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Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
Palace Resident

Registered: Mar 2001
Location: Queensland, Australia
Posts: 8367

Arrow Preview of our SGZ Biographies

I translated some SGZ biographies quite a long time ago (mostly last year). Rather than keeping them under wraps, I've decided to post them here as a preview for our upcoming SGZ section here.

Also included are translations done by other prominent members who have, as well as leading expert historian, Dr. Rafe de Crespigny, very kindly contributed them here.

Please note that I and respective authors reserve all rights to these translations. No part of these translations are to be reproduced anywhere in any form without permission

Bios included in this thread are:


Wei Biographies

Cao Cao (by Empress Zhang and The Historian) Password: 3k.net

Zhang Liao (by The Historian)

Pang De (by The Historian)

Yue Jin (by Great Deer)

Cao Ren (by Great Deer)

Li Dian (by SHZLD)

Cao Zhen (by SHZLD and The Historian)

Xiahou Ba (by SHZLD)

Hao Zhao (by SHZLD)

Wen Pin (by SHZLD)

Dian Wei (by jiuwan)

Pang De (by jiuwan)

Xu Zhu (by jiuwan)

Zhang He (by jiuwan)

Cao Ang (by jiuwan)

Cao Chong (by jiuwan)

Cao Chun (by jiuwan)

Cao Shuo (by jiuwan)

Cao Xiong (by jiuwan)


Shu Biographies

Liu Bei (by SHZLD) (Completed but currently being edited) -- Password is 3kingdoms.net

Zhuge Liang (by Empress Zhang and SHZLD) -- Password is 3k.net

Liu Zhang (by SHZLD)

Ma Liang (by SHZLD)

Ma Su (by SHZLD)

Wei Yan (by SHZLD)

Pang Tong (by SHZLD)

Yi Ji (by SHZLD)

Xu Shu (by SHZLD and Empress Zhang)

Descendents of Liu Bei (by SHZLD)

Zhang Yi (by SHZLD)

Jiang Wei (by SHZLD and Empress Zhang)

Empress Mu of Shu-Han (by Achilles Fang)

Empress Gan of Shu-Han -- From Empresses and Consorts by Robert Joe Cutter and William Gordan Cromwell. University of Hawaii Press. 1999. Pages 115-116.

Huo Jun and Huo Yi (by SHZLD)

Fei Shi (by SHZLD)

Wang Fu, Li Shao, Ma Xun and Ma Qi, Li Fu, Feng Xi, Zhang Nan, Fu Rong, Hao Pu (by SHZLD)


Huang Quan (by SHZLD)

Luo Xian (by SHZLD)

Zhao Yun (by Empress Zhang)

Chen Dao (by Empress Zhang)

Wu Yi and Wu Ban (by ZhangRen)

Wang Ping (by Great Deer)

Dong Yun and Chen Zhi (by Empress Zhang)

Wu Biographies

Sun Jian by Dr. Rafe de Crespigny

Lu Su (by SHZLD)

Dong Xi (by SHZLD)

Chen Wu (by Empress Zhang)

Quan Zong (by Liao Li)


Other Biographies

Hua Tuo (by jiuwan)

Tao Qian (by SHZLD)

Empress Fu (by SHZLD)

Cai Yan (by Great Deer)

Last edited by Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di on 09-12-2003 at 12:38 AM

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:14 AM
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Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
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Location: Queensland, Australia
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Ma Su

Ma Su, stylename Youchang, was the Chongshi of Jingzhou when he followed with the First Sovereign (Liu Bei) into Shu. He defeated and removed the county magistrates (Ling) of Mianzhu and Chengdu as well as the Governor of Yuejun. With his talents exceeding his person and being fond of discussing military strategy, the Prime Minister, Zhuge Liang, admired him greatly. When the First Sovereign was close to death, he said to Zhuge Liang, "Ma Su's words exceed his talents and you must not use him in important tasks. That is how I read him!" Zhuge Liang said this was not so and later made Ma Su, Advisor of Military Affairs (Can Jun). Zhuge Liang discussed with him numerous times from day till night. (1) [Xi Zuochi's] Xiang Yang Ji: In the third year of Jian Xing [CE 225], Zhuge Liang was about to launch an expedition in Nanzhong and Ma Su accompanied him tens of miles outside the city. Zhuge Liang asked, "We have discussed strategies for sometime so feel free to offer your opinion". Ma Su replied, "Nanzhong is far away and dangerous, thus they do not recognise our authority. Even though today, you can defeat them, tomorrow, they will rebel again. When your Excellency is on expedition in the North, they will sure to take advantage of the void here and rebel. If we go and exterminate them in order to remove future problems, it is not something a humane person would do. One who follows the Way of War knows that it is best to attack the heart rather than to attack a city; battling the heart is better than battling with troops; it is thus best for your Excellency to win over their hearts". Zhuge Liang accepted this plan. He pardoned Meng Huo and won the hearts of the South. During Zhuge Liang's lifetime, the South did not rebel.

In the sixth year of Jian Xing [CE 228], Zhuge Liang led his troops toward Qishan. At the time, he had generals like Wei Yan, Wu Yi, etc. which everyone thought were most suitable to lead the van. Zhuge Liang however went against popular opinion and selected Ma Su, who brought his troops forward and fought with the Wei general, Zhang He, at Jieting. He was defeated by Zhang He and his troops scattered. Zhuge Liang could not advance as there was no place to seize, so he retreated to Hanzhong. Ma Su was imprisoned and Zhuge Liang cried heavily. Ma Liang died at age thirty-six while Ma Su died at age thirty-nine. [Xi Zuochi's] Xiang Yang Ji: Just before the execution, Ma Su wrote to Zhuge Liang saying: "Your Excellency treats Su as like his son. Su treats Your Excellency as if you were my father. Your justice is profound, just like when Gun was put to death which led to the flourishing of Yu. (2) In normal life, we are good friends so Su shall have no hatred when buried in the earth". At the time, troops numbering to the hundreds of thousands all weeped for Ma Su and Zhuge Liang personally made the ceremonial offering and from then on, took care of Ma Su's children. Jiang Wan came to Hanzhong and asked Zhuge Liang, "In the past, Chu executed its able ministers and Wen Gong was happy when he heard this. The world has not been settled yet a capable person has been executed, is that not a pity?" (3) Zhuge Liang replied, "Sun Wu was able to achieve many successes because he established a good set of laws. On the other hand, Yang Gan's laws were disorderly and Wei Jiang killed this person's servant. The world is split apart and soldiers are just beginning to fight. If we use disorderly laws, how are we going to launch an expedition against the bandits?" Xi Zuochi says: Zhuge Liang was not able to maintain a strong kingdom, how can that be? Before, after the rule of Lin Fu of Jin, the laws were relaxed in favour of merit. Chu Cheng [Wang], on the other hand, killed his able ministers, hence he was defeated. Now Shu was weak and occupied a small corner of the land. People of talent were not as numerous as in a strong kingdom yet he killed one able person. With effective laws coming before talent and not being perturbed by the thought of possible future defeats, is it really not difficult in establishing a state? Furthermore, the First Sovereign prohibited the using of Ma Su in important tasks so does that not indicate this person lacked talent? Zhuge Liang accepted the orders from his lord but did not act on them since he personally felt it hard to dismiss Ma Su. As a person who solely administered the State and was always recruiting men of talent, he failed to assign these men to the suitable positions as well as making the mistake of letting them work independently. This was a big mistake for he neglected the commands from his enlightened ruler and in the end, it resulted in the killing of a capable and useful person. It makes it hard to judge whether Zhuge Liang was a person of wisdom or not.

