"The availability and use of secure encryption may offer an opportunity to reclaim some portion of the privacy we have lost."

 The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of
 Appeals. May 1999. (TechWeb)

Last update: 24.09.00

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International review:

U.S. State Department Reports Worldwide Privacy Abuses
     by David Banisar
     In its' annual review on human rights around the globe, the US State Department
     reports that while most countries have either Constitutional or legal protections of
     privacy, there are widespread abuses of privacy rights. The abuses reported included
     illegal wiretapping, widespread informer networks, interception of mail, and
     warrant less searches of homes.
Privacy on the Line. The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption (1.02.98)
BUG OFF! Primer for Human Rights Groups on Wiretapping
Remote Observation System

North America

USA:

Encrypted Communications Privacy Act ("ECPA")
     The ECPA began as the "anti-wiretapping" act, enacted to combat the eavesdropping
     excesses of the Watergate scandal in the late '60s. Originally, the federal statute
     targeted government eavesdropping on telephone discussions without consenting
     those involved in the conversation. The act required government agents to procure a 
     judicial warrant before they could intercept discussions. In late 1986, Congress 
     increased the coverage of the anti-wiretapping laws to follow the broadening range of
     electronic communication, resulting in the ECPA.
Watergate story
EPIC : Wiretapping (1999)

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Technology boosts government wiretaps (06.07.00)
Wiretaps sought in record numbers (05.06.00)
Israel Suspected of Tapping White House Phone Lines Using Amdocs’ Equipment; Amdocs Shares Fall (11.05.00)
Walters' lawyers accuse Metro of phone tapping (03.05.00)
White House Wag: Clinton's Straitjacket (18.02.00)
FBI wiretap results tossed out of court (24.11.99)
Former Cherokee Chief Joe Byrd and two others are cleared in a federal wiretapping suit. (4.11.99)
Wiretap fear killed paper, they say (3.11.99)
Ex-OSBI agent describes the mood at Cherokee headquarters in 1997 at a civil trial. (30.10.99)
Church leaders tight-lipped about wiretapping (23.10.99)
Wiretapping abuses alarm EFF, EPIC (21.10.99)
Ruling mitigates illegal phone taps (01.09. 99)
Law enforcement agencies get new phone tapping power (28.08. 99)
Tripp indicted for Lewinsky phone tapping (31.06.99)
Former Missouri police chief arrested on wiretapping charge (25.06.99)
Cops are suing Hamtramck over phone tap (15.06.99)
Report: Energy Dept. can't reform itself : illegal wiretap (15.06.99)
Cisneros lawyer pledges vigorous questioning of former mistress (2.06.99)
Eyeing The Competition (22.03.99)
Rap a Tap Tap (13.02.99)
Clinton: security risk (3.02.99)
Man Arrested For Wiretapping Tom Cruise (10.12.98)
More Federal Wiretaps than ever Before (2.12.98)
Partial Settlement Reached In CNO Wiretapping Suit (21.11.98)
Tribe officials targeted in wiretapping suit (20.11.98)
Goldberg Testifies Today in Tripp Wiretapping Case (12.11.98)
Bill expanding wiretap powers slips through conference committee (13.10.98)
Federal Roving Wiretap Rules Loosened (13.10.98)
Phone Tapping Case Dropped (30.08.98)
The People Claim The Below Cases Are All The Wiretap Cases In Existence.
There are 6.5 million telephones in Los Angeles. For years in California it was illegal, even for the police, to listen in (10.07.98)
Wayne Rollins pleads no contest in wiretapping case (24.06.98)
Magic assistant 'Tree' Rollins pleas no contest in wiretapping case (24.06.98)
Shelves of Snooping Aids Make Privacy Hard to Buy (20.05.98)
$1 million tribal suit filed in wiretap case (6.05.98)
LBJ tapped Humphrey phone to monitor Vietnam remarks (15.03.98)
Attorney general seeks compromise with industry on digital wiretapping (06.03.98)
North Carolina sheriff pleads guilty to illegal wiretapping high school teacher's phone calls (8.02.99)
Foreign Snooping On U.S. Firms Growing, FBI Says (12.01.98)

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Inside America’s Secret Court: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (1997)
Record two million private conversations monitored by government in 1997
FBI Proposes to Modify Nation's Phone Network to Advance Wiretapping (09.97)
Invasion of Privacy (25.08.97)
Reputed mobster's admission may cause case to crumble (18.06.97)
FBI Eyes Cherokee Wiretaps (16.03.97)
Mr. and Mrs. Martin go wiretapping (17.01.97)
High court bars Florida wiretaps for nonviolent crimes (26.02.96)
Wiretapping and Eavesdropping on Telephone Conversations: Is There Cause for Concern? (1996)
phone tapping of customer calls - privacy (10.12.95)
ABC Cleared of wiretapping charges in another hidden-camera case (6.08.95)
A Tap on Every Phone: The Dream of Every FBI Agent (10.94)
My real objective is to get access to the contents of telephone calls (04.94)
Inquiry Finds Illegal Surveillance of Workers in Nuclear Plants (31.06.91)
Cincinnatus Continues to Battle Media Blackout - Fall, 1989 (1989)
Morganthau Favors Tapping of Wires In Treasury Agents' War on Narcotics (16.10.34)

