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Paul Nugent
Department of History
University of Edinburgh


'Ethnicity, Class and Power in Twentieth-Century Africa'

Spring Term, 1996-97


1. Tuesday 7 January: Screening of End of Empire programmes on Ghana 
and Kenya

2. Friday 10 January: Revisiting Nationalism (1): Is the thesis that the 
British were forced to leave the Gold Coast by the strength and depth of 
nationalist sentiment still tenable?
(i) Primary:
	Kwame Nkrumah, I Speak of Freedom (1961)
  	Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (1959)     
  	Commission of Enquiry Into Disturbances in the Gold Coast (1948) (The 
Watson Commission)

(ii) Effects of the War:
	 W. Holbrook,"British propaganda and the mobilization of the Gold Coast 
war effort, 1939-1945", JAH, 26, 4, 1985. 
	A. Israel, "Measuring the war experience: Ghanaian soldiers in World War 
Two", JMAS, 25, 1, 1987. 
	 David Killingray, "Military and labour recruitment in the Gold Coast during 
the Second World War", JAH, 23, 1, 1982. 

(iii) Nationalist Politics: Versus Planned Decolonization
	Dennis Austin,  Politics in Ghana, 1946-1960, Intro, chs.1-4.*
 		, The Working Committee of the United Gold Coast Convention, 1947-
49", in his Ghana Observed (1976).	
	 B. Beckman, Organising the Farmers (1976), ch.1
	J. Crisp, "Productivity and protest: scientific management in the Ghanaian 
gold mines, 1947-56", in F. Cooper (ed.), Struggle For the City (1983).  
	Richard Crook, R., "Decolonization, the colonial state and chieftaincy in the 
Gold Coast", AA, 85, 338, 1986*
		, "Legitimacy, authority and the transfer of power in Ghana", Political 
Studies, 35, 4, 1987 
	Basil Davidson, Black Star.
 	B. Fitch, B and M. Oppenheimer, Ghana: End of an Illusion (1966), ch.2-3. 
  	J. Flint, "Planned decolonization and its failure in British Africa", AA, 
82, 328, 1983.* 
	C.L.R. James,  Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution (1982).
	 David Killingray,  "Soldiers, ex-servicemen and politics in the Gold Coast, 
1939-1950", JMAS, 21, 1983 
	 Jon Kraus "Cleavages, crises, parties and state power in Ghana: the 
emergence of a single-party system", Ph.D. thesis, Johns Hopkins University, part 1, 
ch.4,5 
		 "On the politics of nationalism and social change in Ghana", JMAS, 7, 
1, 1969
	Maxwell Owusu, Uses and Abuses of Political Power (1970), esp ch. 4*
  	R. Pearce, "The Colonial Office in 1947 and the transfer of power of 
power in Africa", JICH 10, 2, 1982
		,"The Colonial Office and planned decolonization in Africa", 
AA, 83, 330, 1984.*
	 	, The Turning Point in Africa (1982).
	Richard Rathbone, "Businessmen and politics: party struggles in Ghana, 1949-
1957", JDS, 9, 3, 1973* 
		"Political intelligence and policy in Ghana in the late 1940s and 1950s", 
in D. Anderson and D. Killingray (eds.) Policing and Decolonisation (1992)
 		"Political intelligence in Ghana in the late 1940s and 1950s" JICH 21, 3, 
1993.
		, Murder and Politics in Colonial Ghana (1993).
	D. Rooney, Kwame Nkrumah: The Political Kingdom in the Third World 
(1988). 
	 E. Schleh, "The Post-war careers of ex-servicemen in Ghana and Uganda", 
JMAS, 6, 2, 1968

(iv) Regionalism
	 B. Akoto, Struggle Against Dictatorship (1992) (see me).
	 Jean Allman,  "The youngmen and the porcupine: class, nationalism and 
Asante's struggle for self-determination, 1954-57, JAH, 31, 1990, plus reply by 
Rathbone and rejoinder in JAH, 32, 2, 1991.* 
		,"'Hewers of wood, carriers of water': Islam, class and politics on the 
eve of Ghana's independence" ASR 34, 2, 1991.
		The Quills of the Porcupine: Asante Nationalism in an Emergent 
Ghana (1993).*
	 D.E.K. Amenumey, "The 1956 plebiscite in Togoland Under British 
Administration", Universitas, 5, 2, 1976
		, The Ewe Unification Movement (1989)*  
	Dennis Austin, Politics in Ghana, 1946-1960 (1964), ch. 6-7
		Ghana Observed (1976), ch.5
	B. Beckman,  Organising the Farmers (1976), ch.3.
	J.S. Coleman, "Togoland", International Conciliation, DIX, September 1956 
	R. Crook, "Colonial rule and political culture in modern Ashanti", JCPS, 11, 1, 
1973 
	 F.K. Drah, "The Brong political movement", in K. Arhin (ed.), Brong 
Kyempim: Essays on the Society, History and Politics of The Brong People (1979).
	J. Dunn, J. and A.F.Robertson, Dependence and Opportunity: Political 
Change in Ahafo (1973), ch.8 
	B. Fitch, B and M. Oppenheimer, Ghana: End of an Illusion (1966), ch.3-5*.
	 B.W. Hodder, B.W., "The Ewe Problem: A Reassessment", in C.A. Fisher (ed.) 
Essays in Political Geography (1968) 
	 J. Kent, "The Ewe Question, 1954-56: French and British reactions to 
'nationalism' in West Africa", in M. Twaddle (ed.) Imperialism, The State and the 
Third World (1992).
		, The Internationalization of Colonialism: Britain, France, and Black 
Africa, 1939-1956  (1992). 
	 Jon Kraus, "Cleavages, Crises, Parties and State Power in Ghana: the 
Emergence of a Single-Party System", Ph.D. thesis, Johns Hopkins University, 
pp.819-891 
	Paul Ladouceur, Chiefs and Politicians: The Politics of Regionalism in 
Northern Ghana (1979)* 
	 Richard Rathbone, "Parties' socioeconomic bases and regional differentiation 
in the rate of change in Ghana", in P. Lyon and J. Manor, Transfer and 
Transformation (1983)*
	Martin Staniland, The Lions of Dagbon (1975), chs.7-8.*
	Claude Welch, C. Dream of Unity: Pan-Africanism and Political Unification in 
West Africa (1966), chs. 2-3.*
  