Notes:

(1) Xiang Yang Qijiu Ji or Xiang Yang Ji as it is commonly referred to, is a local historical text written by Xi Zuochi of Jin, who was a native of Xiang Yang. He is also author to the famous Han Jin Chun Qiu.

(2) Emperor Yao had a minister called Gun who failed to devise plans to relieve parts of the country which were flooded and was subsequently executed. His son, Yu, was later recommended by Shun to Emperor Yao. After Shun, who became Emperor, died, he passed it on to Yu who was the founder of the great Xia dynasty.

(3) This refers to the battle between the Chu state and the Jin state during the Spring and Autumn period. Duke Wen of Jin (Jin Wen Gong), also known as Chong Er, fought a war with King Cheng of Chu (Chu Cheng Wang). Jin was the ultimate victor in this war.

Last edited by Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di on 18-05-2003 at 10:58 AM

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:16 AM
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Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
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Location: Queensland, Australia
Posts: 8367

Wei Yan

Note: Some parts of the translation were adapted from notes in "Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms" by Achilles Fang.

Wei Yan, stylename Wenchang, was a native of Yiyang. As the Company of the Division (Bu Qu), he followed the First Sovereign into Shu. He had many military accomplishments and was assigned as General of the Standard (Ya Men Jiang Jun). The First Sovereign became Prince of Hanzhong and was about to leave for Chengdu. As for selecting the general who would guard Han Chuan (Hanzhong), many considered Zhang Fei to be the likely candidate and Fei himself thought he was likely to be chosen. However, the First Sovereign named Wei Yan as the General Who Maintains Distant Lands in Peace, as well as the Governor of Hanzhong, to the astonishment of many in the army. The First Sovereign said in front of the various ministers, "Now I am entrusting a great responsibility on you, Sir, do you have anything that you want to say?". Yan replied, "If Cao Cao with the entire world was coming here, I request that I smite him on behalf of Your Highness. If it was an auxiliary force of a hundred thousand, I request that I swallow them on behalf of Your Highness." The First Sovereign was very pleased and everyone else cried out boldly in agreement. The First Sovereign honoured Wei Yan with the title, General Who Suppresses the North. In the first year of Jian Xing [CE 223], he was enfeoffed as Marquis of a Chief Village (Dou Ting Hou). In the fifth year [CE 227], Zhuge Liang stationed in Hanzhong and Wei Yan was to supervise the front division with the rank of Major of the Prime Minister (Cheng Xiang Sima) and Inspector (Ci Shi) of Liangzhou. In the eighth year [CE 230], he was sent as ambassador into the Qiang tribes, where the Wei General of the Rear Army, Fei Yao, and the Inspector of Yongzhou, Guo Huai, battled with him at Yang Qi. Wei Yan heavily defeated them and was promoted as Advisor of the Front Army (Qian Jun Shi), General Who Conquers the West, and Marquis of Nanzheng.

Each time he accompanied Zhuge Liang on expedition, he always wanted to lead ten thousand and go along different paths to meet up with Liang at the Tong Pass, based on the previous strategy of Han Xin. But Zhuge Liang never allowed this plan and Wei Yan often said Liang was faint-hearted. He sighed that his talents were not used to their full potential. Wei Lue says: Xiahou Mao was the General Who Pacifies the West stationed in Chang'an. Zhuge Liang was in Nanzheng discussing strategy with his generals. Wei Yan said, "I have heard this Xiahou Mao is the son-in-law of their sovereign; he is faint-hearted and without counsel. Yan wishes to take five thousand troops, another five thousand to carry supplies, to march out of Baozhong eastward along the Qin Ling mountains, and then turn north up Ziwu. I will reach Chang'an within ten days. When Mao hears of my sudden arrival, he is certain to take take a boat and flee. In Chang'an, there is only Counsellor (Yu Shi) and the Governor (Taishou) of Jingshao left to defend. The grain in the storehouses of Heng Men and those left behind by the people who scatter will be enough for us. It will take about twenty days for our main force to meet up with the force in the East, to which Your Excellency, taking the road out of Xie valley will reach the place. This way, the region west of Xianyang will be settled in one stroke." Zhuge Liang considered this county to be dangerous and preferred to travel along the flat roads and so that Longyou could be taken easily. He was certain that ten times out of ten, this plan was certain to work without any worry, and so he did not accept Wei Yan's plan. Wei Yan was very good to his soldiers and was braver than others. He was boastful of his talents and many tended to avoid him. However, Yang Yi alone made no concession to him and Yan was extremely resentful of him. They were like fire and water. In the twelth year [CE 234], Zhuge Liang marched out of the mouth of the North valley, with Wei Yan leading the Van. At ten miles away from Zhuge Liang's tent, Wei Yan dreamed that horns grew out of his head. So he asked Zhao Zhi for the meaning of this dream and Zhi gave him a false reply, "Every Qilin (chinese unicorn) has horns but has no need for them. This means that without need for battle, the rebels will become defeated themselves." However, others interpret the dream as, "The character 'jiao' (horn), is shaped like a downward knife. To have a knife above one's head is a very onimous sign for him."

