Meat Science and Meat Sense


Sausage types
Sausage Ingredients
Sausage Recipes and Procedures

Sausage Types
A simple definition of sausage is ground or chopped meat combined with salt, spices and other ingredients and shaped in some manner, usually by means of various size casings. The origin of sausage-type products precedes recorded history. Over the centuries, sausage making has been refined and developed into an art strongly tied to various ethnic groups. Today scientific principles are being employed to improve production procedures and product quality.

By altering processing procedures and meat and spice ingredients, a wide variety of sausages can be produced. An absolute classification of all sausages into specific categories is very difficult, since any given sausage may be produced in a number of different ways. Below is a very simple and broad classification of the various sausage types based upon processing procedures and product characteristics:

Fresh sausages: Raw sausages (must be cooked by consumer), and do not contain the "curing" ingredient nitrite. Examples include fresh pork sausage, fresh Italian sausage, and fresh bratwurst.

Cooked sausages: Ready-to-eat sausages which are fully cooked during manufacture. Many are also smoked. These products may be eaten without heating, but often are reheated before serving. Examples include wieners, bologna, cotto salami, smoked sausage, cooked bratwurst and liver sausage.

Fermented sausages: Have a characteristic "tangy" flavor due to the accumulation of lactic acid produced from a microbial fermentation of added sugars (or in some cases by direct addition of encapsulated acids). These sausages are dried to varying extents during processing. Semi-dry fermented sausages (slight drying) include summer sausage and snack sticks. Dry fermented sausage (extended drying) include pepperoni, hard salami, and Genoa salami. With the proper amount of acidification and drying, these sausages can be shelf stable (do not need to be refrigerated).

Meat loaves and jellied products: Mixtures of chopped meat usually processed in pans or metal molds. Jellied products consist of cooked meat chunks suspended in gelatin. Examples include pickle and pimento loaf, honey loaf, jellied roast beef loaf and head cheese.


Meat: Beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton and poultry are all suitable for use in sausage. If you slaughter your own animals, meat off of the head, trimmings off of the skeleton and less popular cuts can be saved for sausage. If you purchase meat ingredients for making sausages, inexpensive cuts such as beef short ribs, chuck cuts, round cuts, and pork shoulder cuts can be used. Tenderness won't be a problem since we're producing a ground product. Whatever the source, use only raw meat ingredients that are fresh and wholesome. High quality sausages can be made only if the starting raw materials are of high quality.

Venison and other game meat may be substituted for all or part of the lean meats in sausage recipes. Because game is often slaughtered in the field under less sanitary conditions, it is especially important to be aware of the wholesomeness and condition of this type of meat. Generously trim away evidence of spoilage (discoloration, off-odors, stickiness, slime, etc.). Some people remove all of the trimmable fat from venison, as this fat can contribute to the development of rancid off-flavors.

Salt: Salt is the most important non-meat ingredient in sausages. Salt enhances the flavor of the sausages, and aids in preserving them against microbial spoilage (although the low, present day salt levels exert less of a preservative effect that the higher levels of the past). Salt also "solubilizes" and extracts the muscle protein on the surface of meat particles. This semi-fluid protein film coagulates during heating, binding the meat particles together and producing a firm sausage texture. Most sausage formulations contain 1 to 3% salt. Salt levels can be adjusted to suit your tastes. "Lite" salt, a blend of sodium chloride and potassium chloride, can be used to reduce the amount of sodium in the product (be aware that excessively high levels of potassium chloride can import a bitter flavor to the product).

Nitrites and Nitrates: The purpose of these "curing" ingredients is: (1) To inhibit the growth of certain microorganisms (including the one that causes botulism); (2) To develop the typical pink color of cured meats; and (3) To enhance the flavor of the product. Nitrite is the specific active ingredient which carries out the functions listed above. When nitrate is used, it must be first converted to nitrite by microorganisms present in the meat. Potassium nitrate (saltpeter) was the salt historically used for curing. However, sodium nitrite has largely replaced the use of nitrate today.