3. Tuesday 14 January: Revisiting Nationalism (2) Why did the nationalist 
movement divide along ethnic lines in post-war Nigeria?
(i) Nationalism
	 J. Ajayi, J. and A. Ekoko, "Transfer of power in Nigeria: its origins and 
consequences", in Gifford, P. and Louis, R. (eds.), Decolonization and African 
Independence (1988).
	O. Aluko, "Politics of decolonization in British West Africa, 1945-60", in J. 
Ajayi. and M. Crowder, A History of West Africa (1974) Vol.2.
	E. Iweriebor, "Radical nationalism in Nigeria: The Zikist movement and the 
struggle for liberation, 1945-1950", Ph. D. thesis, Columbia University, 1990.
	O. Nnoli, Ethnic Politics in Nigeria (1978), chs. 2-5*
	G.O. Olusanya, The Second World War and Politics in Nigeria, 1939-1953 
(1973), chs. 4-7. 
	G.O. Olusanya,"The Zikist movement: a study in political radicalism", JMAS, 
4, 3, 1966 
	Olusanya, G.O.," "The role of ex-servicemen in Nigerian politics", JMAS, 6, 2, 
1965 
	W. Oyemakinde, "The Nigerian general strike of 1945", JHSN, 7, 4, 1975.
	W. Oyemakinde, W., "Michael Imoudu and the emergence of militant trade 
unionism in Nigeria, 1940-42", JHSN, 7, 3, 1974. 
	R. Pearce, "Governors, nationalism and constitutions in Nigeria, 1935-51", 
JICH, 9, 3, 1981 

 (ii) Schism:
 	O. Ogban-Iyam, "Nigerian nationalism: crises of ideas and strategies"  in Olisa 
and Ikejiani-Clark, Azikiwe and the African Revolution (1989)        
	 L. Plotnicov, "An early Nigerian civil disturbance: the 1945 Hausa-Ibo riot", 
JMAS, 9, 2, 1971 
	Ken Post, "Nationalism and politics in Nigeria: A Marxist approach", 
Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 6, 2, 1964.
	 Ken Post, "The contribution of tribalism to nationalism in Western Nigeria", 
R. Melson and H. Wolpe (eds.), Nigeria: Modernization and the Politics of 
Communalism (1971) 
	F. Salamone, "Playing at nationalism: Nigeria, a nation of 'ringers'", GenŠve-
Afrique 30, 1993.                   
	Richard Sklar, R., Nigerian Political Parties (1963), ch.2-3.*
	Robert Tignor, "Political corruption in Nigeria before independence", JMAS 
31, 2, 1993.
	U. Uba, "NCNC and Nigerian realities", in Olisa and Ikejiani-Clark, Azikiwe 
and The African Revolution (1989)                
	 Vaughan, O., "Decolonisation and legitimation in Nigeria", in T. Ranger and 
O. Vaughan (eds.) Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth-Century Africa (1993).                                         

4. Friday 17 January: Revisiting Nationalism (3) 'The defeat of Mau Mau 
represented the defeat of the only genuine nationalist movement in Kenya' Do 
you agree with this statement?
Primary: 
Historical  Survey of the Origins and Growth of Mau Mau (Corfield Report), 1960.

Secondary:
	E.S. Atieno-Odhiambo, "The invention of Kenya", in in B. Ogot and W. 
Ochieng' (eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
	E.S. Atieno-Odhiambo, "The formative years, 1945-55" in B. Ogot and W. 
Ochieng' (eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
	Bates, Robert, Beyond the Miracle of the Market (1989), ch.1-2 .
	Bruce Berman, "Nationalism, ethnicity and modernity: the paradox of Mau 
Mau", CJAS 25, 2 1991.*
	Bruce Berman, Control and Crisis in Colonial Kenya (1990), chs. 9-10.*
	Bruce Berman and John Lonsdale, Unhappy Valley (1992), chs. 11-12.*
	A.S. Cleary, "The myth of Mau Mau in its international context", AA 89. 335, 
1990.
	Fred Cooper, "Mau Mau and the discourse of decolonization", JAH 29, 1988.
	R.B. Edgerton, Mau Mau: An African Crucible (1990).
	F. Furedi, The Mau Mau War in Perspective (1989).
	Cherry Gertzel, The Politics of Independent Kenya (1970), ch. 1.
	D. Gordon, Decolonization and the State in Kenya (1986).*
	Dane Kennedy, "Constructing the colonial myth of Mau Mau", IJAHS 25, 2, 
1992.
	M. Kinyatti, Kenya's Freedom Struggle: The Dedan Kimathi Papers (1987).
	Geoff Lamb, Peasant Politics (1974), ch. 2.
	Colin Leys, Underdevelopment in Kenya (1975).
	John Lonsdale, "Mau Maus of the mind: Making Mau Mau and remaking 
Kenya", JAH 31, 1990.
	Tabitha Kanogo, "Women and the politics of protest" in S. McDonald et al 
(eds.), Images of Women in Peace and War (1987).
	Tabitha Kanogo, Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau (1987).*
	Wunyabari Maloba, Mau Mau and Kenya (1993).
		, "Decolonization: a theoretical perspective", in in B. Ogot and W. 
Ochieng' (eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
	B. Ogot and T. Zeleza, "Kenya: the road to independence and after", in 
Gifford, P. and Louis, R. (eds.), Decolonization and African Independence (1988).
	W. Ochieng' and E.S. Atieno-Odhiambo, "On decolonization", in B. Ogot and 
W. Ochieng' (eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
	B.A. Ogot, "The decisive years,1956-63", in in B. Ogot and W. Ochieng' (eds.) 
Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
	C. Presley, Kikuyu Women, the Mau Mau Rebellion and Social Change in 
Kenya (1992).
	C. Rosberg and J. Nottingham, The Myth of Mau Mau: Nationalism in Kenya 
(1966).
	Marina Santoru, "The colonial idea of women and direct intervention: the 
Mau Mau case", AA 95, 1996.
	 Parker Shipton, "The Kenyan land tenure reform: misunderstandings in the 
creation of private property", in R.E. Downs and S.P. Reyna (eds), Land and Society 
in Contemporary Africa (1988).
	M. Sorrenson, Land Reform in Kikuyu Country (1967).
	S. Stichter, "Trade unionism in Kenya, 1947-1952: the militant phase", in P. 
Gutkind, R. Cohen and J. Copans (eds.), African Labor History (1978).
		, "Workers, trade unions and the Mau Mau rebellion", CJAS 9, 2, 1975.
	N. Swainson, The Development of Corporate Capitalism in Kenya, 1918-1977 
(1980)
	David Throup, Economic and Social Origins of Mau Mau (1988).*
	Robert Tignor, "Race, nationality and industrialization in decolonizing Kenya, 
1945-1963", IJAHS 26, 1, 1993.
	Gary Wasserman, "Continuity and counter-insurgency: the role of land 
reform in decolonizing Kenya, 1962-1970", CJAS 7, 1, 1973.
		, "The independence bargain: Kenya Europeans and the land issue, 
1960-62", Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies, 1973.
		 Politics of Decolonization: Kenya Europeans and the Land Issue, 1960-
1965 (1976).*
	L. White, "Separating the men from the boys: constructions of gender, 
sexuality and terrorism in Kenya", IJAHS 23, 1, 1990.