Canada:

Future of controversial police wiretaps rests on court ruling (03.04.00)
Conflict Commissioner will see Clark wiretap evidence (26.10.99)
New restrictions set for wiretaps (16.11.98)
Wiretapping Raises Fears (17.06.98)
CSE and Canadian Communications (1998)
Wiretapping probe urged (6.10.97)
CSIS has wiretap green light (1.10.97)

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Central America

Mexico:

Mexico: Amnesty International gravely alarmed at sharp increase in human rights violations against civil and human rights activists. (14.10.96)

Costa Rica:

Juez entrega primeros peritajes in Spanish (1996)  
Top Spook Suspended For  Wiretapping (3.01.96)

Belize:

Phone Wiretaps are not illegal in Belize? (11.99)

El Salvador:

Es una falta muy grave in Spanish (08.06.00)
Urge ley de intervenciones in Spanish (09.06.00)
El escándalo del espionaje in Spanish (09.06.00)
Fiscalía abre expediente para investigar intervención telefónica in Spanish (09.06.00)

Guatemala:

Denuncian red de espionaje telefónico en Guatemala in Spanish (23.08.98)

Nicaragua:

Persiste duda sobre espionaje telefónico in Spanish (14.03.99)

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Panama:

Sossa podría demandar al Defensor del Pueblo in Spanish (04.99)

South America

Brazil:

Wiretap Scandal in Brazil (12.98)
Analysts: Wiretapping scandal could hurt economic stability (17.11.98)

Colombia:

Colombian agents seized on wiretap, theft charges (08.03.00)

Peru:

Journalists press charges against minister and general for telephone tapping (2.06.99)
Congress accepts recommendation for the regulation of protection of sources, telephone tapping investigation report (31.05.99)
Journalist threatened (12.05.98)
Phone-tapping allegations in Peru (18.03.98)
Ex-agent accuses Peru's spy chief in phone-tapping scandal (17.03.98)
Advances in investigation into phone tapping (23.09.97)
Cinco estaciones secretas espían teléfonos de opositores a Fujimori in Spanish (15.09.97)
Pérez de Cuéllar denuncia espionaje telefónico in Spanish (6.09.97)
Peru Launches Inquiry (5.08.97)
Application made to court against Intelligence director (21.07.97)
TV station owner stripped of his citizenship; program reveals tapping of journalists' and politicians' phones (14.07.97)

Venezuela:

VZLA Attorney General in phone-tapping allegations as (27.03.98)

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Chile:

Historia inédita de un secuestro in Spanish (16.03.98)

Argentina:

Court rulings against the press (9.11.98)

Europe

European Parliament "Intelligence Capabilities 2000" report.
Eavesdropping on Europe (30.09.98)
Council Resolution on the lawful interception of telecommunications (17.01.95)

UK:

Police admit to concerns over wire-tapping bill (21.12.99)
Straw aims phone tap law at mobile owners (23.06.99)
Springtime for spies and cops (10.06.99)
Secret phone tapping soars (21.03.99)
Ministry of Defence hid microwave phone-tap tower inside nuclear plant (1999)
UK Taps Up 20 Percent in 1998, Asking for More Tapping Powers
Wiretapping Up 25 Percent in UK in 1997 (24.07.98)
Ex-police chief wins phone-tapping case (26.06.97)

Holland:

Criminal Information On The Wires (19.05.97)

France:

Votre mobile peut-il vous trahir? (in French) (26.11.99)
France's Latest Cycling Scandal (9.05.99)
The French government charges the CIA with economic and domestic political espionage (6.03.95)
Phone tap minister backed by Balladur (22.02.95)
French Wiretapping Scandal Leads to Electorial Defeat (1993)
French Wiretapping Scandal (21.03.93)

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Switzerland:

Swiss sentence Mossad spy over failed phone-tap (8.07.00)
Swiss charge Mossad suspect (15.09.99)
Authorities tap phone lines of magazine (30.12.96)

Ukraine:

Increasing media repression denounced (5.03.99)

Russia:

Yeltsin's daughter in bugging scandalRussia Governmental Surveillance Agencies (21.01.99)
Russia Governmental Surveillance Agencies

Spain:

La Policía investiga un 'pinchazo' telefónico en la casa de Jiménez Villarejo, fiscal anticorrupción in Spanish (1.12.99)
SPAIN: Spies Caught Between the 'Dirty War' and Botched Jobs (5.04.98)
Royal romance model's phone was tapped (7.08.96)

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Hungary:

Hungarian Socialists deny illegal spying accusation (26.08.98)

Poland:

Bugged About Wiretapping (26. 05.96)

Romania:

Romania - SRI phone tapping and Internet monitoring (8.06.96)

Slovakia:

Slovak Republic Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997 (30.01.98)

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Middle East

Turkey:

Police chief suspended in phone-tap scandal (8.06.99)
DYP can be  banned (23.12.98)

Lebanon:

PM Fears His Phone Is Tapped, Says Berri! (1999)
Parliament approves wire-tapping bill (October 15, 1999) (15.10.99)
Lebanon-Telephone Tapping (29.05.97)

Israel:

Police has erased by mistake all the records during wiretapping on the phone of Tzachi Hanegbi in Hebrew (20.09.00)
Israel Newspaper Publisher Arrested (23.11.99)
No need to be worried (in Hebrew) (28.09.99)
Wiretap on the Phone of Minister Eli Yishai Creates Political Stir (26.11.98)
Netanyahu says Israeli spy agency reputation to be restored (4.03.98)
Editor of Israeli paper Ma'ariv is charged in wiretapping case (25.08.95)

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Asia

Japan:

Controversial Wiretapping Bill Clears Diet (09.99)
Wiretapping Bill Enacted: JCP Shii Indignant at Destruction of Democracy (13.08.99)
Japan approves phone taps (12.08.99)
Japanese lawmakers use stall tactics to block wiretap bill (12.08.99)
Japan's opposition submits no-confidence motion against premier (11.08.99)
Will wiretapping hurt the news? (7.07.99)
The Wiretapping Law has been approved. (15.08.98)
Ikeda and the Komeito Party Used to Enjoy a "Party-line"
Man found guilty in Mitake phone tapping case and 1 article (17.11.97)
Court Decision on Police Wiretapping of JCP Ogata's Phone Finalized (10.07.97)
JCP Statement on High Court Judgment on Police Wiretapping of Phone in JCP Ogata's House (26.06.97)
Japanese Wiretapping Bill is prepared now (1.04.97)
No! Wiretapping Bill (1997)

South Korea:

NIS Denies Illegal Wiretapping (15.11.99)
Outcome of Assembly Inspection (19.10.99)
Dispute over Bugging Allegations (18.10.99)
1 Out of 25,000 Phones Wiretapped by Police (17.10.99)
Crackdwon on Police Wiretapping Lauched (26.09.99)
Gov't Lied About Illegal Wiretapping: GNP (22.09.99)
`Truman Show' Everywhere (15.09.99)
Gov't to Beef Up Regulations for Wiretapping (13.09.99)
Rep. Kim Hyong-oh Publishes Book on Wiretappings (6.09.99)
Rep. Lee SB Carries Bugging Detector (13.08.99)
Kim Hyong-o Says More Than 10,000 May Be Exposed to Gov't Taps (13.02.99)
Korean Economy Daily Report (05.02.99)
South Korea Approves Wiretap Law (8.12.98)
GNP Drafts Bill to Curb Wiretapping (30.10.98)

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India:

Phone-tap laws may trip Cronje case (15.04.00)
Romesh, Dawood’s aide chargesheeted (2.01.99)
Telephone tapping war spills over to states (20.04.98)
No Govt role in phone tapping: PM (14.10.97)
India's High Court Pulls Plug on Wiretapping (20.12.96)
CBI files case on phone tapping (9.10.97)
CBI begins query into phone tapping; Tata Tea director Kidwai interrogated (9.10.97)
Phone tapping to affect corporate psyche (06.10.97)
India's High Court Pulls Plug on Wiretapping (20.12.96)
BJP to raise telecom scam in Parliament(25.08.96)
Phone tapping in India (8.08.96)

Pakistan:

Pakistan lists wiretaps by Sharif government (6.05.00)
Pak SC has 5,727 top secret phone tapes (7.11.97)

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Indonesia:

Indonesia parliament may summon Habibie about phone tap (2.03.99)
Phone tap scandal puts Habibie in bad light (21.02.99)

Hong Kong:

Report: Hong Kong drags feet on wiretap reforms (21.09.99)
Phone-Tap Right Stays in Leader's Hands (16.12.96)

Thailand:

Chuan, police deny tapping senators' phones (6.09.99)
Tapped phone lines leave customers holding the bil (8.04.97)
Mysterious tape finds Sanan in a new controversy (4.05.97)
Wire-tapping report 'misinterpreted' (11.04.97)
PM orders study of Chuan attack(8.04.97)

Philippines:

Jaca charges Acop with wiretapping (20.05.99)
PLDT president: No proof of wiretapping (16.05.99)
Phone execs cooperated in wiretaps, says solon (15.05.99)
Two serious charges (15.05.99)
ERAP won't tolerate wiretapping (12.05.99)

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Africa

South Africa:

South Africa Human Rights Practices (03.95)
Phone tap on Winnie's secret love affair (1988-1989)

Tunis:

Tunisian press freedom called nonexistent (13.07.99)
African human rights defenders under attack (2.11.98)

Zambia:

Telephone Company, Attorney General Included In Phone Tapping Suit (09.06.98)  
Editor sues for phone tapping (13.05.98)

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Australia:

Phone tap powers the first step (10.12.99)
Australia: Report Recommends Phone Tapping Powers For Crime (10.12.99)
Criminal Investigation - Police Powers I

New Zealand:

In New Zealand, ECHELON is used only to intercept written communications: fax, e-mail, and telex. (5.11.99)

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