Caution must be used in adding nitrite to the sausage batter since overdoses of this ingredient can be toxic to humans. Because of the safety concern in using nitrite, it is not readily available in pure form. In addition, since nitrite is added at a very low level (1/4 ounce per 100 pounds of meat) it would be difficult to accurately weigh out the desired amount on commonly available scales. Therefore, for safety and accuracy salt blends already containing nitrite at the proper level are best used by home sausage makers when the recipe calls for nitrite or nitrate addition. Mortons "Tender Quick Salt" is an example of such a blend, containing a very small amount of nitrite and nitrate. It is available in many grocery stores. When this blend is used as the salt source for products which call for nitrite or nitrate, these curing ingredients will automatically be added to the batter at a safe and proper level.

Most commercial meat processors obtain their nitrite in the form of a "curing salt." This is usually a blend of 6% sodium nitrite and 94% salt (colored pink by some manufactures to clearly distinguish it from salt or sugar). At this dilution rate processors add 4 ounces of the curing salt to 100 pounds of meat (0.4 ounces or 11 grams per 10 lbs. of meat) to achieve the proper level of nitrite addition (156 parts per million).

Cooked sausages can be made without adding nitrite if desired. Such sausages will be brown in color (rather than pink), and more susceptible to flavor changes and microbial spoilage. It is best to store them in the freezer.

Spices: Much of the distinguishing flavors of different varieties of sausage is due to the type and quantity of spices in the recipe. Home sausage makers will usually use ground or whole natural spices in their products. The commercial meat processing industry today also uses spice extracts (extracts from natural spices which contain the characteristic flavors) in place of some natural spices. When these extracts are used, they are listed as "flavorings" on the product label.

Spices can be a significant source of bacterial contamination to sausages. Processors, if desired, can buy spices which have been sterilized by exposure to ethylene oxide gas or irradiation. Buy the best spice you can, for maximum flavor and greatest purity. Spices can loose volatile flavor components during storage. Store in covered containers and avoid long periods at high temperatures (i.e. above 80oF). Spices which are over one year old may have lost some of their flavor, particularly if they were not stored well.

Sugars: A variety of sugar sources can be used to impart sweetness and flavor to sausages. These include sucrose (table sugar), brown sugar, dextrose, and corn syrup. Sugars also react with proteins during heating to produce browning which enhances flavor and appearance.

Ascorbic Acid: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or sodium ascorbate speed the development of the pink cured color in sausages containing nitrite. Sodium erythorbate is chemically similar to ascorbate and is also used for this purpose. These "cure accelerators" are an optional ingredient for home sausage makers. When used, sausages can be heated and smoked immediately after stuffing. If ascorbate or erthythorbate are not used, the batter or stuffed sausages should be held overnight (refrigerated) before smoking and heating, to allow time for good cured color development. These ingredients are used at the rate of 7/8 oz. per 100 pounds of meat.

Binders and Extenders: These are miscellaneous ingredients which may improve flavor, help the sausages better retain fat and moisture (binders), or lower the cost of the sausage recipe (extenders). The best known of these ingredients include non-fat dried milk, cereal flours, and soy protein products. These products can be incorporated to suit your taste. In most commercial products they are restricted to less than 3.5% of the product weight.

Water: Government regulations permit various levels of added water to be retained in many finished sausage products. This varies from 3% in fresh sausages such as bratwurst, to as much as 25% in low-fat cooked sausages, such as hot dogs or bologna. From a practical standpoint, 3% water could be added to fresh sausages if desired, and 10 to 15% to cooked sausages (remember some of that water will be lost from the product during cooking). Water aids the salt in "solubilizing" meat proteins (by forming a brine), helps the mixing of the batter and contributes to the juiciness of the final product.

Starter Culture: This is an inoculum of lactic acid bacteria which converts added sugar to lactic acid, producing the tangy flavor in fermented sausages. Many sausage processors mix a starter culture into the batter of summer sausage, snack sticks, etc. prior to the stuffing step, to insure later production of lactic acid in the sausage. Historically, processors relied upon chance inoculation by bacteria normally present in meat. However, if insufficient numbers of naturally-occurring lactic acid bacteria are present, little tang may develop in the sausage. Starter cultures come in frozen or freeze-dried forms, and are available from suppliers which serve the meat industry. Although most starter cultures will ferment common table sugar (sucrose), the simple sugar dextrose is the choice of most sausage makers to include in their fermented sausage recipe.