In the autumn, Zhuge Liang fell sick and sent secret orders to the Chief Clerk (Chang Shi), Yang Yi, the Major, Fei Yi, and the Protector of the Army, Jiang Wei for the army's retreat after his death. Wei Yan was to guard the rear with Jiang Wei after him. If Wei Yan refused to accept the order, they were to retreat without him. Zhuge Liang died but his death was kept secret. Yang Yi ordered Fei Yi to go to Wei Yan and discover his intentions. Wei Yan said, "Although the Prime Minister had died, I am still here. The officials belonging to the Office of Prime Minister may carry his mortal remains to be buried. I on the other hand should command the various troops and strike at the rebels. Because of the death of one man, must we neglect the affairs of the State? Besides, who am I, Wei Yan, that I should be commanded by Yang Yi to serve as general of the rearguard?" So he and Fei Yi took charge of the troops left behind and had Yi write a letter to be signed by both of them which was to be announced to the various generals. Fei Yi said to Wei Yan, "I should go on your behalf and explain this to the Chief Clerk, Yang Yi. The Chief Clerk is a civil official and is not experience in military affairs, so is certain to not disobey you." Fei Yi galloped quickly out the gate and Wei Yan regretted letting him go, so he went after him but could not catch up. He then sent someone to Yang Yi and the others, who were following Zhuge Liang's plan, so the various encampments were returning. Wei Yan was very angry and before Yang Yi had started, he led his troops back to the South before them, and burnt the plank roads. Both Wei Yan and Yang Yi sent memorials, each accusing each other of rebelling. Within the same day, their memorials arrived and the Latter Sovereign asked the Clerk (Shi Zhong), Dong Yun and the left behind Chief Clerk of the Office of Prime Minister, Jiang Wan. Both of them supported Yang Yi while were suspicious of Wei Yan. Yang Yi had trees hewn to make roads and marched day and night to get close behind Wei Yan. Wei Yan arrived first at the Southern Valley and ordered his troops to attack Yang Yi and the others. Yang Yi ordered He Ping (Wang Ping) (1) forward to resist Wei Yan. [Wang] Ping scolded at Wei Yan, "His Excellency so lately died that his body is not yet cold; how dare you act this way!" Wei Yan's soldiers knew their leader was in the wrong and no-one dared to act and so they scattered. Wei Yan, along with his sons and a few followers, fled to Hanzhong. Yang Yi sent Ma Dai to give chase. Dai chopped Wei Yan's head off and sent it to Yang Yi. Yang Yi stepped on it and said, "You slave! Can you do your wicked deeds anymore?" He ordered the execution of Wei Yan's family to the third degree. Before, Jiang Wan had led the various camps of the imperial bodyguards north to cope with the disorders. He travelled about ten li (miles) when he heard news of Wei Yan's death, and so he returned. In the beginning, Wei Yan did not go north to Wei but instead returned to the South. But his only desire was to kill Yang Yi and the others in disagreement with him, with thee hope that opinion of the time would make him Zhuge Liang's successor. This was his actual aim and he did not think of rebelling. Wei Lue says: When Zhuge Liang died, he said to Wei Yan and the others, "After I am dead, be cautious in guarding but do no return here". Wei Yan was ordered to be assist in the operations and keep his death a secret and so he did as told. When they reached the entrace of Bao, the death was announced and a funeral held. Zhuge Liang's Chief Clerk, Yang Yi, was never in agreement with Wei Yan, and after noticing that Yan was in charge of military affairs, feared that he would be harmed. So he made rumours that Wei Yan was going to submit to the North and led his troops to attack him. In reality, Wei Yan had no intention to do such a thing, and so offered no resistance. He was later caught and killed. Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that this is definitely an unsubstantiated rumour coming from an enemy state and must not be used contradict the contents of this biography.


Notes:

(1) Wang Ping was also known as He Ping. Apparently later, he change his family name back to its original, Wang.

Last edited by Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di on 16-08-2003 at 12:30 AM

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:19 AM
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Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
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Pang Tong

Pang Tong, stylename Shiyuan, was a native of Xiang Yang. When he was young, he was very upright yet nobody knew of his talents. Sima Hui of Yingchuan was a man of distinction and could read people like a mirror. Pang Tong went to see him. When he met him, Sima Hui was picking mulberries on top of a tree while Pang Tong was seated below. They talked from day to evening. [Sima] Hui considered him a very unusual person and convinced him to become an official in Nanzhou. [Xi Zuochi's] Xiang Yang Ji says: (1) Zhuge Liang was known as the Sleeping Dragon, Pang Tong was known as the Young Phoenix, and Sima Decao was known as the Water Mirror. These names were given by Pang Degong. Pang Degong was a man from Xiang Yang. Each time Kongming went to his house, he made his prostrations at the front of his bed. Degong did not mind this. Decao wished to set Degong as an example. Once, Degong was away crossing the Mian river to worship his ancestors' tomb. Decao hurried into the room and called Degong's wife to quickly prepare some food and said "Xu Yuanzhi [Xu Shu] used to say that when guests have arrived, I greet them like Pang Gong". His wife saluted to each of the guests in the main hall and rushed about serving them. When Degong returned and entered into the room, [everyone was so at home] he did not know who was really the guest. Decao was ten years younger than Degong and so treated him as an elder brother, whom he called 'Pang Gong'. This led others to believe that 'Pang Gong' was Degong's name, but this was not the case. Degong had a son called Pang Shanmin who also was well-known and married Zhuge Kongming's elder sister. He worked in Wei as Huangmen Libu Lang and died young. He had a son called Pang Huan, stylename Shiwen, who worked in the Tai Kang era of Jin as a Governor. Pang Tong was a nephew of Degong and was unknown by many when he was young. Degong treated him very well. When he was eighteen, he went to meet with Decao. Decao then said with a sigh, "Degong knows people well, that is such a good thing". He later was promoted as the Gong Cao. He was known to be very concerned for the people and the elderly. His achievements even exceeded his talents, thus people were confused. Pang Tong said, "Today, there is much chaos in the world. Good people are few while bad people are many. Those that do not do these good deeds will not be well known. However, those who are not well known but do good deeds are very few. Hence those that do good deeds in order to leave a good name at least have done half a good deed". The Wu general, Zhou Yu, assisted the First Sovereign (Liu Bei) in taking Jingzhou, hence the First Sovereign recommended Zhou Yu as Governor of Nanjun. After Zhou Yu died, Pang Tong went into Wu to attend the funeral. Many people from Wu knew of Pang Tong's reputation. He later returned to the West and people who went to see him off were Lu Zhi, Gu Shao, and Quan Cong. Pang Tong said, "Lu Zi (Zhi) is like a worn horse who has the strength to ride away. Gu Zi (Shao) is like a worn ox who can transport for a long distance". Zhang Bo's Wu Lu says: Someone asked Pang Tong, "Is Lu Zhi a talented person?" Pang Tong responded, "Even though the horse has energy, it can only serve one person. Even though the ox can travel three hundred miles in a day, there is only one". Gu Shao heard Pang Tong's words and asked, "You seem to read us well, how do we compare to you?" Pang Tong responded, "Learning the cultures and reading talent, I cannot compare with you. However, if it was about affairs of Kings and Emperors, then you cannot compare with me". Quan Zhong replied, "Your fondness of admiring reputation seems like Fan Zizhao of Runan ... Jiang Ji Wan Ji Lun: Xu Zi's generals, claiming that their demotion was unfair, attached themselves to Fan Zizhao in order to restrict Xu Wenyou. Liu Ye said, "Zizhao was favourable with everyone. He was patient when in retreat, but conscious when advancing". Jiang Ji responded, "I do not agree. He is not a good as Xu Wenyou". ... Though with not much intellect, you are good for this time". Lu Zhi and Gu Shao said to Pang Tong, "If there was peace in the world, we should keep in contact with each other". Pang Tong replied, "Yes we should keep contact", and then he left.



(continued)

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:30 AM
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Pang Tong continued....