5. Tuesday 21 January8E Screening of The Kitchen Toto.

6. Friday 24 January: Did the coming to power of the National Party in 1948 
represent the triumph of Afrikaner nationalist ideology over class interests?
	H. Adam and H. Giliomee, Ethnic Power Mobilized (1979).*
	A. du Toit. "No chosen people: the myth of the Calvinist origins of Afrikaner 
nationalism and racial ideology", American Historical Review 88, 4, 1983.
	Saul Dubow, "Afrikaner nationalism, apartheid and the conceptualization of 
race" JAH 33, 1992.*
		"Ethnic euphemisis and racial echoes", JSAS 20, 3, 1994.
	J. Kinghorn, "Social cosmology, religion and Afrikaner identity", JSAS 20, 3, 
1974.
	Hermann Giliomee, "The non-racial franchise and Afrikaner and coloured 
indentities, 1910-1994", AA 94, 375, 1995.
	Hermann Giliomee and Lawrence Schlemmer (eds.), From Apartheid to 
Nation-Building (1989), ch. 2.
	C. Marx, "The Ossewabrandwag as a mass movement, 1939-1941", JSAS 20, 2, 
1994.
	Dan O'Meara, "The Afrikaner Broederbond, 1927-1948: class vanguard of 
Afrikaner nationalism", JSAS 3, 2, 1977.
		, "White trade unionism, political power and Afrikaner nationalism", in 
Eddie Webster (ed.) Essays in Southern African Labour History (1978).
		,  Volkskapitalisme: Class, Capital and Ideology in the Development of 
Afrikaner nationalism, 1934-1948 (1983).*
	T. Dunbar Moodie, The Rise of Afrikanerdom (1975).
	Leonard Thompson, The Political Mythology of Apartheid (1985).( )
	David Welsh, "The political economy of Afrikaner nationalism", in Adrian 
Leftwich (ed.), South Africa: Economic Growth and Political Change (1974).

7. Tuesday 28 January: Socialism and Revolution (1): Did Nkrumah's socialist 
programme fail because it was too ambitious or because it was not ambitious or 
indeed socialist enough?
	Kwame Arhin (ed.) The Life and Works of Kwame Nkrumah (1993).
	 Dennis Austin, Politics in Ghana, 1946-1960 (1964), ch.8
	B. Beckman, B., Organising the Farmers (1976)*
	 B. Beckman, "Ghana 1951-78: the agrarian basis of the post-colonial 
state", in J. Heyer et al., Rural Development in Tropical Africa (1981). 
	E. Berg, "Structural transformation versus gradualism", in P. Foster 
and A. Zolberg, Ghana and the Ivory Coast (1971) plus article by Green
	G. Bing, G. Reap the Whirlwind (1968), chs. 7-11
	H. Bretton, The Rise and Fall of Kwame Nkrumah (1967).
	D. Cohen, D., The CPP of Ghana: representational or solidarity party?", 
CJAS, 4, 2, 1970.
	R. Crook, "Bureaucracy and politics in Ghana", in P. Lyon and J. Manor 
(eds.) Transfer and Transformation (1983).
	Basil Davidson, Black Star (1973)
	B Fitch and M Oppenheimer, Ghana: End of an Illusion (1968), 
ch.6-8.
	K. Folson, "The Marxist period in the development of a socialist 
ideology in Ghana", Universitas, 6, 1, 1977 
	J. Frimpong-Ansah, The Vampire State in Africa (1991), ch.5.
	R. Genoud, Nationalism and Economic Development in Ghana (1969)
	R. Graham, The Aluminium Industry and the Third World (1982)
 	Hutchful E. (ed.), The I.M.F. and Ghana (1987) Introduction.
	R. Jeffries, Class, Power and Ideology in Ghana: The Railwaymen of 
Sekondi (1978).*
	T. Jones, T., Ghana's First Republic, 1960-1966 (1976).
	T. Killick, T., Development Economics in Action (1978)*
	S. Metz, "In lieu of orthodoxy: the socialist theories of Nkrumah and 
Nyerere", JMAS, 20, 3, 1982 .
	G. Mikell, Cocoa and Chaos in Ghana (1989).
	J. Mohan, "Nkrumah and Nkrumahism", The Socialist Register, 1967.
	J. Moxon, Volta: Man's Greatest Lake (1969).
	 M. Owusu, Uses and Abuses of Political Power (1970)*
 	R. Murray, "Second thoughts on Ghana", NLR, 42, 1967.
	 D. Reeck, "The castle and the umbrella", Africa Today, 23, 4, 1976.
	Douglas Rimmer, Staying Poor (1992).
	Don Robotham, Militants or Proletarians?: The Economic Culture of 
Underground Gold Miners in Southern Ghana (1989)
	D. Rooney, D., Kwame Nkrumah: The Political Kingdom in the Third 
World (1988).
	 S. Ryan, S., "The theory and practice of one-partyism : the CPP re-
examined", CJAS 4, 2, 1970.


8. Friday 31 January: Socialism and Revolution (2): Was there a revolutionary 
situation in Ghana in 1982/83 or was the 'revolution' merely wishful thinking on 
the part of urban intellectuals?
	Baffour Agyeman-Duah, "Ghana, 1982-6: the politics of the P.N.D.C.", JMAS 
25, 4, 1987.
	James Ahiakpor, "The success and failure of dependency theory: the 
experience of Ghana", International Organization 39, 3, 1985. 
 		,"Recognizing 'left' from 'right' in Ghana: a comment on Ninsin", CJAS 
22, 1, 1988.
		"Rawlings, economic policy reform and the poor", JMAS 29, 4, 1991.
	Chris Atim and Ahmed Gariba, "Ghana: revolution or counter-revolution", 
Journal of African Marxists, Issue 10, June 1987.
	Forrest Colburn, The Vogue of Revolution in Poor Countries (1994). 
	Yao Graham, "From GTP to Assene: aspects of industrial working class 
struggles, 1982-1986", in Emmanuel Hansen and Kwame A. Ninsin (eds.) The State, 
Development and Politics in Ghana (1989).
	Emmanuel Gyimah-Boadi (ed.), Ghana Under PNDC Rule (1993).
	Emmanuel Hansen, "The military and revolution in Ghana", Journal of 
African Marxists 2, 1982.
		"The state and popular struggles in Ghana, 1982-1986", in Peter 
Anyang' Nyong'o (ed.) Popular Struggles For Democracy in Africa (1987).
		 Ghana Under Rawlings: Early Years (1991).*
	Eboe Hutchful,  "New elements in militarism: Ethiopia, Ghana and Burkina", 
International Journal XLI, 4, 1986.*
	Richard Jeffries, "Rawlings and the political economy of underdevelopment 
in Ghana", African Affairs 81, 1982.
	Kwesi Jonah, "Rawlings revolution two years after", Journal of African 
Marxists 5, 1984.
	Piet Konings, The State and the Defence Committees in the Ghanaian 
Revolution, 1981-1984 (1986). [see me]
	Kwame Ninsin, "Ghanaian politics after 1981: evolution or revolution?", CJAS 
21, 1, 1987.
		"Recognising left and right in Ghanaian politics: a reply to Ahiakpor", 
CJAS 22, 1, 1988.
	Paul Nugent, Big Men, Small Boys and Politics in Ghana: Power, Ideology 
and the Burden of History (1995).
	Barbara Okeke, 4 June: A Revolution Betrayed (1982). 
	Maxwell Owusu, "Custom and coups: a juridical interpretation of civil order 
and disorder in Ghana", JMAS 24, 1, 1986.
		 "Rebellion, revolution and tradition: reinterpreting coups in Ghana", 
Comparative Studies in Society and History 31, 2, 1989. 
		, "Tradition and transformation: democracy and the politics of popular 
power in Ghana", JMAS 34, 2, 1996.
	Donald Ray, Ghana: Politics, Economics and Society (1986).
	Don Robotham, "The Ghana problem", Labour, Capital and Society 21, 1, 
1988.
	Kevin Shillington, Kevin, Ghana and the Rawlings Factor (1992).
	Zaya Yeebo,  Ghana: The Struggle For Popular Power - Rawlings: Saviour or 
Demagogue (1991). 


