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John Carmack, id Software, Owner / Lead Programmer
johnc@idsoftware.com, (http://www.idsoftware.com)

Full Update Summary of Update:

10/14/98
--------

It has been difficult to write .plan updates lately. Every time I start
writing something, I realize that I'm not going to be able to cover it
satisfactorily in the time I can spend on it. I have found that terse
little comments either get misinterpreted, or I get deluged by email
from people wanting me to expand upon it.

I wanted to do a .plan about my evolving thoughts on code quality
and lessons learned through quake and quake 2, but in the interest
of actually completing an update, I decided to focus on one change
that was intended to just clean things up, but had a surprising
number of positive side effects.

Since DOOM, our games have been defined with portability in mind.
Porting to a new platform involves having a way to display output,
and having the platform tell you about the various relevant inputs.
There are four principle inputs to a game: keystrokes, mouse moves,
network packets, and time. (If you don't consider time an input
value, think about it until you do -- it is an important concept)

These inputs were taken in separate places, as seemed logical at the
time. A function named Sys_SendKeyEvents() was called once a
frame that would rummage through whatever it needed to on a
system level, and call back into game functions like Key_Event( key,
down ) and IN_MouseMoved( dx, dy ). The network system
dropped into system specific code to check for the arrival of packets.
Calls to Sys_Milliseconds() were littered all over the code for
various reasons.

I felt that I had slipped a bit on the portability front with Q2 because
I had been developing natively on windows NT instead of cross
developing from NEXTSTEP, so I was reevaluating all of the system
interfaces for Q3.

I settled on combining all forms of input into a single system event
queue, similar to the windows message queue. My original intention
was to just rigorously define where certain functions were called and
cut down the number of required system entry points, but it turned
out to have much stronger benefits.

With all events coming through one point (The return values from
system calls, including the filesystem contents, are "hidden" inputs
that I make no attempt at capturing, ), it was easy to set up a
journalling system that recorded everything the game received. This
is very different than demo recording, which just simulates a network
level connection and lets time move at its own rate. Realtime
applications have a number of unique development difficulties
because of the interaction of time with inputs and outputs.

Transient flaw debugging. If a bug can be reproduced, it can be
fixed. The nasty bugs are the ones that only happen every once in a
while after playing randomly, like occasionally getting stuck on a
corner. Often when you break in and investigate it, you find that
something important happened the frame before the event, and you
have no way of backing up. Even worse are realtime smoothness
issues -- was that jerk of his arm a bad animation frame, a network
interpolation error, or my imagination?

Accurate profiling. Using an intrusive profiler on Q2 doesn't give
accurate results because of the realtime nature of the simulation. If
the program is running half as fast as normal due to the
instrumentation, it has to do twice as much server simulation as it
would if it wasn't instrumented, which also goes slower, which
compounds the problem. Aggressive instrumentation can slow it
down to the point of being completely unplayable.

Realistic bounds checker runs. Bounds checker is a great tool, but
you just can't interact with a game built for final checking, its just
waaaaay too slow. You can let a demo loop play back overnight, but
that doesn't exercise any of the server or networking code.

The key point: Journaling of time along with other inputs turns a
realtime application into a batch process, with all the attendant
benefits for quality control and debugging. These problems, and
many more, just go away. With a full input trace, you can accurately
restart the session and play back to any point (conditional
breakpoint on a frame number), or let a session play back at an
arbitrarily degraded speed, but cover exactly the same code paths..

I'm sure lots of people realize that immediately, but it only truly sunk
in for me recently. In thinking back over the years, I can see myself
feeling around the problem, implementing partial journaling of
network packets, and included the "fixedtime" cvar to eliminate most
timing reproducibility issues, but I never hit on the proper global
solution. I had always associated journaling with turning an
interactive application into a batch application, but I never
considered the small modification necessary to make it applicable to
a realtime application.

In fact, I was probably blinded to the obvious because of one of my
very first successes: one of the important technical achievements
of Commander Keen 1 was that, unlike most games of the day, it
adapted its play rate based on the frame speed (remember all those
old games that got unplayable when you got a faster computer?). I
had just resigned myself to the non-deterministic timing of frames
that resulted from adaptive simulation rates, and that probably
influenced my perspective on it all the way until this project.