In order to get a successful fermentation and acid production, the stuffed sausages must be held at temperatures favorable for bacteria growth (80-100oF) for 10 to 15 hours to allow the starter culture bacteria to grow and ferment the sugar to lactic acid. Without an effective starter culture in the batter to rapidly produce acid, these abusive fermentation temperatures can pose a microbiological safety risk.

Encapsulated acids: In recent years some processors have acidified their sausage by adding encapsulated citric or encapsulated lactic acid to the batter, rather than using a starter culture. Encapsulated acids are small beads of acid surrounded by a lipid coat. These acids are gently blended into the batter near the end of final mixing (do not grind after mixing – don't want to disrupt the lipid coat). The sausage can then immediately be cooked, and when the batter temperature reaches 137oF, the lipid coat melts releasing the acid. Direct addition of acid must be done in this encapsulated form because direct addition of non-protected acid to the batter during mixing would cause the meat proteins to coagulate while still in the mixer, ruining product texture.

Encapsulated acids would be the easiest way for home meat processors to get a tangy flavor into their summer sausage, if they desired it. Consult local processors to see if they use this product, or can offer a source of these acids. Usual addition level of encapsulated acid is 6 to 10 ounces per 100 pounds of meat (depending on level of acid tang desired).
Note: While most summer sausages today are fermented or acidified, this is not a requirement for these products. Some summer sausages are just made just as cooked sausages with summer sausage seasoning. Such sausages will not have an acid tang, but that is desired by some consumers.

It is extremely important to maintain proper refrigeration (40oF or lower) on your raw materials and product throughout processing, and on the finished product. Prolonged temperature abuse during manufacture can permit growth of undesirable microorganisms, leading to product spoilage or food-bourne illness.

During heating of cooked sausages, temperature of the product should pass rapidly through the temperature zone of 60-130oF which favors rapid bacteria growth. Most cooked sausages are heated to a final internal temperature of around 160oF. There are some alternative holding time and internal product temperature combinations which will also insure an adequate kill of disease-causing (pathogenic) bacteria. These include:

Product internal temperature Minimum holding time at internal temperature
145o F 10 minutes
150o F 3 minutes
155o F 1 minute

If product is being cooked in water, the water temperature should be in the range of 160-180oF. If being heated in a smokehouse or grill, an air temperature of 160 to 200oF is desirable. When cooked by dry heat, pans of water can be placed near the product to provide some humidity to reduce drying of the sausage.

Products should be adequately cooled after cooking. While adequate cooking will destroy all vegetative cells of disease-causing bacteria, several pathogens can form spores which will survive normal cooking procedures. If sausages are cooled too slowly, the spores may revert to the vegetative form and begin to grow. Commercial processors meet the following internal temperature cooling guidelines:

Uncured products (no nitrite):
- from 130oF to 80oF in less than 1.5 hours
- from 80oF to 40oF in less than 5 hours

Cured products (nitrite present):
- from 130oF to 80oF in less than 5 hours
- from 80oF to 45oF in less than 10 hours

Home sausage makers often inquire about where they can buy sausage casings. Usually a small supply of natural and synthetic casings can be purchased from local meat processors, who use these casings in the manufacture of their own line of sausages. If local processors do not have extra casings to sell, they could direct you to their casing suppliers. Most casings used in sausage making are either natural, collagen or synthetic. Natural casings are from the G.I. tract of animals. Most fresh bratwurst are in pork casings. Natural casing wieners and some breakfast sausages are in lamb casings. Ring bolognas are typically in beef casings. Natural casings always have a natural "curve" to them.

Collagen is an animal protein, often extracted from beef hides, and manufactured into an edible casing (collagen is also the main protein present in natural casings). Collagen casings are used on some breakfast links, bratwurst (especially pre-cooked bratwurst and other types of linked sausages. Collagen casings provide straight sausage links (no curve).

Synthetic casings come in a variety of forms. "Skinless" hot dogs are manufactured in cellulose casings (made from cottin linters), which allow smoke to penetrate and moisture to escape during cooking. After skinless franks are cooked and cooled, the cellulose casings are peeled off and discarded, producing "skinless" products. Larger size cellulose casings have paper fibers added for strength, and are termed "fibrous" casings. They are used for summer sausage and larger diameter slicing products.

