Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
Registered: Mar 2001
Location: Queensland, Australia
Note: Some parts of the main text were adapted from notes in "Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms" by Achilles Fang.
Zhang Yi, stylename Bogong, was a native of Wuyang. His great great grandfather, Hao, was a Minister of Works (Sikong) and his great grandfather, Gang, was the Governor of Guangling, thus his family was well known.
[Chen Shou's] Yibu Qijiu Zhuan says: Zhang Hao, stylename Shuming, studied the Laws of Government and Annals of the Spring and Autumn in the capital. He was good friends with Tan Can of Guanghan, Li He of Hanzhong, and Zhang Ba of the Shu prefecture. The General-in-Chief, Deng Zhi, removed Zhang Hao, degrading him from Supervisor of the Masters of Writing (Shang Shu Pu She) to Governor (Xiang) of Pengcheng, and recommending hermits like Lu Qiumiao and others, as Commandant of Justice (Ting Wei). In the third year of Yan Guang [CE 124] (reign of Han An Di), Emperor An was discussing about abolishing his Crown Prince. Only Zhang Hao, together with the Grand Master of Ceremonies, (Tai Chang) Huan Yan, and the Grand Coachman (Tai Pu), Lai Li, opposed it. When Emperor Shun came to the throne [CE 126], he appointed Zhang Hao as Minister of Works (Sikong). He died at age eighty-three. [Sima Biao's] Xu Han Shu says: Zhang Gang, stylename Wenji, together with the third noble, Jing Ming, were recommended as the "Filial and Incorrupt" (Xiao Lian). Not long after, they were demoted by the Minister of Works (Sikong), appointing Gao Di as the Attendant Imperial Clerk (Shi Yu Shi). In the first year of Han An [CE 142], Zhang Gang was appointed as Imperial Household Grandee (Guang Lu Da Fu). Together with the Palace Attendant (Shi Zhong), Du Qiao and others, eight people in total, received an Imperial order to each go out and investigate and deal with corruption in the Empire. Various Inspectors (Ci Shi) and those with a rank of two thousand shi, all memorialised to the Throne, praising them as clear in judgement and loyal; their fame known throughout the Empire; and referred to them as the "Eight Eminent". At the time, the General-in-chief (Da Jiang Jun), Liang Ji, harrassed the common people. Qiao and six others received orders to go out [and investigate], but Zhang Gang himself stayed in Luoyang and refused to go. He said, "Ravenous wolves have occupied the path yet we are content to asking about the fox?" He sent up a memorial accusing Liang Ji. Everyone in the capital became frightened. Liang Ji's younger sister was, at the time, the Empress, and gave favours to Fang Cheng. Liang Ji and his brothers controlled enormous power and were like masters. Emperor Shun knew that Zhang Gang's words were not untrue but he did not have the heart to deal with Liang Ji. Liang Ji then deeply hated Zhang Gang. A bandit named Zhang Ying, led a group of ten thousand in Guangling and they killed the Inspector (Ci Shi) there, so Liang Ji wished to send Zhang Gang into this trap, by ordering the Imperial Secretariat (Shang Shu) to appoint Zhang Gang as Governor (taishou) of Guangling. If he was not killed by Zhang Ying, he would be dealt with under some law. The former Governor was asking for more troops. So an Imperial order came to ask Zhang Gang how many troops he needed. Zhang Gan replied that he was not going to use troops, but asked for a carriage attendant. Along, he saw Zhang Ying at the ramparts of the gates. Zhang Ying became greatly alarmed and ran back to close the gates. But Zhang Gang was outside the gates and he sent away his guards, accompanies by only ten or so of his attendants. He sent a message to an elder, Su, who was trusted by Zhang Ying. He asked to meet with Zhang Ying and hoped to convince him to change and showing him the kindness of the imperial order. Zhang Ying saw that Zhang Gang was sincere, so he went out to meet with him. Zhang Gang offered him a seat and said, "The former Governor was not an able person. Betraying the kindness of the State, he sought for their own personal benefit. These counties and prefectures are far away and the Son of Heaven is unable to ask about it day and night. I understand many of the common people gathered around you to avoid being harmed. The former Governor is guilty of this and he lacks righteousness. Loyal vassals do not deceive their Sovereign to receive honour for themselves. Filials sons do not hurt their father to receive good fortune. The Son of Heaven is a sacred person who spreads his good virtue. He has sent the new Governor here with the wish to offer you nobility and fortune but not punishment. Now I am here to weigh