The First Sovereign governed Jingzhou and Pang Tong was the magistrate of Leiyang. However, he governed it poorly and later was dismissed. Lu Su wrote a letter to the First Sovereign saying, "Pang Shiyuan's talent is much more than one who governs a hundred li (miles). He can be a Zhi Zhong or a Bie Jia". Zhuge Liang also advised the same to the First Sovereign. Hence the First Sovereign went to see him and made Pang Tong a Zhi Zhong. [Yu Pu's] Jiang Biao Zhuan says: (2) Liu Bei invited Pang Tong to dinner. He asked Pang Tong, "Sir, you were with Zhou Gongjin fighting Cao Cao. When I arrived in Wu, I heard that he secretly advised Sun Zhongmou to trap me there. Since you are working for me now, you need not have to conceal it anymore". Pang Tong replied, "Yes, it is true". Liu Bei sighed and said, "That time was desperate so I had to make the request hence I had no choice but to go. I nearly fell into Zhou Yu's hands! Wise men of the world think alike. Kongming admonished me not to go because he thought the idea of going alone was dangerous. I thought Zhongmou was concerned at guarding the north and would require my assistance and hence I suspected no danger. It seems this plan was a very dangerous one and is not one to be used again." Pang Tong was second to Zhuge Liang, but both were ranked the same as `Jun Shi Zhong Lang Jiang' (Generals of the Gentleman of the Household Masters of the Army). [Sima Biao's] Jiu Zhou Chun Qiu says: (3) Pang Tong said to Liu Bei, "Jingzhou is a poor area after so many years of war. To the east, there is Sun Quan. To the north, there is Cao Cao. It is difficult to establish the tripod. In Yizhou, the people are strong and wealthy with a million in population. The military there can be used and goods and commodities do not need to transported from outside. With this authority, you can accomplish great things". Liu Bei said, "Cao Cao is different to me like fire and water. Cao Cao is mean, I am generous. Cao Cao is violent, I am kind. Cao Cao is deceitful, I am loyal. Since I am the opposite of Cao Cao in everything, then the affair may be successful. If I take a petty advantage and lose the trust of the world, then I would rather not capture it". Pang Tong replied, "In times of disorder, one must be adaptable. Furthermore, you will taking over from the weak and attacking the stupid, and what you seize by rebellion you may hold with obedience. Men of the past have always respected this". So Liu Bei, forthwith, went ahead. (4) Zhuge Liang was left to guard Jingzhou while Pang Tong followed into Shu.

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:32 AM
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Pang Tong (part 3)

Imperial Protector of Yizhou, Liu Zhang, met the First Sovereign at Fucheng. Pang Tong offered a plan to the First Sovereign, "When we see Liu Zhang, we can capture him. We can take Yizhou without a single soldier being used". The First Sovereign replied, "I have only just arrived here and I have not been shown faith or favour yet, so we cannot do that" 4. Liu Zhang returned to Chengdu while the First Sovereign assisted Zhang and led his troops on the expedition against Hanzhong. Pang Tong said, "We should secretly send some soldiers to surprise Chengdu. Liu Zhang is not a fighting man so this will ensure success. This is the top (best) plan. Yang Huai and Gao Pei are Liu Zhang's top generals and are responsible for defending the Pass [Baishui]. These two people constantly wrote letters to Liu Zhang asking to send you back to Jingzhou. Now say that Jingzhou is in trouble and that you have to return. When you prepare to depart, these two generals, who admire your reputation, will be happy and come to see you off. Then you can arrest them and head for Chengdu. This is the middle plan. Or you can retreat to Baidicheng, then reinforced by the Jingzhou troops, make your way back. This is the bottom (worst) plan. We cannot stay here for long". The First Sovereign chose the middle plan and executing Yang Huai and Gao Pei, headed for Chengdu. During the assembly in Fucheng, they were celebrating with wine. The First Sovereign said to Pang Tong, "Today's celebration is a joyous one". Pang Tong admonished, "To attack someone's state and say you are happy is not from a righteous army". The First Sovereign was drunk at the time and was angry, "When Wu Wang was attacking Zhou 5, he was singing before and dancing afterwards, so was Wu Wang not a righteous person? Sir your words are improper so you should quickly go out!" Pang Tong got up and left. The First Sovereign regretted what he said and invited Pang Tong to come back where he was reinstated. Initially, Pang Tong in spite of what happened drank and ate normally as before. The First Sovereign said, "About our discussion, who was the one who was wrong?" Pang Tong replied, "Both minister and lord were wrong". The First Sovereign laughed and they continued. Xi Zuochi says: A hegemon is a person who must include righteousness as his basis and have confidence and trust. If that person cannot achieve either one, then nothing can be accomplished. Liu Bei took Zhang's territory in order to rule his domain, but he had lost trust as well as violated virtue and righteousness. Even though the achievement was grand, it seems he has been severly wounded and defeated just like the removal of arms from the body, so what is there to be happy about? Pang Tong knew his lord would eventually understand so in front of the many officials, he put aside his usual modesty and corrected his lord's faults in a very direct and open way, much like that of Jian E. One who supports his lord and is able to maintain the right Way is a true minister; one who after a victory is not boastful is an understanding person; the true minister is able to support his sovereign to the loftiest grandeur; the understanding person is always looked up to by others. Saying one thing which leads to three times as much good and understanding is a fine example for a hundred generations to follow and it can be said that he has achieved this in general. For one to find a small fault while ignoring previous achievements is foolish which will cut short any further success. A person like that to be able to successfully build up a State, there has never been one before. Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that though the strategy to attack Liu Zhang came from Pang Tong, he realised the plan involved violating righteousness to gain victory, hence he already felt uneasy in his heart. Even though he showed happiness outside, he hid his true emotions inside. After he heard Liu Bei's words of joy, Pang Tong did not feel himself to be without fault either. But at the time when Liu Bei was drunk, he compared himself to Wu Wang while not feeling ashamed. Hence it was Liu Bei who was not right and Pang Tong who was not wrong in that instance. So when Pang Tong said, "Both minister and lord are wrong", it does make sense after reading between the lines. Xi Shi's (Zuochi) discussion is mostly correct, but there are some aspects which do not flow well either.

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Pang Tong (final part)

After surrounding and attacking Luo county, Pang Tong led his troops in to attack the city and died from a stray arrow at the age of thirty-six. The First Sovereign was in deep sorrow and weeped a lot. He entitled Pang Tong's father as Yi Lang and Gan Yi Da Fu. Zhuge Liang personally came and mourned for Pang Tong. Pang Tong was posthumously entited as Guan Nei Hou and later Jing Hou. His son, Pang Hong, stylename Jushi, was in conflict with a minister from the Shang Shu and was restricted. When he died, he was Governor of Fu. Tong's brother was Pang Lin. He was Zhi Zhong of Jingzhou and together with the General Who Supresses the North, Huang Quan, went in the Wu expedition. After being defeated, he followed Huang Quan and surrended to Wei where he was entitled as Lie Hou. He was later made Governor of Julu. Xiangyang Ji comments: Pang Lin's wife was from the same prefecture and sister of Xi Jing. Xi Jing at Yang Xi was an advisor. When Cao Gong conquered Jingzhou, Pang Lin and his wife were separated. Pang Lin's wife, alone, took care of their daughter. Afterwards, Pang Lin followed Huang Quan and surrendered to Wei, where he was reunited with his wife. When Wei Wen Di heard of this, he praised Pang Lin for being a faithful husband and sent many gifts to him.

Notes:

(1) Xiang Yang Qijiu Ji, better known as Xiang Yang Ji, was a book written by Eastern Jin historian, Xi Zuochi, who also was author of the famous book, Han Jin Chun Qiu. Xi Zuochi was the first historian to argue that legitimacy rested with the Shu-Han kingdom while the Wei kingdom was one of usurpers, thus Han Jin Chun Qiu was written from this perspective. Most of his reasoning was presented in an elaborate memorial which is contained in his Jin Shu biography. Xi Zuochi was a native of Xiang Yang.

(2) Jiang Biao Zhuan was written by Yu Pu of the third century.