All equipment should be clean and in good working order. Minimum equipment needed for manufacturing most sausages includes accurate scales, a grinder and a stuffer. A silent cutter, consisting of high-speed rotating knives within a revolving metal bowl, is used for production of fine textured sausages. Sausage texture (coarse vs fine) can also be affected by the size of the holes in the grinder plate, and the number of passes of the meat through he grinder. The cooking of sausages may be accomplished in smokehouses, covered grills or water baths.


This is an illness which can be contracted by ingesting raw meat products containing pork which is infected with the parasite Trichinella spiralis. Although very few pigs today carry this parasite in their muscle, government regulations specify all pork containing products which might be eaten without further cooking must be heated to an internal temperature of at least 145oF as a precautionary measure. Alternatively, if pork is frozen at 0oF or lower for 20 days or more, it can be safely used in products which are not heated above 140oF. This frozen product is called "certified pork."


Sausage Recipes and Procedures
The following pages list recipes and procedures for the sausages listed below. Each recipe is based upon a batch size of 10 pounds of meat. These are recipes used at the Meat Science Lab, collected from a number of sources.

Meat types are suggested for each sausage. However, substitutions of other meats of similar fat content can be made with only minor flavor effects on the product. For example, lean venison could be substituted for the lean meats in any of the recipes. Often pork or beef containing some fat are included with venison to enhance eating quality. The composition of the sausages is really up to the producers' preferences.

Sausages Included in this Fact Sheet Include: (click on the name to go directly to that recipe)

Fresh Pork Sausage
Fresh Italian Style Pork Sausage
Fresh Bratwurst
Fresh Nurnberger Bratwurst
Fresh Polish Sausage
Holiday or Smoked Kielbasa
Coarse Ground Bologna (Country Style)
Cooked Salami
Summer Sausage
Dry Beef Salami
Honey Loaf
Spiced Luncheon Loaf
Family Loaf


Fresh pork sausage is a mixture of pork meats, salt and spices which has been ground or chopped with no added water or extenders. Fat content usually ranges from 35 to 50% depending upon individual preference.

Formulas -- for 10# of pork trimmings

A. Mild
3.0 oz. salt
0.7 oz. sugar
0.5 oz. white pepper
0.2 oz. ginger
0.15 oz. rubbed sage

B. Spicy or hot (red pepper may vary depending on taste)
3.2 oz. salt
0.6 oz. sugar
0.6 oz. white pepper
0.15 oz. rubbed sage
0.15 oz. ginger
0.4 oz. mace
0.4 oz. thyme
0.4 oz. red pepper
0.8 oz. monosodium glutamate

Mix spices with trimmings; grind once through 3/8" plate and then through 3/16" plate. Use in bulk form, stuff in natural casings (pork rounds) or collagen casings.


This is a coarse ground fresh sausage which is normally pan-fried or broiled. The most popular style is broiled in a large spiral roll (snail like) on a grill until tender.

10.0 lbs. lean pork trimmings (65% lean)
2.4 oz. salt
0.4 oz. fennel seed
0.4 oz. crushed red pepper
0.2 oz. ground black pepper
0.2 oz. white pepper
0.2 oz. paprika
0.2 oz. coriander (optional)
0.4 chopped fresh parsley (optional)
2 garlic cloves, minced (optional)

Grind the pork trimmings through a 1/4 inch or 3/8 inch plate. Mix the seasoning with the trimmings thoroughly and stuff in natural casings or size 30 to 36 collagen casings. Hang overnight in 38oF refrigeration for spices to marinate.