9. Tuesday 4 February: Is it meaningful to explain the Ethiopian revolution in 
terms of social origins?
	Negussay Ayele, "The Ethiopian revolution: political aspects of the transition 
from PMAC to PDRE", in Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of Ethiopia 
(1990).
	Randi Balsvik, Haile Selassie's Students (1985).
	Christoper Clapham, Transformation and Continuity in Revolutionary 
Ethiopia (1988), chs. 1-3.*
	Forrest Colburn, The Vogue of Revolution in Poor Countries (1994).
	Haggai Erlich, Ethiopia and the Challenge of Independence (1986), ch. 12.
	Fred Halliday and Maxine Molyneux, The Ethiopian Revolution (1981).*
	John Harbeson, The Ethiopian Transformation: The Quest for the Post-
Imperial State (1988).
		"State and social transformation in modern Ethiopia", in Marina 
Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
	A. Hiwet, From Autocracy to Revolution (1975)
	Edmond Keller, Revolutionary Ethiopia: From Empire to People's Republic 
(1988), especially chs 5-6.*
	Ren‚ Lefort, Ethiopia: An Heretical Revolution?
	John Markakis and Nega Ayele, Class and Revolution in Ethiopia (1978).
	Marina and David Ottoway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (1978).
	D. Rahmato, Agrarian Reform in Ethiopia (1984).
	Gebru Tareke, Ethiopia: Power and Protest (1991), especially conclusion and 
epilogue.
	Amare Tekle, "Continuity and change in Ethiopian politics", in Marina 
Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
	Teshale Tibebu, The Making of Modern Ethiopia, 1896-1974 (1995), chs. 5-6
	Andargachew Tiruneh, The Ethiopian Revolution, 1974-1987 (1993).

10. Friday 7 February: The State, Class and the National Question (1): Why did 
Nigerians go to war against each other in 1967? 
Primary:
	A.H.M. Kirk-Greene, Crisis and Conflict in Nigeria: A Documentary 
Sourcebook (1971), Volume 1 and 2.

Secondary:
	 J. Adekson, "Ethnicity and army recruitment in colonial plural societies", 
ERS, 2, 2 April 1979. 
	Henry Bienen, Political Conflict and Economic Change in Nigeria (1985), ch.3.
	L. Dare, "The 1964 elections and the collapse of the First Republic", in Nigeria 
Since Independence Vol V: Politics and Constitutions.
	Larry Diamond, Class, Ethnicity and Democracy in Nigeria (1988)*
		, "Class, ethnicity and the democratic state: Nigeria, 1950-1966", CSSH 
25, 3, 1983.* 
	Billy Dudley, Instability and Political Order (1973).
		, "Western Nigeria and the Nigerian Crisis", K. Panter-Brick (ed.) 
Nigerian Politics and Military Rule (1970)   
	 A. Ebigbola, "Politics and population enumeration in Nigeria, 1960-73", Odu, 
21, Jan/July 1981.
	Eme Ekekwe, Class and State in Nigeria (1986)
	Ruth First, Barrel of a Gun (1970), ch.5.*
	W. Graf, The Nigerian State (1988), ch. 2.*
	 U. Himmelstrand, "Tribalism, regionalism, nationalism and secession in 
Nigeria", in S. Eisenstadt and S. Rokkan, Building States and Nations Volume 2 
	A.H.M. Kirk-Greene, "Hereditas damnosa: ethnic ranking and the martial 
races imperative in Africa", ERS, 3, 4, 1980. .
	Robin Luckham, The Nigerian Military (1971), esp. chs. 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 11, 13*
	N.J. Miners, The Nigerian Army: 1956-66 (1971)
	E. Nafziger, The Economics of Political Instability (1983), chs. 1-4 
	 O. Nnoli, Ethnic Politics in Nigeria (1978), chs. 2-5.*
	U. Okpu, "The politics of state creation and the outbreak of the Nigerian Civil 
War", Transafrican Journal of History, 11, 1982.
	 J. O'Connell, "The fragility of stability: the fall of the Nigerian Federal 
Government, 1966", in R. Rotberg and A. Mazrui (eds.) Protest and Power in Black 
Africa (1970). 
	S. Osoba, "The Nigerian power elite", in P. Gutkind and P. Waterman, African 
Social Studies (1977) 
	 K. Post and M. Vickers, Structure and Conflict in Nigeria (1973).*
	R. Sandbrook and R. Cohen, R., The Development of an African Working 
Class (1975), chs. by Lubeck, Peace.  
	 S. Schatz, Nigerian Capitalism (1977), ch.8
 	Stremlau, J., The International Politics of the Nigerian Civil War (1977) 
	 Gavin Williams,  State and Society in Nigeria (1980), ch.3  
		 "Nigeria", in J. Dunn, West African States (1978) 

Memoirs/biography:
 	O. Ojukwu, Biafra: Random Thoughts of C. Odumegwu Ojukwu
 	Ken Saro-Wiwa, K., On A Darkling Plain (1989).* 
	Ademoyega, A., Why We Struck (1981)
	Gbulie, B., Nigeria's Five Majors: Coup d'Etat of 1966 (1981)
	Mainasara, A., The Five Majors: Why They Struck (1982).
	 Muffett, J., Let Truth Be Told: The Coups d'Etats of 1966 (1982) 
	 Obasanjo, O, Nzeogwu  (1987)

11. Tuesday 11 February: The State, Class and the National Question (2): Have 
Nigerian intellectuals, especially novelists and academics, ultimately failed to 
transcend the one-sided views of the protagonists in the Civil War?
	Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe, The Biafra War (1990).
	John Njoku, The Igbos of Nigeria (1990), ch. 8.
	J de St. Jorre, , The Nigerian Civil War (1972).
	S. Orabator, "The Biafran crisis and the Midwest", AA, 86, 334, July 
1987.
	T. Tamuno and S. Ukpabi, Nigeria Since Independence Volume VI: The Civil 
War Years (1989).
	Uwechue, R., Reflections on the Nigerian Civil War (1969).

