From Wounded Knee to Afghanistan (and to Iraq)


Compiled by Zoltan Grossman

The following is a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 1999. This guide does NOT include:

Demonstration duty by military police; Mobilizations of the National Guard; Offshore shows of naval strength; Reinforcements of embassy personnel; The use of non-Defense Department personnel (such as the DEA); Military exercises; Non-combat mobilizations; The permanent stationing of armed forces; Covert actions where the U.S. did not play a command and control role; The use of small hostage rescue units; Most uses of proxy troops; U.S. piloting of foreign warplanes; Foreign disaster assistance; Military training and advisory programs not involving direct combat; Civic action programs and many other military activities.

Among sources used, besides news reports, are the Congressional Record (23 June 1969), 180 Landings by the U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Ege & Makhijani in Counterspy (July-Aug. 1982), and Daniel Ellsberg in Protest & Survive. "Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993" by Ellen C. Collier of the Library ofCongress Congressional Research Service.


SOUTH DAKOTA 1890 (-?) Troops 300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.

ARGENTINA 1890 Troops Buenos Aires interests protected.

CHILE 1891 Troops Marines clash with nationalist rebels.

HAITI 1891 Troops Black workers revolt on U.S.-claimed Navassa Island defeated.

IDAHO 1892 Troops Army suppresses silver miners' strike.

HAWAII 1893 (-?) Naval, troops Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.

CHICAGO 1894 Troops Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.

NICARAGUA 1894 Troops Month-long occupation of Bluefields.

CHINA 1894-95 Naval, troops Marines land in Sino-Japanese War.

KOREA 1894-96 Troops Marines kept in Seoul during war.

PANAMA 1895 Troops, naval Marines land in Colombian province.

NICARAGUA 1896 Troops Marines land in port of Corinto.

CHINA 1898-1900 Troops Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.

PHILIPPINES 1898-1910(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos.

CUBA 1898-1902(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.

PUERTO RICO 1898(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues.

GUAM 1898(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still use as base.

MINNESOTA 1898(-?) Troops Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.

NICARAGUA 1894 Troops Month-long occupation of Bluefields.

CHINA 1894-95 Naval, troops Marines land in Sino-Japanese War.

KOREA 1894-96 Troops Marines kept in Seoul during war.

PANAMA 1895 Troops, naval Marines land in Colombian province.

NICARAGUA 1896 Troops Marines land in port of Corinto.

CHINA 1898-1900 Troops Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.

PHILIPPINES 1898-1910(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos.

CUBA 1898-1902(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.

PUERTO RICO 1898(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues.

GUAM 1898(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still use as base.

MINNESOTA 1898(-?) Troops Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.

NICARAGUA 1898 Troops Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.

SAMOA 1899(-?) Troops Battle over succession to throne.

NICARAGUA 1899 Troops Marines land at port of Bluefields.

IDAHO 1899-1901 Troops Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.

OKLAHOMA 1901 Troops Army battles Creek Indian revolt.

PANAMA 1901-14 Naval, troops Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone 1914-99.

HONDURAS 1903 Troops Marines intervene in revolution.

DOMINICAN REP. 1903-04 Troops U.S. interests protected in Revolution.

KOREA 1904-05 Troops Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.

CUBA 1906-09 Troops Marines land in democratic election.

NICARAGUA 1907 Troops "Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.

HONDURAS 1907 Troops Marines land during war with Nicaragua.

PANAMA 1908 Troops Marines intervene in election contest.

NICARAGUA 1910 Troops Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.

HONDURAS 1911 Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.

CHINA 1911-41 Naval, troops Continuous occupation with flare-ups.

CUBA 1912 Troops U.S. interests protected in Havanna.

PANAMA 19l2 Troops Marines land during heated election.

HONDURAS 19l2 Troops Marines protect U.S. economic interests.

NICARAGUA 1912-33 Troops, bombing 20-year occupation, fought guerrillas.

MEXICO 19l3 Naval Americans evacuated during revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1914 Naval Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.

COLORADO 1914 Troops Breaking of miners' strike by Army.

MEXICO 1914-18 Naval, troops Series of interventions against nationalists.

HAITI 1914-34 Troops, bombing 19-year occupation after revolts.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1916-24 Troops 8-year Marine occupation.

CUBA 1917-33 Troops Military occupation, economic protectorate.

WORLD WAR I 19l7-18 Naval, troops Ships sunk, fought Germany

RUSSIA 1918-22 Naval, troops Five landings to fight Bolsheviks.

PANAMA 1918-20 Troops "Police duty" during unrest after elections.