SOURCE: A. E. Reynolds, Extension Meat Specialist, Michigan State University


7.5 lbs. pork trim
2.5 lbs. beef trim
10.0 lbs. pork trim (80% lean)
3.2 oz. salt
0.8 oz. sugar
8.0 oz. crushed ice
3.2 oz. non-fat dry milk
2.0 oz. fresh chopped onion
0.5 oz. ground white pepper
0.15 oz. lemon juice
0.013 oz. ground allspice (.04 gm)
0.1 oz. ground celery seed

Grind beef and pork separately through 3/8 inch plate. Regrind beef with onions and half the ice through 1/8 inch plate. Mix all remaining ingredients and remaining ice with ground beef and onion. Add pork and mix thoroughly. Regrind through 3/16 inch plate. Stuff into 32-35 mm hog casings and link. Cook in 170oF water for 10 minutes. Cool in 40oF cooler.


This is a bratwurst still very common in Nurnberg, West Germany. It is usually grilled and served 8 to 10 per serving. It goes well with German (hot) potato salad or raw sauerkraut.

4.5 lbs. lean pork (80% lean)
5.5 lbs. regular pork trim (50% lean)
1.4 lbs. ice
3.2 oz. salt
0.4 oz. white pepper
0.1 oz. mace
0.2 oz. marjoram
0.05 oz. dried shredded lemon peel

Grind meat through 3/4 inch plate. Blend ice and spices in mixer for 30 seconds. Add meat and mix until all ingredients are well distributed. Chop to a coarse texture (rice kernel size particles) in a silent cutter, or alternatively grind through a 1/4 inch plate. Stuff into 15 mm sheep casings and link every 2 1/2 to 3 inches.


Polish sausage is made of coarsely-ground lean pork with some added beef. The basic spice characteristics for this well known sausage are garlic and marjoram.

Fresh Kielbasa:

9.0 lbs. boneless pork shoulders (80% lean)
1.0 lb. beef trimmings
4.8 oz. shaved ice
1.6 oz. dextrose
0.5 oz. white pepper
0.3 oz. mustard seed
0.2 oz. marjoram (leaf)
0.1 oz. granulated garlic
0.2 oz. monosodium glutamate
0.2 oz. nutmeg
3.6 oz. salt

Grind through 1/8 inch or 3/16 inch plate and stuff into small diameter collagen casings or natural pork rounds. This sausage may then be smoked if desired. Further cooking is required. Sodium nitrite (see instructions) may be added to the fresh Kielbasa if a pink color is desired.


4.0 lbs. lean pork trimmings (85% lean)
3.0 lbs. lean beef trimmings (90% lean)
3.0 lbs. regular pork trimmings (50% lean)
1.0 lb. shaved ice
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)

Use the same spices as for Fresh Kielbasa. Grind lean beef through 1/8 inch plate and pork trimmings through 3/16 inch plate. Add cure, seasonings and ice and mix thoroughly. Stuff in natural hog casings and smoke at 90-100oF for 12 hours. Raise temperature gradually to 165-170oF and cook until internal temperature reaches 150oF.

SOURCE: A. E. Reynolds, Extension Meat Specialist, Michigan State University


Bologna is named after the city of Bologna, Italy, where it was first produced. It is normally stuffed into large diameter cellulose or fibrous casings (No. 4 or 6) and natural beef middle or beef bung casings. The following formulas may be changed in meat content depending upon meats available.

Meat Formula No. 1:
3.2 lbs. regular pork trimmings (60/40 lean/fat) 3.2 lbs. lean pork trimmings (85/15)
3.6 lbs. lean beef trimmings (85/15)
6.4 oz. dried skim milk (optional)

Meat Formula No. 2:
8.0 lbs. lean beef chucks
2.0 lbs. regular pork trimmings

2.0 lbs. ice
4.4 oz. salt
0.8 oz. sugar
0.4 oz. ground white pepper
0.1 oz. coriander
0.1 oz. mace
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)
2.4 oz. onion, fresh grated
or 0.1 oz. grated garlic (optional ingredients)

Grind meat through a 1/4 inch plate. Add seasonings, cure and ice to meat and mix thoroughly. Stuff mix into casings of type and size desired and hang overnight in 38oF cooler. Product should then be placed in a smokehouse and smoked at 110-l20oF until good color develops. The bologna is then cooked in the smokehouse by gradually raising the smokehouse temperature to 165-175oF and cooking until an internal temperature of 150oF is reached. The product may be water cooked after smoking by placing the bologna in a water bath at 160-165oF and cooking until an internal temperature of 150oF is obtained. After cooking, the bologna should be placed in a cold water bath or shower for 12 or 15 minutes or until the internal temperature is reduced to 90-100oF. Place the product under refrigeration until used.