Literature: 
	Chinua Achebe, Girls At War and Other Stories (1972).
 	Cyprian Ekwensi, Divided We Stand (1980).
	Buchi Emecheta, Destination Biafra (1994 ed)
 	C. Ike, Sunset at Dawn (1976).
	Eddie Iroh, Forty-Eight Guns for the General (1976).
	 Isidore Okpewho, I., The Last Duty (1976).
 	Ken Saro-Wiwa, K., Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English (1985).*
	C. McLuckie, Nigerian Civil War Literature (1990).*
	Akinjide Osuntokun, "Review of literature on the Civil War", in T. Tamuno 
and S. Ukpabi, Nigeria Since Independence Volume VI: The Civil War Years (1989). 

Memoirs/biography:
	D.A. Ejoor, Reminiscences (1990)
 	A. Madiebo, The Nigerian Revolution and the Biafran War (1980)
 	H. Njoku, A Tragedy Without Heroes (1987).
	B. Odogwu, No Place to Hide (1985)
	J. Oluleye, Military Leadership in Nigeria, 1966-1979 (1985), chs.1-11. 
	O. Obasanjo, My Command (1980) 
	Ben Gbulie, The Fall of Biafra (1989)

12. Friday 14 February: The State, Class and the National Question (3): In what 
ways has oil intensified regional and social conflict in Nigeria since 1970?
	Gunilla Andrae and Bjorn Beckman, The Wheat Trap: Bread and 
Underdevelopment in Nigeria (1985)
	Karin Barber, "Popular reactions to the petro-Naira", JMAS 20, 3, 1982.
	B. Beckman, "Neocolonialism, capitalism and the state in Nigeria", in H. 
Bernstein and and B. Campbell (eds.), Contradictions of Accumulation in Africa 
(1985).
	Henry Bienen, Political Conflict and Economic Change in Nigeria (1985), ch.2-
4.
	S. Cayford, "The Ogoni uprising: oil, human rights and a democratic 
alternative in Nigeria" Africa Today 34, 2, 1996.
	Peter Clarke, "The Maitatsine movement in Northern Nigeria in historical and 
current perspective", in Rosalind Hackett (ed.) New Religious Movements in Nigeria 
(1987).*
	Tom Forrest, "State capital, capitalist developmentand class formation in 
Nigeria", in Paul Lubeck (ed.) The African Bourgeoisie (1987).
		 Politics and Economic Development in Nigeria (1993).
	M. Hiskett, "The Maitatsine riots in Kano, 1980: an assessment", Journal of 
Religion in Africa 17, 1983.
	Richard Joseph, Democracy and Prebendal Politics in Nigeria (1987).
	Niels Kastfelt, "Rumours of Maitatsine: a note on political culture in Northern 
Nigeria" AA 88, 1989.
	M.H. Kukah, Religion, Politics and Power in Northern Nigeria (1993).
	Paul Lubeck, "Islamic protest under semi-industrial capitalism: 'Yan Tatsine 
explained", Africa 5, 4, 1985.*
	Otwin Marenin, "The Anini saga: armed robbery and the reproduction of 
idelogy in Nigeria", JMAS 25, 2, 1987.
	Okwudiba Nnoli, Ethnic Politics in Nigeria (1978).
 	A. Olukoshi  and O. Agbu, "The deepening crisis of Nigerian federalism and 
the future of the nation-state", in Adebayo O. Olukoshi and Lissa Laakso (eds.) 
Challenges to the Nation-State in Africa (1996).
	E. Osaghae, "The Ogoni uprising: oil politics, minority agitation and the 
future of the Nigerian state", AA 94, 376, 1995.
	Shehu Othman, "Nigeria: power for profit - class, corporatism, , and 
factionalism in the military", in D. Cruise O'Brien, John Dunn and Richard Rathbone 
(eds.), Contemporary West African States (1989).
	Douglas Rimmer, "Elements of the political economy", in Keith Panter-Brick, 
Soldiers and Oil: The Political Transformation of Nigeria (1978).
	Ken Saro-Wiwa, Genocide in Nigeria: The Ogoni Tragedy (1992) 
			A Month and a Day (1995)
	S. Schatz, "Pirate capitalism and the inert economy of Nigeria",  JMAS 22, 1, 
1984.
	Terisa Turner, "Commercial capitalism and the 1975 coup", in Keith Panter-
Brick, Soldiers and Oil: The Political Transformation of Nigeria (1978).
	Claude Welch, "The Ognoi and self-determination: increasing violence in 
Nigeria" JMAS 33, 4, 1995
	Gavin Williams and Terisa Turner, "Nigeria", in John Dunn (ed.) West African 
States (1978).

13. Tuesday 18 February: The State, Class and the National Question (4): Is it 
meaningful to regard the struggle for Eritrean secession as a war of national 
liberation?
	Kinfe Abraham, Ethiopia: From Bullets to the Ballot Box (1994), ch. 4,8.
	H.M. Adam, "Eritrea, Somalia, Somaliland and the Horn of Africa", in A. 
Tekle, Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Co-operation (1994).
	Christopher Clapham, "Ethiopia and Eritrea: The politics of insurgency", in 
John Wiseman (ed.) Democracy and Political Change in Sub-Saharan Africa (1995).
	Lionel Cliffe, "Forging a nation: the Eritrean experience", Third World 
Quarterly 2, 4, 1989.
		,"Eritrea: prospects for self-determination", in Peter Woodward and 
Murray Forsyth (eds.) Conflict and Peace in the Horn of Africa: Federalism and itds 
Alternatives (1994).
	Lionel Cliffe and Basil Davidson (eds.), The Long Struggle of Eritrea for 
Independence and Constructive Peace (1988).
	D. Connell, Against All Odds: A Chronicle of the Eritrean Revolution (1994) 
[on order]
	A. De Waal, "Rethinking Ethiopia" in C. Gurdon (ed.) The Horn of Africa 
(1994).
	 Jordan Gebre-Medhin, Peasants and Nationalism in Eritrea: A Critique of 
Ethiopian Studies (1989).
	Edmond Keller, "Constitutionalism and the national question in Africa: the 
case of Eritrea", in M. Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
	      , "Drought, war and famine in Ethiopia and Eritrea", JMAS 30, 4, 1992.
	Terence Lyons, "The international context of internal war: Ethiopia/Eriitrea" 
in E. Keller and D. Rothchild (eds.) Africa in the New International Order (1996).
	John Markakis, "The nationalist revolution in Eritrea", JMAS 26, 1, 1988.
		, National and Class Conflict in the Horn of Africa (1990), ch.5.
	Ruth Iyob, "Regional hegemony: domination and resistance in the Horn of 
Africa", JMAS 31, 1, 1993.
		 The Eritrean Struggle for Independence (1995).*
	Yohannes Okbazghi, Eritrea: A Pawn in World Politics (1991).
	Roy Pateman, Eritrea: Even the Stones are Burning (1990).
		,"The Eritrean war", Armed Forces and Society 17, 1, 1990.
	David Pool, "Eritrean independence: the legacy of the Derg and the politics of 
reconstruction", AA 92, 368, 1993.
	Richard Sherman, Eritrea: The Unfinished Revolution (1980).
	J. Sorrenson, "Discourses on Eritrean nationalism and identity", JMAS 29, 2, 
1991.
	G.H. Tesfagiorgis, Emergent Eritrea: Challenges of Economic Development 
(1993) 
	Crawford Young, "Comparative claims to political sovereignty: Biafra, 
Katanga, Eritrea", in D. Rothchild and V. Olorunsola (eds.), State Versus Ethnic 
Claims (1983).
	John Young, "The Tigray and Eritrean Liberation Fronts: a history of tensions 
and pragmatism", JMAS 34, 1, 1996.