(3) Jiu Zhou Chun Qiu was written by Sima Biao who also wrote Lingling Xianxian Zhuan and co-authored the Hou Han Shu with Fan Ye.

(3) This translation was done by Rafe De Crespigny in To Establish Peace

(4) This translation was done by Rafe De Crespigny in To Establish Peace

(5) Liu Bei is referring to Zhou Wu Wang (Martial King of Zhou) attacking Shang Zhou Wang (King Zhou of Shang). Wu Wang and his ancestors were formerly subjects of the Shang dynasty. Zhou Wu Wang, together with his talented commander, Jiang Ziya, attacked Shang Zhou Wang to rid China of tyrannical rule.

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Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
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Yi Ji

Yi Ji, stylename Jibo, was a native of Shanyang. When he was young, he depended on the General Who Suppresses the South, Liu Biao. When the First Sovereign (Liu Bei) was in Jingzhou, Yi Ji frequently associated with him. When Liu Biao died, he then followed the First Sovereign to cross the Great River in the South, and later went into Yizhou. When Yizhou was pacified, Yi Ji was given the post of General of the Left and Gentleman of the General Staff, second to Jian Yong, Sun Qian, and others. He was sent as an ambassador to Wu and Sun Quan heard of his talent at debating and was anxious to test him. Right after Yi Ji made his salutations, Sun Quan said, "Is it hard serving a ruler who has no morals?". Yi Ji responded instantly, "I only needed to salute once and rise once, of course it is not hard." (1) Sun Quan was amazed at this quick and witty response and thus admired him very much. Afterwards, he became Zhaowen Jiangjun and together with Zhuge Liang, Fa Zheng, Liu Ba, and Li Yan started the Shu Examination system. Thus the examination system of Shu resulted from the efforts of these five people.

Notes:

(1) Sun Quan's question was putting down Liu Bei. Whether he answered "yes" or "no", Yi Ji would have recognised that Liu Bei was a ruler with no morals. Hence by saying he only needed to salute once and rise once, he was actually referring to the ruler he just saluted (Sun Quan) as the one with no morals. (Many thanks to Lucy Zhang for the interpretation)

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:40 AM
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Xu Shu

Sub-biography of Xu Yuanzhi >From Wei Lue by Yu Huan (Jin) (quoted in SGZ-Shu-Zhuge Liang)

(Edited by Empress Zhang)

Wei Lue: Xu Shu, styled Yuanzhi, was originally named Fu and was son from the Shan family. At a young age he was chivalrous and likes swordplay. Toward the end of Zhongping [184 � 189], he revenged for someone else and is captured by the authority when he tried to escape with his hair down. When asked who he was, he gave no reply. The officials tied him up on a cart and brought him through the market to ask if people knew him, none dared to recognize him. However, his friend, Wu Gongcuan, came and saved him. After thanked his friend, Fu gave up swordsmanship and dedicated his life to scholarly knowledge. When he went to school, the scholars there heard he was a criminal and distanced themselves from him. Fu then wake up early each morning and did all the cleaning. He listened closely to the lectures and grasped other's heart. As a result, he knew the materials inside-out and excelled in his study. He became great friends with a man named, Shi Tou, styled Guangyuan. In the middle of Chuping [190 - 193], there was a lot of uprising in Zhongzhou. So they left for Jingzhou where they met and built a friendship with Zhuge Liang. When Jingzhou was surrendered, Kongming followed Liu Bei but Fu and Tou came north. In the middle of Huangchu [220 - 226 AD], Shi Tou was a magistrate and Dian Nong Jiao Wei. Xu Shu became You Zhong Lang Jiang and Yu Shi Zhong Cheng. In the middle of Dahe [227 - 233], Zhuge Liang arrived in Longyou and heard that Xu Yuanzhi and Shi Guangyuan receive rank as such, he sighed, "Alas! Wei has many talents! Or else why were they not used?" After a few years, Xu Shu died of sickness. His epitaph is now in Pangcheng until now.

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Guan_Xing
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Since the cat's out of the back, this is sticky.

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Shu-Han Zhao Lie Di
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Descendents of Liu Bei

Liu Yong, stylename Gongshou, was a son of the First Sovereign (Liu Bei), and second brother of the Latter Sovereign (Liu Shan). In the first year of Zhangwu [CE 221], sixth month, the Si Tu, Xu Jing made Yong as Prince of Lu where the Emperor gave him the following words. {omitted}. In the eighth year of Jian�xing [CE 230], he was enfeoffed Prince of Ganling. Before a eunuch from Yongjung, Huang Hao, who received confidence [from the Latter Sovereign], spoke ill of Liu Yong to the Latter Sovereign. From then on, the Latter Sovereign was estranged from Liu Yong and never allowed him to see him in Court for more than ten years. In the first year of Xianxi [CE 264], Yong moved to Luoyang and was given the title Che Du Wei, enfeoffed as Marquis of Xiang.

Liu Li, stylename Fengxiao, was a younger brother of the Latter Sovereign and born of a different mother to Liu Yong. In the first year of Zhangwu [CE 221], sixth month, the Si Tu, Xu Jing made Li as Prince of Liang. In the eighth year of Jian Xing [CE 230], he was re-enfeoffed as Prince of Anping. In the seventh year of Yanxi [CE 246] he passed away. His posthumous title was Prince of Zhuo. Liu Li�s son, Prince of Ai, Liu Yin, inherited the title and died in the nineteenth year [CE 256]. Liu Yin�s son, Prince of Shang, Cheng inherited and died in the twentieth year [CE 257]. In the fourth year of Jingyao [CE 261], the Emperor�s edict said, �Prince of Anping was enfeoffed by the late Emperor [Liu Bei]. Three generations have all died early with no descendents. Since there is no-one left to inherit the Prince of Zhuo, I will let the Marquis of Wuye, Liu Ji, inherit the Princedom.� Liu Ji was a son of Liu Li and in the first year of Xianxi [CE 264], moved to Luoyang. He was given the title of Che Du Wei and enfeoffed as Marquis of Xiang.

The Latter Sovereign�s crown prince, Liu Xuan, stylename Wenheng. His mother as a concubine (gui ren) who originally was a maid of Empress Zhang. In the first year of Yanxi [CE 238], first month, the Emperor appointed him in the following words: �Of old, Emperors and Kings appointed their heirs to the throne; whether ancient or modern, this is invariable. Herewith Xuan is appointed Crown Prince, to make illustrious the grand command of my ancestors. The acting Cheng Xiang and General of the Left, Xiang Chong, is empowered to confer the seal on him. May he cultivate his character and revere truth, study the institutions of the land and respect his tutors associate with all men of good character and therewith accomplish his own virtue. May he exert himself and be not remiss�. (From Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms by Achilles Fang) At this time, he was fifteen. In the sixth year of Jingyao [CE 263], winter, Shu perished. In the first year of Xianxi [CE 264], Zhong Hui rebelled in Chengdu. Xuan was killed in the military scuffle. Sun Sheng Shu Shi Pu comments: Xuan had six younger brothers: Yao, Zong, Zan, Chen, Xun, Ju. When Shu was defeated, Chen committed suicide. The others escaped and moved their families. At the time Yong�jia [CE 307 � 313], there was great chaos and all the [Liu] descendents perished. Only a grandson of Liu Yong, Liu Xuan, escaped to Shu and a minister, Li Xiong, falsely claimed that it was Duke of Anle�s [Liu Shan�s] inheritor and then recognised him as the only descendent of [Liu] Shan. In the third year of Yonghe [CE 347], when forces were sent to put down Li Shi, [Sun] Sheng followed the troops into Shu and there met Liu Xuan in Chengdu.