Its nice to see a problem clearly in its entirety for the first time, and
know exactly how to address it.

Full Plan:

Welcome to id Software's Finger Service V1.5!

Name: John Carmack
Email: johnc@idsoftware.com
Description: Programmer
Project: Quake Arena
Last Updated: 10/14/1998 02:50:34 (Central Standard Time)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10/14/98
--------

It has been difficult to write .plan updates lately. Every time I start
writing something, I realize that I'm not going to be able to cover it
satisfactorily in the time I can spend on it. I have found that terse
little comments either get misinterpreted, or I get deluged by email
from people wanting me to expand upon it.

I wanted to do a .plan about my evolving thoughts on code quality
and lessons learned through quake and quake 2, but in the interest
of actually completing an update, I decided to focus on one change
that was intended to just clean things up, but had a surprising
number of positive side effects.

Since DOOM, our games have been defined with portability in mind.
Porting to a new platform involves having a way to display output,
and having the platform tell you about the various relevant inputs.
There are four principle inputs to a game: keystrokes, mouse moves,
network packets, and time. (If you don't consider time an input
value, think about it until you do -- it is an important concept)

These inputs were taken in separate places, as seemed logical at the
time. A function named Sys_SendKeyEvents() was called once a
frame that would rummage through whatever it needed to on a
system level, and call back into game functions like Key_Event( key,
down ) and IN_MouseMoved( dx, dy ). The network system
dropped into system specific code to check for the arrival of packets.
Calls to Sys_Milliseconds() were littered all over the code for
various reasons.

I felt that I had slipped a bit on the portability front with Q2 because
I had been developing natively on windows NT instead of cross
developing from NEXTSTEP, so I was reevaluating all of the system
interfaces for Q3.

I settled on combining all forms of input into a single system event
queue, similar to the windows message queue. My original intention
was to just rigorously define where certain functions were called and
cut down the number of required system entry points, but it turned
out to have much stronger benefits.

With all events coming through one point (The return values from
system calls, including the filesystem contents, are "hidden" inputs
that I make no attempt at capturing, ), it was easy to set up a
journalling system that recorded everything the game received. This
is very different than demo recording, which just simulates a network
level connection and lets time move at its own rate. Realtime
applications have a number of unique development difficulties
because of the interaction of time with inputs and outputs.

Transient flaw debugging. If a bug can be reproduced, it can be
fixed. The nasty bugs are the ones that only happen every once in a
while after playing randomly, like occasionally getting stuck on a
corner. Often when you break in and investigate it, you find that
something important happened the frame before the event, and you
have no way of backing up. Even worse are realtime smoothness
issues -- was that jerk of his arm a bad animation frame, a network
interpolation error, or my imagination?

Accurate profiling. Using an intrusive profiler on Q2 doesn't give
accurate results because of the realtime nature of the simulation. If
the program is running half as fast as normal due to the
instrumentation, it has to do twice as much server simulation as it
would if it wasn't instrumented, which also goes slower, which
compounds the problem. Aggressive instrumentation can slow it
down to the point of being completely unplayable.

Realistic bounds checker runs. Bounds checker is a great tool, but
you just can't interact with a game built for final checking, its just
waaaaay too slow. You can let a demo loop play back overnight, but
that doesn't exercise any of the server or networking code.

The key point: Journaling of time along with other inputs turns a
realtime application into a batch process, with all the attendant
benefits for quality control and debugging. These problems, and
many more, just go away. With a full input trace, you can accurately
restart the session and play back to any point (conditional
breakpoint on a frame number), or let a session play back at an
arbitrarily degraded speed, but cover exactly the same code paths..

I'm sure lots of people realize that immediately, but it only truly sunk
in for me recently. In thinking back over the years, I can see myself
feeling around the problem, implementing partial journaling of
network packets, and included the "fixedtime" cvar to eliminate most
timing reproducibility issues, but I never hit on the proper global
solution. I had always associated journaling with turning an
interactive application into a batch application, but I never
considered the small modification necessary to make it applicable to
a realtime application.

In fact, I was probably blinded to the obvious because of one of my
very first successes: one of the important technical achievements
of Commander Keen 1 was that, unlike most games of the day, it
adapted its play rate based on the frame speed (remember all those
old games that got unplayable when you got a faster computer?). I
had just resigned myself to the non-deterministic timing of frames
that resulted from adaptive simulation rates, and that probably
influenced my perspective on it all the way until this project.