out the pros and cons. If [he] hears that you cannot accept this virtue, the Son of Heaven would rightly be furious, and send here a great army. How can that not be a danger? I am warning you of the consequences." When Zhang Ying heard this, he started to sob and said, "I, being an uncultivated and stupid person, was infringed and wronged by the past Governor many times. We could not bear his laxness so we gathered the people together to escape with their lives. You have such a clear understanding and this will allow Ying and the others to find new life. But we are afraid that when the day arrives to send troops to attack us, killings will be unavoidable." Zhang Gang replied, "How can that happen? [The Son of Heaven] commands all within Heaven and Earth and his promise is as heavenly as the sun and moon. He has officially offered nobility to you so how can there be the disaster you speak of?" Ying said, "If indeed my crime has been pardoned, I've kept my head, and remained a leader, I am very happy. But I did not expect to receive noble rank". Even though Zhang Ying was a great bandit who was frantic and knew he was going to die, after receiving the words from Zhang Gang, he was finally made to understand. The next day, Zhang Ying with his troops numbering about ten thousand, and together with his wife, came to surrender to Zhang Gang. Gang untied them and reassured them by saying, "Friends, now that you have been disbanded, you may feel confused, but after recording your names for official positions, you will be generous rewarded." Zhang Ying replied, "We wish to go back to our original posts rather than undertake great responsibility". Zhang Gang noted their sincerity and satisfied each person's own wishes, personally going around to each one and reassuring them. Those who wanted to undertake responsibility were allowed to work with him. Those who wanted to live as common people, [Gang] conferred them farming land. So everyone in Nanzhou was happy. Discussing about [Gang's] achievements, he certain deserved to be conferred an enfeofment of Marquis. But this never happened because of Liang Ji. The Son of Heaven greatly appreciated the merits of Zhang Gang and wanted to use him for important tasks. But Zhang Ying and others petitioned in the hope of letting Zhang Gang remain in the prefecture for another two years. In the first year of Jian Kang [CE 144], Zhang Gang died of sickness at the age of thirty-six. Zhang Ying with three hundred other people, accompanied the coffin on its trip to Luoyang. They attended the funeral and set up an ancestral temple for him, paying their respects four times a year [each season], and honouring him like their father. The Son of Heaven did not forget his achievement and enfeoffed him posthumously. Zhang Gang's only son was appointed as a Gentleman (Lang).
When the First Sovereign settled Yizhou and became the Imperial Protector, Zhang Yi was his Clerk. Towards the end of [the reign of] Jian An [CE 196-220], he was selected to be the Xiao Lian, and as magistrate (Chang) of Jiangyang, then moved to Lingling, then later as Governor (Taishou) of Zitong, then to Guang Han, as the Governor (Taishou) of the commandery of Shu. In the ninth year of Jian Xing [CE 231], he was the Chief Controller of Lai Xiang, and the Leader of the Gentlemen of the Palace who Pacifies Nanzhong. By nature, Zhang Yi was strict in the enforcement of laws. A chieftain, Liu Zhou rebelled and created disturbances. Zhang Yi led his troops to put down Zhou. Before Zhou was defeated, an order came for him to withdraw. All his subordinates thought that he ought to take to horse and hasten to receive his disgrace. Zhang Yi replied, "Not so. I am returning because with the Man barbarians in an upheaval I have not been able to execute my duties; but until my substitute comes, I must keep my post in the battlefield, transport and store provisions in preparation for exterminating the rebels. Shall I, merely because I am demoted, neglect the affairs of the State?" With this he continued to superintend and direct, without being remiss. With this foundation, Ma Zhong successfully defeated Zhou. When Zhuge Liang heard what happened, he commended Zhang Yi. Zhuge Liang proceeded to Wugong, Zhang Yi was made Chief Controller of the Front Army and Governor (Taishou) of Fufeng. Zhuge Liang died, and for his achievements against Liu Zhou, Zhang Yi was enfeoffed as Marquis Within the Passes (Guan Nei Hou). In the first year of Yanxi [CE 238], he entered the Imperial Secretariat (Shang Shu), later promoted as Du Jian Wei, Marquis (Dou Ting Hou), and General Who Conquers the West.
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