NOTE: For improved texture and product quality, start water cooking at 120oF and slowly raise water temperature to 160-165oF.

SOURCE: Service Manual of Union Carbide Corporation


6.0 lbs. beef
4.0 lbs. pork
2.5 lbs. ice
3.2 oz. salt
0.7 oz. sugar
0.5 oz. ground white pepper
0.3 oz. ground coriander
0.2 oz. ground nutmeg
0.1 oz. ground mustard
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)

Grind beef and pork through a 1/4 inch plate. If a silent cutter is available, chop the beef with the salt, nitrite, and half the ice to a temperature of 45oF. Add the pork, spices and remaining ice, and chop until proper texture is achieved, but not beyond a temperature of 58oF in the meat mixture. If a silent cutter is not available, a coarser textured product can be made by grinding the beef through a 1/8 inch plate and mixing thoroughly with the ice, cure, salt and spices. Grind the pork through a 1/8 inch plate and add to mixture. Blend until a uniform consistency is achieved. Stuff into natural or cellulose casings and hold over night at 40oF. Wieners are cooked in the smokehouse by slowly increasing the temperature from 130-170oF. Smoke may be applied during all or part of the cooking period.

(Cooked Salami, Beer Salami)

This is a cooked, mildly flavored Italian salami with a characteristic flavor. It is made of coarsely chopped pork, chopped beef and pork trimmings, flavored with garlic and stuffed into large diameter casings.

4.0 lbs. lean beef trimmings
3.0 lbs. extra lean pork
3.0 lbs. regular pork trimmings
4.8 oz. salt
0.8 oz. sugar
0.1 oz. ground cardamon
0.6 oz. cracked black pepper
0.1 oz. garlic powder
or 0.2 oz. fresh garlic (to taste)
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)

Grind the lean beef through 3/8 inch plate and then through 1/4 inch plate. Grind extra lean pork and regular pork trimmings through 1/2 inch plate and then through 3/16 inch plate. Place all meat in the mixer, add cure and seasoning and mix well. Stuff into No. 6 fibrous casings and hang overnight in 38oF cooler. Remove in the morning and allow to stand at room temperature for 2-3 hours. Place in 110oF smokehouse and smoke until the desired color is obtained. The product may be finished in either of the following two ways: (1) Smoked cooked salami -- raise temperature gradually until desired color is obtained and an internal temperature of 150oF is reached. Shower product with cold water until internal temperature of 90-100oF is reached. Allow to dry at room temperature before placing in cooler. (2) Water-cooked product -- when desired color is obtained in the smokehouse, place in a shower type or vat type water cooker and process until an internal temperature of 150oF is achieved. The smoked cooked product is a higher quality product with better color and shelf life due to the drier nature of the product.

SOURCE: Service Manual of Union Carbide Corporation


Formula No. 11:
6.0 lbs. lean pork trimmings
4.0 lbs. beef trimmings (sinews removed)
4.8 oz. salt
0.8 oz. sugar
0.4 oz. ground black pepper
0.5 oz. vinegar
0.2 oz. starter culture (optional)
0.2 oz. coriander
0.05 oz. garlic powder (optional)
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)

Formula No. 22:
6.0 lbs. pork trim
4.0 lbs. beef trim
4.8 oz. salt
3.2 oz. sugar
0.6 oz. coarse ground black pepper
0.1 oz. whole mustard seed
0.05 oz. ground nutmeg (1.4 mg)
0.2 oz. ground coriander
0.05 oz. ground allspice (1.4 gm)
0.1 - 0.2 oz. garlic powder
or equivalent in fresh garlic (optional)
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)
0.2 oz. starter culture (optional)

Grind trimmings through 3/16" or 1/4" plate. Mix the ground materials with the seasonings and nitrite. Pack sausage in 6" deep pans and cure at 40-45oF for 2-3 days. Regrind through 1/8" plate and stuff in No. 4 fibrous casing or 2 1/2" casings. Place in the smokehouse at 90-110oF and give a heavy smoke for 6-8 hours. Raise the temperature gradually to 165-170oF and cook until the internal temperature reaches 140-150oF. Remove, shower with cold water, allow to dry and place the sausage in refrigeration.