Its nice to see a problem clearly in its entirety for the first time, and
know exactly how to address it.


9/10/98
-------

I recently set out to start implementing the dual-processor acceleration
for QA, which I have been planning for a while. The idea is to have one
processor doing all the game processing, database traversal, and lighting,
while the other processor does absolutely nothing but issue OpenGL calls.

This effectively treats the second processor as a dedicated geometry
accelerator for the 3D card. This can only improve performance if the
card isn't the bottleneck, but voodoo2 and TNT cards aren't hitting their
limits at 640*480 on even very fast processors right now.

For single player games where there is a lot of cpu time spent running the
server, there could conceivably be up to an 80% speed improvement, but for
network games and timedemos a more realistic goal is a 40% or so speed
increase. I will be very satisfied if I can makes a dual pentium-pro 200
system perform like a pII-300.

I started on the specialized code in the renderer, but it struck me that
it might be possible to implement SMP acceleration with a generic OpenGL
driver, which would allow Quake2 / sin / halflife to take advantage of it
well before QuakeArena ships.

It took a day of hacking to get the basic framework set up: an smpgl.dll
that spawns another thread that loads the original oepngl32.dll or
3dfxgl.dll, and watches a work que for all the functions to call.

I get it basically working, then start doing some timings. Its 20%
slower than the single processor version.

I go in and optimize all the queing and working functions, tune the
communications facilities, check for SMP cache collisions, etc.

After a day of optimizing, I finally squeak out some performance gains on
my tests, but they aren't very impressive: 3% to 15% on one test scene,
but still slower on the another one.

This was fairly depressing. I had always been able to get pretty much
linear speedups out of the multithreaded utilities I wrote, even up to
sixteen processors. The difference is that the utilities just split up
the work ahead of time, then don't talk to each other until they are done,
while here the two threads work in a high bandwidth producer / consumer
relationship.

I finally got around to timing the actual communication overhead, and I was
appalled: it was taking 12 msec to fill the que, and 17 msec to read it out
on a single frame, even with nothing else going on. I'm surprised things
got faster at all with that much overhead.

The test scene I was using created about 1.5 megs of data to relay all the
function calls and vertex data for a frame. That data had to go to main
memory from one processor, then back out of main memory to the other.
Admitedly, it is a bitch of a scene, but that is where you want the
acceleration...

The write times could be made over twice as fast if I could turn on the
PII's write combining feature on a range of memory, but the reads (which
were the gating factor) can't really be helped much.

Streaming large amounts of data to and from main memory can be really grim.
The next write may force a cache writeback to make room for it, then the
read from memory to fill the cacheline (even if you are going to write over
the entire thing), then eventually the writeback from the cache to main
memory where you wanted it in the first place. You also tend to eat one
more read when your program wants to use the original data that got evicted
at the start.

What is really needed for this type of interface is a streaming read cache
protocol that performs similarly to the write combining: three dedicated
cachelines that let you read or write from a range without evicting other
things from the cache, and automatically prefetching the next cacheline as
you read.

Intel's write combining modes work great, but they can't be set directly
from user mode. All drivers that fill DMA buffers (like OpenGL ICDs...)
should definately be using them, though.

Prefetch instructions can help with the stalls, but they still don't prevent
all the wasted cache evictions.

It might be possible to avoid main memory alltogether by arranging things
so that the sending processor ping-pongs between buffers that fit in L2,
but I'm not sure if a cache coherent read on PIIs just goes from one L2
to the other, or if it becomes a forced memory transaction (or worse, two
memory transactions). It would also limit the maximum amount of overlap
in some situations. You would also get cache invalidation bus traffic.

I could probably trim 30% of my data by going to a byte level encoding of
all the function calls, instead of the explicit function pointer / parameter
count / all-parms-are-32-bits that I have now, but half of the data is just
raw vertex data, which isn't going to shrink unless I did evil things like
quantize floats to shorts.

Too much effort for what looks like a reletively minor speedup. I'm giving
up on this aproach, and going back to explicit threading in the renderer so
I can make most of the communicated data implicit.

Oh well. It was amusing work, and I learned a few things along the way.