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:43 AM
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Zhang Yi

Note: Some parts of the main text were adapted from notes in "Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms" by Achilles Fang.

Zhang Yi, stylename Bogong, was a native of Wuyang. His great great grandfather, Hao, was a Minister of Works (Sikong) and his great grandfather, Gang, was the Governor of Guangling, thus his family was well known.

[Chen Shou's] Yibu Qijiu Zhuan says: Zhang Hao, stylename Shuming, studied the Laws of Government and Annals of the Spring and Autumn in the capital. He was good friends with Tan Can of Guanghan, Li He of Hanzhong, and Zhang Ba of the Shu prefecture. The General-in-Chief, Deng Zhi, removed Zhang Hao, degrading him from Supervisor of the Masters of Writing (Shang Shu Pu She) to Governor (Xiang) of Pengcheng, and recommending hermits like Lu Qiumiao and others, as Commandant of Justice (Ting Wei). In the third year of Yan Guang [CE 124] (reign of Han An Di), Emperor An was discussing about abolishing his Crown Prince. Only Zhang Hao, together with the Grand Master of Ceremonies, (Tai Chang) Huan Yan, and the Grand Coachman (Tai Pu), Lai Li, opposed it. When Emperor Shun came to the throne [CE 126], he appointed Zhang Hao as Minister of Works (Sikong). He died at age eighty-three. [Sima Biao's] Xu Han Shu says: Zhang Gang, stylename Wenji, together with the third noble, Jing Ming, were recommended as the "Filial and Incorrupt" (Xiao Lian). Not long after, they were demoted by the Minister of Works (Sikong), appointing Gao Di as the Attendant Imperial Clerk (Shi Yu Shi). In the first year of Han An [CE 142], Zhang Gang was appointed as Imperial Household Grandee (Guang Lu Da Fu). Together with the Palace Attendant (Shi Zhong), Du Qiao and others, eight people in total, received an Imperial order to each go out and investigate and deal with corruption in the Empire. Various Inspectors (Ci Shi) and those with a rank of two thousand shi, all memorialised to the Throne, praising them as clear in judgement and loyal; their fame known throughout the Empire; and referred to them as the "Eight Eminent". At the time, the General-in-chief (Da Jiang Jun), Liang Ji, harrassed the common people. Qiao and six others received orders to go out [and investigate], but Zhang Gang himself stayed in Luoyang and refused to go. He said, "Ravenous wolves have occupied the path yet we are content to asking about the fox?" He sent up a memorial accusing Liang Ji. Everyone in the capital became frightened. Liang Ji's younger sister was, at the time, the Empress, and gave favours to Fang Cheng. Liang Ji and his brothers controlled enormous power and were like masters. Emperor Shun knew that Zhang Gang's words were not untrue but he did not have the heart to deal with Liang Ji. Liang Ji then deeply hated Zhang Gang. A bandit named Zhang Ying, led a group of ten thousand in Guangling and they killed the Inspector (Ci Shi) there, so Liang Ji wished to send Zhang Gang into this trap, by ordering the Imperial Secretariat (Shang Shu) to appoint Zhang Gang as Governor (taishou) of Guangling. If he was not killed by Zhang Ying, he would be dealt with under some law. The former Governor was asking for more troops. So an Imperial order came to ask Zhang Gang how many troops he needed. Zhang Gan replied that he was not going to use troops, but asked for a carriage attendant. Along, he saw Zhang Ying at the ramparts of the gates. Zhang Ying became greatly alarmed and ran back to close the gates. But Zhang Gang was outside the gates and he sent away his guards, accompanies by only ten or so of his attendants. He sent a message to an elder, Su, who was trusted by Zhang Ying. He asked to meet with Zhang Ying and hoped to convince him to change and showing him the kindness of the imperial order. Zhang Ying saw that Zhang Gang was sincere, so he went out to meet with him. Zhang Gang offered him a seat and said, "The former Governor was not an able person. Betraying the kindness of the State, he sought for their own personal benefit. These counties and prefectures are far away and the Son of Heaven is unable to ask about it day and night. I understand many of the common people gathered around you to avoid being harmed. The former Governor is guilty of this and he lacks righteousness. Loyal vassals do not deceive their Sovereign to receive honour for themselves. Filials sons do not hurt their father to receive good fortune. The Son of Heaven is a sacred person who spreads his good virtue. He has sent the new Governor here with the wish to offer you nobility and fortune but not punishment. Now I am here to weigh out the pros and cons. If [he] hears that you cannot accept this virtue, the Son of Heaven would rightly be furious, and send here a great army. How can that not be a danger? I am warning you of the consequences." When Zhang Ying heard this, he started to sob and said, "I, being an uncultivated and stupid person, was infringed and wronged by the past Governor many times. We could not bear his laxness so we gathered the people together to escape with their lives. You have such a clear understanding and this will allow Ying and the others to find new life. But we are afraid that when the day arrives to send troops to attack us, killings will be unavoidable." Zhang Gang replied, "How can that happen? [The Son of Heaven] commands all within Heaven and Earth and his promise is as heavenly as the sun and moon. He has officially offered nobility to you so how can there be the disaster you speak of?" Ying said, "If indeed my crime has been pardoned, I've kept my head, and remained a leader, I am very happy. But I did not expect to receive noble rank". Even though Zhang Ying was a great bandit who was frantic and knew he was going to die, after receiving the words from Zhang Gang, he was finally made to understand. The next day, Zhang Ying with his troops numbering about ten thousand, and together with his wife, came to surrender to Zhang Gang. Gang untied them and reassured them by saying, "Friends, now that you have been disbanded, you may feel confused, but after recording your names for official positions, you will be generous rewarded." Zhang Ying replied, "We wish to go back to our original posts rather than undertake great responsibility". Zhang Gang noted their sincerity and satisfied each person's own wishes, personally going around to each one and reassuring them. Those who wanted to undertake responsibility were allowed to work with him. Those who wanted to live as common people, [Gang] conferred them farming land. So everyone in Nanzhou was happy. Discussing about [Gang's] achievements, he certain deserved to be conferred an enfeofment of Marquis. But this never happened because of Liang Ji. The Son of Heaven greatly appreciated the merits of Zhang Gang and wanted to use him for important tasks. But Zhang Ying and others petitioned in the hope of letting Zhang Gang remain in the prefecture for another two years. In the first year of Jian Kang [CE 144], Zhang Gang died of sickness at the age of thirty-six. Zhang Ying with three hundred other people, accompanied the coffin on its trip to Luoyang. They attended the funeral and set up an ancestral temple for him, paying their respects four times a year [each season], and honouring him like their father. The Son of Heaven did not forget his achievement and enfeoffed him posthumously. Zhang Gang's only son was appointed as a Gentleman (Lang).