1. SOURCE: A.E. Reynolds, Extension Meat Specialist, Michigan State University

2. SOURCE: Robert Rust, Extension Meat Specialist, Iowa State University


9.0 lbs. beef trimmings (lean, 85%)
1.0 lb. pork fat or beef kidney fat
5.0 oz. (10 Tbsp) salt
1.2 oz. (8 1/4 tsp) sugar
1.0 oz. (2 Tbsp) white pepper or black pepper
0.1 oz. (5/8 tsp) mace
0.1 oz. (5/8 tsp) ginger
Starter culture optional
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)

Grind beef through an 1/8 inch plate and fat through 1/4 inch plate. Mix all the ingredients for 5 minutes or until a good distribution of the fat and lean is apparent.

Store the mix in trays 8 to 10 inches deep for 2 to 4 days at 40-45oF. Stuff into 5 inch fibrous casings, sewed bungs or suitable sized collagen casings. Hold stuffed product for 9 to 11 days at 40oF and 60% relative humidity. This product may be cooked to internal temperature of 148oF to shorten drying cycle.

SOURCE: A. E. Reynolds, Extension Meat Specialist, Michigan State University


8.0 lbs. regular pork trim (60/40)
2.0 lbs. beef trim (85/15)
2.0 lbs. water or ice
.5 lbs. honey
.25 lbs. salt
.2 lbs. non-fat dry milk
.1 lb. corn syrup solids
.4 oz. monosodium glutamate (optional)
.4 oz. onion powder
.4 oz. white pepper
.2 oz. celery powder
2.5 gr. sodium erythorbate
11.35 gr. quick or modern cure (6.25% Na NO2) or .7 gr. NaNO2

Processing Schedule:

1. Grind beef and pork (separately) through 1/8" plate. Keep at or below 30 F.

2. Chop beef with ice (water), salt, nitrite and sodium erythorbate to 40 F.

3. Add pork and remaining ingredients and chop to 55 F.

4. Pack into greased loaf pans or stuff into large diameter casings.

5. Product may be smoked or oven baked to 155 F internal (moderate
temperatures to preserve emulsion).


This is an excellent all meat loaf for use as a cold cut or sandwich meat.

10.0 lbs. extra lean pork trimmings (85% lean)
1.2 oz. clear corn syrup
4.4 oz. salt
0.6 oz. white pepper
0.2 oz. mace
0.1 oz. nutmeg
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)

Grind pork trimmings through 1/4 inch plate. Place in mixer, add balance of ingredients and mix thoroughly. Fill in molds or loaf pans or stuff in No. 6 fibrous casings and hold overnight in 38oF cooler to cure. Water cook at 160-165oF until an internal temperature of 150oF is reached. Molds or loaf pans may be oven cooked at 250-275oF until internal temperature of 150oF is reached. Allow to cool at room temperature, remove from molds and place in refrigeration for storage.

SOURCE: Service Manual of Union Carbide Corporation


8.0 lbs. pork trim (80% lean)
2.0 lbs. lean beef trim (90% lean)
2.0 lbs. water or ice
1.0 lb. corn syrup
8.0 oz. dried skim milk
0.8 oz. dried onion
4.0 oz. salt
8.0 oz. tomato juice
0.5 oz. white pepper
Sodium nitrite (see instructions)

Grind pork through 3/16 inch plate. Chop beef and other ingredients for 2 minutes in a silent cutter. Add the dried milk and chop for 3 more minutes. (Alternatively, grind beef through 5/8 inch plate - mix thoroughly with remaining ingredients and grind through 1/8 inch plate.) Add ground pork and mix for 4 minutes. Cure for 24 hours at 40oF. Remix and pack in loaf pans. Leave at room temperature until internal temperature reaches 55oF. Bake at 250oF to an internal temperature of 150oF. Cool to 100oF and remove from pans. Refrigerate.



Prepared by: 
Dennis Buege 
Meat Science Laboratory 
1805 Linden Drive 
Madison, WI 53706 
608 262-0555

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