9/7/98
------
I just got a production TNT board installed in my Dolch today.

The riva-128 was a troublesome part. It scored well on benchmarks, but it had
some pretty broken aspects to it, and I never reccomended it (you are better
off with an intel I740).

There aren't any troublesome aspects to TNT. Its just great. Good work, Nvidia.

In terms of raw speed, a 16 bit color multitexture app (like quake / quake 2)
should still run a bit faster on a voodoo2, and an SLI voodoo2 should be faster
for all 16 bit color rendering, but TNT has a lot of other things going for it:

32 bit color and 24 bit z buffers. They cost speed, but it is usually a better
quality tradeoff to go one resolution lower but with twice the color depth.

More flexible multitexture combine modes. Voodoo can use its multitexture for
diffuse lightmaps, but not for the specular lightmaps we offer in QuakeArena.
If you want shiny surfaces, voodoo winds up leaving half of its texturing
power unused (you can still run with diffuse lightmaps for max speed).

Stencil buffers. There aren't any apps that use it yet, but stencil allows
you to do a lot of neat tricks.

More texture memory. Even more than it seems (16 vs 8 or 12), because all of the
TNT's memory can be used without restrictions. Texture swapping is the voodoo's
biggest problem.

3D in desktop applications. There is enough memory that you don't have to worry
about window and desktop size limits, even at 1280*1024 true color resolution.

Better OpenGL ICD. 3dfx will probably do something about that, though.

This is the shape of 3D boards to come. Professional graphics level
rendering quality with great performance at a consumer price.

We will be releasing preliminary QuakeArena benchmarks on all the new boards
in a few weeks. Quake 2 is still a very good benchmark for moderate polygon
counts, so our test scenes for QA involve very high polygon counts, which
stresses driver quality a lot more. There are a few surprises in the current
timings...

---

A few of us took a couple days off in vegas this weekend. After about
ten hours at the tables over friday and saturday, I got a tap on the shoulder...

Three men in dark suits introduced themselves and explained that I was welcome
to play any other game in the casino, but I am not allowed to play
blackjack anymore.

Ah well, I guess my blackjack days are over. I was actually down a bit for
the day when they booted me, but I made +$32k over five trips to vegas in the
past two years or so.

I knew I would get kicked out sooner or later, because I don't play "safely".
I sit at the same table for several hours, and I range my bets around 10 to 1.



8/17/98
-------
I added support for HDTV style wide screen displays in QuakeArena, so
24" and 28" monitors can now cover the entire screen with game graphics.

On a normal 4:3 aspect ratio screen, a 90 degree horizontal field of view
gives a 75 degree vertical field of view. If you keep the vertical fov
constant and run on a wide screen, you get a 106 degree horizontal fov.

Because we specify fov with the horizontal measurement, you need to change
fov when going into or out of a wide screen mode. I am considering changing
fov to be the vertical measurement, but it would probably cause a lot of
confusion if "fov 90" becomes a big fisheye.

Many video card drivers are supporting the ultra high res settings
like 1920 * 1080, but hopefully they will also add support for lower
settings that can be good for games, like 856 * 480.

---

I spent a day out at apple last week going over technical issues.

I'm feeling a lot better about MacOS X. Almost everything I like about
rhapsody will be there, plus some solid additions.

I presented the OpenGL case directly to Steve Jobs as strongly as possible.

If Apple embraces OpenGL, I will be strongly behind them. I like OpenGL more
than I dislike MacOS. :)

---

Last friday I got a phone call: "want to make some exhibition runs at the
import / domestic drag wars this sunday?". It wasn't particularly good
timing, because the TR had a slipping clutch and the F50 still hasn't gotten
its computer mapping sorted out, but we got everything functional in time.

The tech inspector said that my cars weren't allowed to run in the 11s
at the event because they didn't have roll cages, so I was supposed to go
easy.

The TR wasn't running its best, only doing low 130 mph runs. The F50 was
making its first sorting out passes at the event, but it was doing ok. My
last pass was an 11.8(oops) @ 128, but we still have a ways to go to get the
best times out of it.

I'm getting some racing tires on the F50 before I go back. It sucked watching
a tiny honda race car jump ahead of me off the line. :)

I think ESPN took some footage at the event.
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