When the First Sovereign settled Yizhou and became the Imperial Protector, Zhang Yi was his Clerk. Towards the end of [the reign of] Jian An [CE 196-220], he was selected to be the Xiao Lian, and as magistrate (Chang) of Jiangyang, then moved to Lingling, then later as Governor (Taishou) of Zitong, then to Guang Han, as the Governor (Taishou) of the commandery of Shu. In the ninth year of Jian Xing [CE 231], he was the Chief Controller of Lai Xiang, and the Leader of the Gentlemen of the Palace who Pacifies Nanzhong. By nature, Zhang Yi was strict in the enforcement of laws. A chieftain, Liu Zhou rebelled and created disturbances. Zhang Yi led his troops to put down Zhou. Before Zhou was defeated, an order came for him to withdraw. All his subordinates thought that he ought to take to horse and hasten to receive his disgrace. Zhang Yi replied, "Not so. I am returning because with the Man barbarians in an upheaval I have not been able to execute my duties; but until my substitute comes, I must keep my post in the battlefield, transport and store provisions in preparation for exterminating the rebels. Shall I, merely because I am demoted, neglect the affairs of the State?" With this he continued to superintend and direct, without being remiss. With this foundation, Ma Zhong successfully defeated Zhou. When Zhuge Liang heard what happened, he commended Zhang Yi. Zhuge Liang proceeded to Wugong, Zhang Yi was made Chief Controller of the Front Army and Governor (Taishou) of Fufeng. Zhuge Liang died, and for his achievements against Liu Zhou, Zhang Yi was enfeoffed as Marquis Within the Passes (Guan Nei Hou). In the first year of Yanxi [CE 238], he entered the Imperial Secretariat (Shang Shu), later promoted as Du Jian Wei, Marquis (Dou Ting Hou), and General Who Conquers the West.

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Zhang Yi (continued)

In the eighteenth year [CE 240], he, along with the General of the Guards (Wei Jiang Jun), Jiang Wei, returned to Chengdu. He criticised Jiang Wei for launching his troops on expedition. He believed that the common people of the kingdom were worn out and it was not appropriate to launch military expeditions. Jiang Wei did not listen and generals such as Zhang Yi went on expedition. Zhang Yi was made General Who Suppresses the South. Jiang Wei arrived at the Di Dao and defeated heavily the Wei general, Wang Jing. Up to ten thousand soldiers of Wang Jing died in the Tao river. Zhang Yi said, "It is time to stop now, we should not advance. If we advance, we might harm this great achievement". Jiang Wei was very angry. Zhang Yi replied, "You are drawing legs on a snake" (1). Jiang Wei unexpectedly surrounded Wang Jing at Di Dao but was unable to overcome him. Jiang Wei realised the advice from Zhang Yi and started to not like him. Zhang Yi was then sent to lead the army from the front against his own wishes by Jiang Wei. In the second year of Jingyao [CE 259], he was made General of the Right Chariots and Cavalry and Inspector (Ci Shi) of Jizhou. In the sixth year [CE 263], he was the Right Jian Ge of Wei county and later surrendered to Zhong Hui at Fu. In the next year [CE 264], first month, he accompanied Zhong Hui to Chengdu and was later killed by soldiers in the confusion that followed. [Chang Qu's] Huayang Guo Zhi says: Zhang Yi's son, Wei, was a sincere and studious person, and became the Governor of Guanghan.

Notes:

(1) This refers to a proverb where a guy finished painting the picture of a snake before others did. So during his spare time, he added some legs to the snake. The others commented that snakes don't have legs so he's made the snake not look like a snake. Similarly, Zhang Yi is saying Jiang Wei was doing unnecessarily doing too much for no apparent gain.
(Many thanks to the member Guan_Xing for his interpretation)

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:47 AM
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Lu Su

Lu Su, stylename Zijing, was a native of Lin Huai, Dong Cheng. When he was born, he had lost his father and so lived with his grandmother. The family was quite wealthy and he was well known to be a philantropist. Hence at the time, when the world was in disorder, Su did not manage family affairs but spent his money freely. He had many fields of grain which he used to relieve the poor, the starving, etc. hence received much praise from those in the village.

Zhou Yu was at Ju Chao with only several hundred men when he passed Lu Su and asked for some provisions. Su's family had two stores of rice, each having about three thousand carts. Lu Su indicated one store of rice for Zhou Yu. Zhou Yu knew this was a unique person and became very close friends with him. Yuan Shu heard of his reputation and immediately went to Dong Cheng. Lu Su noticed Yuan Shu had no discipline and was not one to establish great affairs, so he gathered up the old and weak troops and some brave young men, a hundred or so in number, and went South to Juchao where he saw Zhou Yu. And so Zhou Yu went East with him. [Wei Zhao's] Wu Shu says: Lu Su was a big man. He had high aspirations and had ability in strategy. Because there was chaos everywhere, Lu Su practised swordsmanship and horse archery. He organised together young men and took care of their needs (clothes and food). They often went hunting at Nanshan and provided military training. An elder of the village remarked, "The Lu family are in decay, but he is an ambitious one!" After this, with many heroes were on the rise, Zhong Zhou was causing disorder, so Lu Su said this to his people, "China is out of control. Bandits and thieves wreak havoc everywhere. The land between the Huai and Si [rivers] is not a suitable place build our lives. I have heard Jiangdong consists of ten thousand li of fertile land, where the people are prosperous and soldiers strong. We can avoid danger and live a peaceful and happy life there. We can then observe for a change in the situation, right?" Everyone in his group agreed. He then placed the weak and slender in the front, while the brave and strong were to guard the rear. Men and women, in total, consisting of about three hundred went with them. Lu Su's group was walking slowly when Zhou's cavalry caught up with them. Lu Su halted the army and called out to his pursuers, "You gentlemen know how to deal with the situation. The world is in great chaos today. You receive no benefit for your merits [in defeating us], and no punishment for failing to pursue, so why do you insist on fighting us?" He planted his shield in the ground, and pulled his bow back to fire. Each arrow pierced [the shield]. The pursuing cavalry thought Lu Su's words were good and besides knew they would be unable to overcome him, and so they withdrew. Lu Su crossed the Great River to see Sun Ce who also thought he was a unique person. He left his family in Que. He returned when his grandmother died and buried her at Dongcheng.

Liu Ziyang was friendly with Lu Su and left a letter for him which said, "In the world now, many heroes are on the rise. My friend, you have a lot of talent which is required in the current climate. You hurriedly returned to welcome your mother and when there is no problem, you stay leisurely in Dongcheng. Near here, there is one named Zheng Bao who lives at Chaohu. He has the support of ten thousand people and the area is fertile and spacious. There are many from Lujiang who depend on him, so it is not just me. I've observed the situation. Opportunities must not be lost and so you should decide early." Lu Su agreed with his plans. After the burial was completed, he returned to Que to prepare for his trip to the north. When he arrived, he heard that Zhou Yu had taken his mother to Wu and he was very thankful. At the time, Sun Ce had died and Sun Quan had taken over. Zhou Yu said to Lu Su, "In reply to [Emperor] Guangwu [of Latter Han, Liu Xiu], Ma Yuan said, `In today's world, not only do rulers choose their vassals, but vassals also choose their rulers'. Now my master is intimate with worthy people and uses the help of the wonderful and extraordinary. Moreover, I've heard secretly his vision that the Liu family will be replaced by someone from the southeast. Eventually the foundation of an Emperor to carry forth the Heavenly mandate will be the time where scholars and warriors rise like dragons and phoenixes. I have already begun and Sir, you should not let Ziyang's words obstruct your wishes." Lu Su agreed with him. It was because Zhou Yu recommended Lu Su for his suitable talents, that he went in search for comparable people, that he was succesful in his affairs and not let walk away.