14. Friday 21 February: The State, Class and the National Question (5): Why did 
the overthrow of the Derg and the secession of Eritrea apparently fail to resolve 
the national question in Ethiopia?
	Kinfe Abraham, Ethiopia: From Bullets to the Ballot Box (1994), ch. 4,8.
	H.M. Adam, "Eritrea, Somalia, Somaliland and the Horn of Africa", in A. 
Tekle, Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Co-operation (1994)
	A.A. An-Nai'm, "Eritrean independence and African constitutiona;lism: a 
Sudanese perspective" , in A. Tekle, Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Co-
operation (1994)
	Asafa Jalata, Oromia and Ethiopia (1993), ch. 5-8.* 
	Paul Baxter, "Ethiopia's unacknowledged problem: the Oromo", AA 77, 30, 
1978.
		, "The creation and constitution of Oromo nationality", in K. Fukui and 
John Markakis (eds.), Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn of Africa (1994).
		"The problem of the Oromo or the problem for the Oromo", in I.M. 
Lewis (ed.) Nationalism and Self-Determination in the Horn of Africa (1983) [in 
NLS].
	Christopher Clapham, "Conclusion: revolution, nationality and the Ethiopian 
state", in Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
		"Ethnicity and the national question in Ethiopia", in Peter Woodward 
and Murray Forsyth (eds.) Conflict and Peace in the Horn of Africa: Federalism and 
itds Alternatives (1994).
		"The Horn of Africa: a conflict zone", in Oliver Furley (ed.) Conflict in 
Africa (1995).
	Walle Engedayehu, "Ethiopia: the pitfalls of ethnic federalism" Africa 
Quarterly 34,2, 1994.
	P. Gilkes, "The effects of secession on Ethiopia and Somalia" in C. Gurdon 
(ed.) The Horn of Africa (1994).
	Bonnie Holcomb and Sisai Ibssa, The Invention of Ethiopia (1990), ch. 8-9.
	Terence Lyons, "The May 1995 elections in Ethiopia" JMAS 34, 1, 1996.
	John Markakis, National and Class Conflict in the Horn of Africa (1990), ch.9.
	Heinrich Scholler, "The Ethiopian federation of 1952: an obselete model or  a 
guide to the future?", in Peter Woodward and Murray Forsyth (eds.) Conflict and 
Peace in the Horn of Africa: Federalism and itds Alternatives (1994). 
	J. Sorenson, Imagining Ethiopia: Struggles for History and Identity in the 
Horhn of Africa (1993).
	Bairu Tafla, "Historical background to the conflicts in Ethiopia and the 
prospects for peace", in Peter Woodward and Murray Forsyth (eds.) Conflict and 
Peace in the Horn of Africa: Federalism and itds Alternatives (1994).
	Gebru Tereke, "Continuity and change in peasant mobilization: the cases of 
Bale and Tigray", in Marina Ottaway (ed.), The Political Economy of Ethiopia (1990).
	Teshale Tibebu, The Making of Modern Ethiopia (1995), epilogue.
	A. Triulzi, "Competing views of national identitty in Ethiopia" in I. Lewis 
(ed.), Nationalism and Self-Determination in the Horn of Africa (1983) [in NLS]
 	Sarah Vaughan, The Addis Ababa Transitional Conference of July 1991: Its 
Origins, History and Significance, Occasional Paper, Centre of African Studies, 
University of Edinburgh (1994).
		"Ethnicity and the prosepcts for democratization in Ethiopia" in Louise 
de la Gorgendiere, Kenneth King, Sarah Vaughan (eds.) Ethnicity in Africa: Roots, 
Meanings and Implications  (1996).
	John Young, "The Tigray and Eritrean Liberation Fronts: a history of tensions 
and pragmatism", JMAS 34, 1, 1996.
	Abebe Zegeye and S. Pausewang (eds.), Ethiopia in Change (1994).

15. Tuesday 25 February: The State, Class and the National Question (6): Is it too 
simplistic to suggest that it is the political elite which has been primarily 
responsible for the politicization of ethnicity in Kenya?
	P. Anyang' Nyong'o, "State and society in Kenya: the disintegration of the 
nationalist coalitions and the rise of Presidentialism authoritarianism", AA 88, 1989.
	E.S. Atieno-Odhiambo, "Democracy and the ideology of order in Kenya", in 
M. Schatzberg (ed.) The Political Economy of Kenya (1987).
	J. Barkan, "The electoral process and peasant-state relations in Kenya", in  
Fred Hayward (ed.) Elections in Independent Africa (1987).
	Jean-Fran‡ois Bayart, The State in Africa (1993), ch.3.
	D.W. Cohen and E.S. Atieno-Odhiambo, Burying SM (1992). 
	G.P. Benson, "Ideological politics versus Biblical hermeneutics:  Kenya's 
Protestant churches and the Nyayo statee", in in H.B. Hansen and Michael Twaddle 
(eds.) Religion and Politics in East Africa (1995).
	J. Barkan, "The electoral process and peasant-state relations in Kenya", in Fred 
Hayward (ed.), Elections in Independent Africa (1987).
	J. Barkan and F. Holmquist, "Peasant-state relations and the social base of self-
help in Kenya", World Politics 41, 3 1989.
	Daniel Bourmaud, Histoire Politique du Kenya (1988).
	Angelique Haugerud, "The  consequences of land tenure reform among 
smallholders in the Kenya highlands", Rural Africana 15/16, 1983.
		, The Culture of Politics in Modern Kenya (1995).*
	Colin Leys,  The Rise and Fall of Development Theory (1995).
	Robert Maxon, "Social and cultural changes", in B. Ogot and W. Ochieng' 
(eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
	S. Mueller, "Government and opposition in Kenya, 1966-1969", JMAS 22, 3, 
1984.
	Muthai Ngunyi, "Resuscitating the Majimbo project: the politics of 
deconstructing the unitary state in Kenya", in Adebayo O. Olukoshi and Lissa 
Laakso (eds.) Challenges to the Nation-State in Africa (1996).
	A. Njonjo, "The Kenya peasantry: a reassessment", ROAPE 20, 1981.
	W. Ochieng' "Structural and political changes", in B. Ogot and W. Ochieng' 
(eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
	B.A. Ogot, "The politics of populism", in B. Ogot and W. Ochieng' (eds.) 
Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
		 "The construction of a national culture", in B. Ogot and W. Ochieng' 
(eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-93 (1995).
		"Transition from single-party to multi-party political system, 1989-93", 
in B. Ogot and W. Ochieng' (eds.) Decolonization and Independence in Kenya, 1940-
93 (1995). 
	Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Barrel of a Pen (1987).
	Barbara Thomas, Politics, Participation and Poverty: Development Through 
Self-Help in Kenya (1985).
	David Throup, "The construction and destruction of the Kenyatta state", in 
Michael Schatzberg (ed.) The Political Economy of Kenya (1987).*
	David Throup, "'Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's: : the politics 
of church-state conflict in Kenya, 1978-1990", in H.B. Hansen and Michael Twaddle 
(eds.) Religion and Politics in East Africa (1995).
	Jennifer Widner, From Harambee! to Nyayo!: The Rise of a Party-State in 
Kenya (1992).*


