romans and Barbarians (Madison, 1982)

Wolfram, H., History of the Goths2 (London, 1988)

European Barbarians, 1000-1500

Rogers, S., Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century (Oxford, 1992)

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Sassanids

Bivar, A.D.H., 'Cavalry Equipment and Tactics on the Euphrates Frontier', DOP 26 (1972), 273-307

Christiansen, A., L'Iran sous Les Sassanides (Copenhagen, 1944)

Coulston, J., 'Roman, Parthian and Sassanid Tactical Developments', Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East, BAR S297, eds. Freeman, P.W.M. and Kennedy, D.L., (Oxford, 1986), 59-75

Crone, P., 'Kavadh's Heresy and Mazdak's Revolt', Iran 29 (1990), 21-40

Frye, R., A History of Ancient Iran (Munich, 1984)

Michalak, M., 'The Origins and Development of the Sassanian Heavy Cavalry', Folia Orientalia 24 (1987), 73-86

Arab Conquest (including Umayyads)

Donner, F., The Early Islamic Conquests (Princeton, 1981)

Jandora, J.W., 'Developments in Islamic Warfare: The Early Islamic Conquests', Studia Islamica 64 (1986), 101-113

Nicolle, D., 'Arms in the Umayyad era: military technology in a time of change', War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean, ed. Lev., Y., (New York, 1997), 9-100

Shahid, I., Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fifth Century (Washington, 1989)

Shahid, I., Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century (Washington, 1994)

Ninth to Twelfth Century Islamic World

Bachrach, J.L., 'African Military Slaves in the Medieval Middle East', International Journal of Middle East Studies 13 (1981), 471-495

Beshir, B.J., 'Fatimid Military Organization', Der Islam 55 (1978), 37-56

Bonner, M.D., Aristocratic violence and holy war: studies in the jihad and the Arab-Byzantine frontier (New Haven, 1996)

Bosworth, C.E., 'Military Organisation under the Buyids of Persia and Iraq', Oriens 18-19 (1965-1966), 143-167

Bosworth, C.E., 'Ghaznevid Military Organisation', Der Islam 36 (1961), 37-77

Bosworth, C.E., 'Recruitment, Muster and Review in Medieval Islamic Armies', War, Technology and Society in the Middle East, eds. Parry, V.E. and Yapp, M.E., (New York, 1975), 59-75

Fahmy, A.M., Muslim Naval Organization in the Eastern Mediterranean (Cairo, 1966)

Kaegi, W.E., 'The Contribution of Archery to the Turkish Conquest of Anatolia', Speculum 39 (1964), 96-108

Kennedy, H., The Army of the Caliphs: military and society in the early Islamic state (London, 2001)

Kubiak, W.B., 'The Byzantine Attack on Damietta in 853 and the Egyptian navy in the ninth century', Byzantion 40 (1970), 145-166

Lev, Y., 'The Fatimid Navy, Byzantium and the Mediterranean Sea, 909-1036 CE/297-427 AH', Byzantion 54 (1984), 220-254

Makrypoulias, C.G., 'Muslim Ships through Byzantine Eyes', in Y. Y. Al-Hijji et al. eds., Aspects of Arab Seafaring (Athens, 2002), 179-190

 

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Strategy, Foreign Policy and Intelligence

Blockley, R.C., East Roman Foreign Policy: Formation and Conduct from Diocletian to Anastasius (Leeds, 1992)

Franklin, F. and Shepherd, J., eds., Byzantine Diplomacy (Aldershot, 1992)

Gray, E.W., 'The Roman Eastern Limes from Constantine to Justinian - Perspectives and Problems', Proceedings of the African Classical Association 12 (1973), 24-40

Kaegi, W.E., Some Thoughts on Byzantine Military Strategy (Brookline, MA, 1983)

Koutrakou, N., Diplomacy and espionage: their role in Byzantine Foreign relations, 8th-10th centuries', Graeco-Arabia 6 (1995), 125-144

Lee, A.D., Information and Frontiers (Cambridge, 1993)

Miller, D.A., 'Byzantine Treaties and Treaty-Making 500-1025 AD', Byzantinoslavica 32 (1971), 56-76

Shepherd, J., 'Information, disinformation and delay in Byzantine Diplomacy', Byzantinische Forschungen 10 (1985), 233-293

 

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Sieges

Haldon, J.F., 'Strategies of defence, problems of security: the garrisons of Constantinople in the middle Byzantine period', Constantinople and its Hinterland, ed. C. Mango and G. Dagron (Aldershot, 1995), 143-155

McGeer, E., 'Byzantine Siege Warfare in Theory and Practice', Corfin, I.A. and Wolfe, M., eds., The Medieval City under Siege (Rochester, NY, 1995), 123-129

Roland, A., 'Secrecy, Technology and War: Greek Fire and the Defense of Byzantium, 678-1204', Technology and Culture 33 (1992), 655-679

Sullivan, D., 'Tenth-century Byzantine offensive siege warfare', Oikonomides, N., ed., To empolemo Byzantino (Byzantium at War) (Athens, 1997), 179-200

 

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Collections of Papers (click on author name to see table of contents)

Cameron, A., ed., The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East 3: States, Resources and Armies (Princeton, 1995)

Dabrowa, E., ed., The Roman and Byzantine Army in the East (Cracow, 1994)

Freeman, P.W. and Kennedy, D.L., eds., Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East (Oxford, 1986)

Haldon, J., State, Army and Society in Byzantium (Aldershot, 1995)

Kaegi, W.E., Army, Society and Religion in Byzantium (London, 1982)

Kazanski, M. and Vallet, F., eds., L'armée romaine et les barbares du IIIe au VIIe siècles (Rouen, 1993)

Lev, Y., ed., War and society in the eastern Mediterranean, 7th-15th centuries (Leiden, New York, 1997)

Miller, T.S. and Nesbitt, J. eds., Peace and War in Byzantium (Washington, 1995)

Mitchell, S., ed., Armies and Frontiers in Roman and Byzantine Anatolia (Oxford, 1983)

Oikonomides, N., ed., Byzantium at War (Athens, 1997)

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Miscellaneous

Haldon, J.F., 'Ideology and Social Change in the Seventh Century: Military Discontent as a Barometer', Klio 68 (1986), 139-190

Kaegi, W.E., Byzantine Military Unrest 471-843: An Interpretation (Amsterdam, 1981)

reviews by J.F. Haldon, Byzantinoslavica 44(1983), 54-57

 

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Command

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