Sun Quan came to meet with Lu Su and was very pleased by his words. When the other guests started to leave, Lu Su also bid his farewell. Sun Quan went himself to bring him back where they sat on the same couch and started drinking together. At this time, he secretly asked Su, "Now the house of Han is in danger of collapsing and the four corners are disturbed. It is my duty to support the foundation laid down by my father and brother so I'm thinking of imitating the achievements of Huan and Wen (1). Sir, you seem to care a lot, will you be able to assist me?" Lu Su replied, "Before when Gao Di [Liu Bang] wanted to serve the Righteous Emperor (Yi Di) [of Chu] (2), he was unable to because Xiang Yu's threat to his life. Today's Cao Cao is like Xiang Yu, so how will you, General, follow the path of Huan and Wen? Su's humble opinion is that the house of Han has no chance of being restored while Cao Cao cannot be removed. My plan for you, General, is to secure your lands of Jiangdong and observe the world happenings. If so your [lands] extend so far, then you should not be too disheartened. There is much turmoil in the north, and because of this, we can strike at Huang Zu, then advance to attack Liu Biao in order to control the length of the Great River. Then you may consolidate the empire and become the Son of Heaven. This was how the Gao Di (Liu Bang) build his State." Sun Quan replied, "Now, I'll exert my main strength in one direction in the hope (name) of assisting the Han. Don't let these words get outside." Zhang Zhao thought Lu Su was unmodest and seeked to defame him by commenting that Lu Su was too young and not suitable for responsibility. Sun Quan however did not mind this and continued treated him favourably as before. He conferred clothes, curtains, as well as other miscellaneous things to Lu Su's mother so they lived in riches, as before.

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Old Post 22-02-2003 06:50 AM
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Lu Su continued.....

Liu Biao had died and Lu Su came to offer his advice, "Jingzhou is a direct neighbour to our state. The Yangzi and the mountains are difficult to approach and secure to defend, there are ten thousand li of fertile land and the people are prosperous. If we can take it and hold it, this can become the base of an empire. Now that Liu Biao has just died, his two sons are in disagreement, and the leaders of their army have divided loyalties. Liu Bei is a hero of the Empire. He quarrelled with Cao Cao and went to stay with Liu Biao, but Liu Biao was jealous of his abilities and never game him an important post. If Liu Bei joins Liu Biao's son, and if they can set things in order, then we should keep peace with them and make an alliance of friendship. If, on the other hand, they continue to disagree, we should make other plans to achieve the great design. I ask permission to take a message of condolence to Liu Biao's sons. While I am here, I can show our sympathies and make friends witht he men who hold authority in their army, and I shall urge Liu Bei to collect Liu Biao's forces and join us against Cao Cao. Liu Bei will certainly be pleased and will accept your call. If he agrees, the empire can be settled. If I do not leave at once, however, I fear Cao Cao may get there first." (RdeC) So Sun Quan dispatched Lu Su. He arrived at Xiakou and heard Cao Cao was already heading for Jingzhou, so he doubled his paces from day till night. By the time he arrived at Nanjun, Liu Biao's son, Cong, had surrendered to Lord Cao while Liu Bei was hurriedly running away, crossing the Great River and heading South. Lu Su caught up with them at Changban, in Dangyang. He put forward Sun Quan's ideas and how the Jiangdong was strong and so urged Liu Bei to ally with Sun Quan. Liu Bei was very pleased. At the time, Zhuge Liang agreed with Liu Bei on the matter, so Lu Su said to Liang, "I am a friend of Ziyu", and so instantly, they became friends. Liu Bei forthwith, arrived at Xiakou and dispatched Zhuge Liang as an ambassador to Sun Quan. Lu Su went with him also. Your servant Pei Songzhi believes that Liu Bei allying with Sun Quan to resist the forces of China, was a strategy of Lu Su alone. He said to Zhuge Liang, "I am a friend of Ziyu", and afterwards, Zhuge Liang frequently asked about his brother. In the Shu Shu, chapter on Zhuge Liang, where it says, "Liang used his horizontal plan to convince Sun Quan and Quan was very happy.", seems to suggest the plan came from Zhuge Liang. It seems that historians from both kingdoms have recorded from their point of view in order to raise their kingdom's glory and merits. Since these two books were written by one person, yet the event is contradicted, then it does not represent good practice.

On his return, Sun Quan had just received a letter from Lord Cao and was discussing the matter with his various advisors. All of them urged him to accept [Cao Cao] but only Lu Su remained silent. Sun Quan rose to retire and Lu Su followed him closely. Sun Quan knew that Lu Su had his own opinion, so grabbing him by the hand, asked, "Sir, is there something you want to say?" Lu Su replied, "I have listened to their suggestions and those people are misleading you. You cannot make useful plans with them. I could welcome Cao Cao, but not you. Let me explain. If I surrender to Cao Cao, he will send me back to my home district, to be graded for name and rank, and at the very least I would become a junior Attendant Official. So I could ride in a carriage drawn by oxen, with an escort of soldiers, and could mingle with the gentry. Then I would be promoted and in the end I would be sure to finish with a province or a commandery. On the other hand, if you surrender to Cao Cao, where would you go? I urge you to decide this great plan before it is too late. Do not take those fellows' advice." Sun Quan signed with admiration, "They disappointed me but you set forth a grand strategy. That is just what I have been looking for." (RdeC) [Wang Shen's] Wei Shu and [Sima Biao's] Jiu Zhou Chun Qiu say: When Lord Cao conquered Jingzhou, Sun Quan was in great distress. Lu Su wanted to convince Sun Quan to repel Lord Cao and tried to incite him by saying, "Lord Cao has defeated his enemies and has now accumulated Yuan Shao's finest troops and horses. Riding on his wave of victories, he is attacking the country that is in disorder and is sure to conquer it. Why don't you dispatch your troops to assist him? Furthermore you should send your family (as hostage) too. If you don't, we will be in trouble." Sun Quan was very angry and was about to execute Lu Su, when the latter said, "The current situation is already worrying, why don't you dispatch your troops to assist Liu Bei instead of wanting to execute me?" Sun Quan agreed and sent Zhou Yu to assist Liu Bei. Sun Cheng says: (3) Both Wu Shu and Jiang Biao Zhuan record that when Lu Su saw Sun Quan, he tried to convince him to resist Lord Cao as well as offer a plan fit for Emperors and Kings. Liu Biao had died and he requested to be sent to observe the changing situation. There was no reason for him to try to persuade Sun Quan by inciting him. Also there were many who tried to convince Sun Quan to submit, but it said that only Lu Su was to be beheaded, thus these words did not come from Lu Su.

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