16. Friday 28 February: The State, Class and the National Question (7): Why did 
the national question prove so contentious amongst African political movements 
in South Africa and why dod the ANC position ultimately triumph?
(i) Africanists and Charterists
	R. Davies, D. O'Meara and S. Dlamini (eds)., The Struggle for South Africa 
(1984), ch.6.
	N. Diseko, "The origins and development of the South African Students' 
Movement (SASM), 1968-1976", JSAS 18, 1, 1992.
	D. Everatt. "Alliance politics of a spevial kind: the roots of the ANC/SACP 
alliance, 1950-1954", JSAS 18, 1, 1992.
	Gail Gerhart, Black Power in South Africa (1978).
	D. Hirschmann, "The Black Consciousness movement in South Africa", JMAS 
28, 1, 1990.
	Baruch Hirson, Year of Fire, Year of Ash, chs. 3-6, 15, 16.
	Joshua N. Lazerson, Against the Tide: Whites in the Struggle Against 
Apartheid (1994).
	Tom Lodge and Bill Nasson, All, Here and Now (1991), , parts I-III.
 	Gerhard Mare, Ethnicity and Politics in South Africa (1993).
	Anthony Marx, Lessons of Struggle (1992), ch. 2-3.
	Francis Meli, South Africa Belongs to Us: A History of the ANC (1988).
	K. Moodley, "The continuing impact of the Black Consciousness movement in 
South Africa", JMAS 29, 2, 1991.
	Martin Murray, South Africa: Time of Agony, Time of Destiny (1987), ch.4.*
	Bill Nasson, "Opposition movements and ideology in the Western Cape", in 
Glenn Moss and Ingrid Obery (eds.) South Africa Contemporary Analysis (1990).
	No Sizwe, One Azania, One Nation: The National Question in South Africa 
(1979).*
	N. Barney Pityana et al, Bounds of Possibility: The Legacy of Steve Biko and 
Black Consciousness (1991).*
	Paul Rich, "Reviewing the origins of the Freedom Charter", in Norman 
Etherington (ed.) Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South Africa (1992).
	Paul Rich, State Power and Black Politics in South Africa, 1912-51 (1996)
	M. Van Diepen, The National Question in South Africa (1988).

(ii) Inkatha
	Heribert Adam, "Political violence, 'tribalism' and Inkatha", JMAS 30, 3, 1992.
	C. Campbell, "Evidence for an ethnic identity in the life histories of Zulu-
speaking Durban township residents", JSAS 21, 2, 1995.
	Daphna Golan, Inventing Shaka (1994) 
	J.D. Brewer, "The membership of Inkatha in KwaMashu", AA 84, 1985.
		, After Soweto (1986), ch.6.
	N.L. Cope, "The Zulu petit bourgeoisie and Zulu nationalism in the 1920s: 
oprigins of Inkatha", JSAS 16, 3, 1990.
		, To Bind the Nation: Solomon kaDinuzulu and Zulu Nationalism, 
1913-1933 (1993). 
	C.A. Hamilton, "An appetite for the past: the re-creation of Shaka and the 
crisis in popular historical consciousness", SAHJ 22, 1990.
	Gerhard Mar‚, Ethnicity and Politics in South Africa (1993).
	G. Mar‚ and G. Hamilton, An Appetite for Power: Buthelezi's Inkatha and 
South Africa (1987).*
	Gerhard Mar‚ and Muntu Ncube, "Inkatha: marching from Natal to Pretoria", 
in Glenn Moss and Ingrid Obery (eds.) South Africa Contemporary Analysis (1990).
	Mzala, Gatsha Buthelezi: Chief with a Double Agenda (1988).*
	Shula Marks, "The origins of ethnic violence in South Africa", in Norman 
Etherington (ed.) Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South Africa (1992).
	James Shuttleworth, "Sons of Shaka or sons of umslopogaas?", in Norman 
Etherington (ed.) Peace, Politics and Violence in the New South Africa (1992).
	R. Southall, "Buthelezi, Inkatha and the politics of compromise", AA 80, 1981.


17. Tuesday 4 March: The State, Class and the National Question (8): In the race-
class debate about the origins and trajectory of apartheid who has ultimately been 
proved right?
	Heribert Adam, Modernizing Racial Domination (1971), chs. 2-3.
	A. Ashforth, The Politics of Official Discourse in Twentieth-Century South 
Africa (1990).
	Philip Bonner, Peter Delius and Deborah Posel, "The shaping of apartheid: 
contradiction and Popular Struggle", in Philip Bonner, Peter Delius and Deborah 
Posel (eds.), Apartheid's Genesis, 1935-1962 (1993).*
	Nancy Clark, "The limits of industrialization under apartheid", in Philip 
Bonner, Peter Delius and Deborah Posel (eds.), Apartheid's Genesis, 1935-1962 
(1993).
	Robin Cohen, Endgame in South Africa?: The Changing Structures and 
Ideology of Apartheid (1986).*
	Saul Dubow, "Ethnic euphemisis and racial echoes", JSAS 20, 3, 1994.
	S. Gelb, "South Africa's economic crisis: an overview", in Stephen Gelb (ed.) 
South Africa's Economic Crisis (1991).
	Herman Giliomee, "The non-racial franchise and Afrikaner and coloured 
identities, 1910-1994", AA 94, 375, 1995.
	Hermann Giliomee and Lawrence Schlemmer (eds.), From Apartheid to 
Nation-Building (1989), chs. 1-4.
	John Lazar, "Verwoerd versus the 'visionaries': the South Africasn Bureau of 
Racial Affairs (SABRA) and apartheid, 1948-1961", in Philip Bonner, Peter Delius and 
Deborah Posel (eds.), Apartheid's Genesis, 1935-1962 (1993).
	M. Legassick, "Legislation, ideology and eonomy in post-1948 South Africa", 
JSAS 1, 1, 1972.*
	Merle Lipton, Capitalism and Apartheid (1986).
	P. Maylam, "The rise and fall of urban apartheid in South Africa", AA 89, 334, 
1990.
	T. Moll, "Did the South African economy 'fail'?" JSAS 17, 2, 1991.
	M. Morris, "State, capital and growth: the political economy of the national 
question", in Stephen Gelb (ed.) South Africa's Economic Crisis (1991).
	Nicoli Nattrass, "Controversies about capitalism and apartheid in South 
Africa: an economic perspective", JSAS 17, 4, 1991.
		"Economic aspects of the constrution of apartheid", in Philip Bonner, 
Peter Delius and Deborah Posel (eds.), Apartheid's Genesis, 1935-1962 (1993).
	Dan O'Meara, Forty Lost Years: The Apartheid State and the National Party, 
1948-1994 (1995). [on order]
	Deborah Posel, :"Rethinking the race-class debate in South African 
historiograpyh", Social Dynamics 9, 1983.*
		 The Making of Apartheid, 1948-1961: Conflict and Compromise 
(1991).*
	Robert Price, The Apartheid State in Crisis (1991), ch. 1, 2.
	C. Saunders, The Making of the South African Past (1988).
	Harold Wolpe, "Capitalism and cheap labour power: from segregation to 
apartheid", Economy and Society 1, 4, 1974.* (also in William Beinart and Saul 
Dubow (eds.) Segregation and Apartheid in Twentieth-Century South Africa(1995))
		Race, Class and the Apartheid State (1988).*

18. Friday 7 March: The State, Class and the National Question (9): Is the political 
instability of contemporary Africa a direct consequence of the illegitimate and 
unviable boundaries inherited from the colonial era;  and is there a real 
alternative to them?
	Tim Allen, "Ethnicity and tribalism on the Sudan-Uganda border", in K. Fukui 
and John Markakis (eds.), Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn of Africa (1994).
	A.A. An-Nai'm, "Eritrean independence and African constitutiona;lism: a 
Sudanese perspective" , in A. Tekle, Eritrea and Ethiopia: From Conflict to Co-
operation (1994)
	A.I. Asiwaju, "The global perspective and border management policy" in A.I. 
Asiwaju (ed.) Partitioned Africans: Ethnic Relations Across Africa's International 
Boundaries (1984).
		"Borderlands in Africa:  A Comparative Research Perspective With 
Particular Reference to Western Europe", in Paul Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) 
African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities (1996).
	A.I. Asiwaju and P.O. Adeniyi (eds.) Borderlands in Africa (1989).
	A.I. Asiwaju, and B.M. Barkindo (eds.), The Nigeria-Niger Transborder Co-
operation (1993) - see me.
	Bello, A., "The boundaries must change", West Africa 10-16 April 1995.
	Christopher Clapham, "Boundary and territory in the Horn", in Paul Nugent 
and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities 
(1996)
	Martin Doornbos, "Pasture and polis: the roots of political marginalization of 
Somali pastoralism", in John Markakis (ed.), Conflict and the Decline of Pastoralism 
in the Horn of Africa (1993).
	S. Gomes, "The OAU, state sovereignty and regional security", in E. Keller 
and D. Rothchild (eds.) Africa in the New International Order (1996).
	Ieuan Griffiths, The African Inheritance (1995).
"Permeable Boundaries in Africa", in Paul Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) African 
Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities (1996).
	J. Ihonvbere, "The 'irrelevant' state, ethnicity and the quest for nationhood in 
Africa", ERS 17,1, 1994.
	Wendy James, "War and 'ethnic invisibility': the Uduk of the Sudan-Ethiopia 
border", in K. Fukui and John Markakis (eds.), Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn of 
Africa (1994).
	Liisa Laakso and Adebayo O. Olukoshi, "The crisis of the post-colonial 
nation-state project in Africa", in Adebayo O. Olukoshi and Lissa Laakso (eds.) 
Challenges to the Nation-State in Africa (1996).
	David Laitin, "The Ogadeen question and changes in Somali identity", in D. 
Rothchild and V. Olorunsola (eds.), State Versus Ethnic Claims (1983). 
	David Laitin and Said Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State 
(1987).
 	I.M. Lewis, A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of 
Africa (1988)
	John Markakis, "Ethnic conflict and the state in the Horn of Africa", in K. 
Fukui and John Markakis (eds.), Ethnicity and Conflict in the Horn of Africa (1994).
	Ali Mazrui, "The future surveyed: the bondage of boundaries - why Africa's 
boundaries must be redrawn" The Economist 11 September 1993.
		, "The African state as a political refugee: institutional collapse and 
human displacement", unpublished paper, 1994, [see me]
	William Miles, Hausaland Divided (1994).*
	Paul Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju, "Conclusion: the future of African boundaries" 
in Paul Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and 
Opportunities (1996).
	Paul Richards: "Rain Forests, Diamonds and War: The Sierra Leone Boundary 
Wilderness", in Paul Nugent and A.I. Asiwaju (eds.) African Boundaries: Barriers, 
Conduits and Opportunities (1996).
	Said Samatar, "The Somali dilemma: nation in search of a state" in A.I. 
Asiwaju (ed.) Partitioned Africans: Ethnic Relations Across Africa's International 
Boundaries (1984).
	Issa Shivji, "The right of peoples to self-determination: an African 
perspective", in William Twining (ed.), Issues of Self-Determination (1989).
	A. Simons, "Somalia: a regional security dilemma" in E. Keller and D. 
Rothchild (eds.) Africa in the New International Order (1996).
	Saadia Touval, "Partitioned groups and inter-state relations", in A.I. Asiwaju 
(ed.) Partitioned Africans: Ethnic Relations Across Africa's International Boundaries 
(1984).
	 Peter Woodward and Murray Forsyth (eds.) Conflict and Peace in the Horn 
of Africa: Federalism and itds Alternatives (1994).
	Young, Crawford, "Comparative claims to political sovereignty: Biafra, 
Katanga, Eritrea", in D. Rothchild and V. Olorunsola (eds.), State Versus Ethnic 
Claims (1983).
		, "Self-determination, territorial integrity and the African state system", 
in F. Deng and I.W. Zartman (eds.) Conflict Resolution in Africa (1991).

Abbreviations:
 AA		- African Affairs
ASR 		- African Studies Review 
CJAS		- Canadian Journal of African Studies
CSSH	- Comparative Studies in Society and History 
ERS		- Ethnic and Racial Studies
 IJAHS	- International Journal of African Historical Studies
 JAH 		- Journal of African History
 JAAS  	- Journal of African and Asian Studies
 JDS		- Journal of Development Studies
 JHSN	- Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria
 JICH		- Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History
 JMAS  	- Journal of Modern African Studies
JSAS 		- Journal of Southern African Studies
 JPS  		- Journal of Peasant Studies
 NLR  	- New Left Review
 ROAPE 	- Review of African Political Economy


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