YUGOSLAVIA 1919 Troops Marines intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia.

HONDURAS 1919 Troops Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA 1920 Troops 2-week intervention against unionists.

WEST VIRGINIA 1920-21 Troops, bombing Army intervenes against mineworkers.

TURKEY 1922 Troops Fought nationalists in Smyrna (Izmir).

CHINA 1922-27 Naval, troops Deployment during nationalist revolt.

HONDURAS 1924-25 Troops Landed twice during election strife.

PANAMA 1925 Troops Marines suppress general strike.

CHINA 1927-34 Troops Marines stationed throughout the country.

EL SALVADOR 1932 Naval Warships sent during Faribundo Marti revolt.

WASHINGTON DC 1932 Troops Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.

WORLD WAR II 1941-45 Naval,troops, bombing, nuclear Fought Axis for 3 years; Over 200,000 civilian casualties in 1st nuclear strikes.

DETROIT 1943 Troops Army puts down Black rebellion.

IRAN 1946 Nuclear threat Soviet troops told to leave north (Iranian Azerbaijan).

YUGOSLAVIA 1946 Naval Response to shooting-down of U.S. plane.

URUGUAY 1947 Nuclear threat Bombers deployed as show of strength.

GREECE 1947-49 Command operation U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.

CHINA 1948-49 Troops Marines evacuate Americans before Communist victory.

GERMANY 1948 Nuclear threat Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.

PHILIPPINES 1948-54 Command operation CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.

PUERTO RICO 1950 Command operation Independence rebellion crushed in Ponce.

KOREA 1950-53 Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats U.S.& South Korea fight China & North Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, & vs. China in 1953. Still have bases.

IRAN 1953 Command operation CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.

VIETNAM 1954 Nuclear threat Bombs offered to French to use against siege.

GUATEMALA 1954 Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat CIA directs exile invasion after new gov't nationalizes U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.

EGYPT 1956 Nuclear threat, troops Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; marines evacuate foreigners.

LEBANON 1958 Troops, naval Marine occupation against rebels.

IRAQ 1958 Nuclear threat Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.

CHINA 1958 Nuclear threat China told not to move on Taiwan isles.

PANAMA 1958 Troops Flag protests erupt into confrontation.

VIETNAM 1960-75 Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; 1-2 million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in 1968 and 1969.

CUBA 1961 Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails.

GERMANY 1961 Nuclear threat Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.

CUBA 1962 Nuclear threat Naval Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with USSR.

LAOS 1962 Command operation Military buildup during guerrilla war.

PANAMA 1964 Troops Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.

INDONESIA 1965 Command operation Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1965-66 Troops, bombing Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA 1966-67 Command operation Green Berets intervene against rebels.

DETROIT 1967 Troops Army battles Blacks, 43 killed.

UNITED STATES 1968 Troops After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.

CAMBODIA 1969-75 Bombing, troops, naval Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.

OMAN 1970 Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.

LAOS 1971-73 Command operation, bombing U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; "carpet-bombs" countryside.

SOUTH DAKOTA 1973 Command operation Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.

MIDEAST 1973 Nuclear threat World-wide alert during Mideast War.

CHILE 1973 Command operation CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.

CAMBODIA 1975 Troops, bombing Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash.

ANGOLA 1976-92 Command operation CIA assists South African-backed rebels.

IRAN 1980 Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Raid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.

LIBYA 1981 Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.

EL SALVADOR 1981-92 Command operation, troop advisors, overflight aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.

NICARAGUA 1981-90 Command operation, naval CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.

LEBANON 1982-84 Naval, bombing, troops Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim and Syrian positions.

HONDURAS 1983-89 Troops Maneuvers help build bases near borders.

GRENADA 1983-84 Troops, bombing invasion four years after revolution.

IRAN 1984 Jets Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf.

LIBYA 1986 Bombing, naval Air strikes to topple nationalist gov't.

BOLIVIA 1986 Troops Army assists raids on cocaine region.

IRAN 1987-88 Naval, bombing US intervenes on side of Iraq in war.

LIBYA 1989 Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down.

VIRGIN ISLANDS 1989 Troops St. Croix Black unrest after storm.

PHILIPPINES 1989 Jets Air cover provided for government against coup.

PANAMA 1989-90 Troops, bombing Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.

LIBERIA 1990 Troops Foreigners evacuated during civil war.

SAUDI ARABIA 1990-91 Troops, jets Iraq countered after invading Kuwait; 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.

IRAQ 1990-1992 Bombing, troops, naval Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; no-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south, large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.

KUWAIT 1991 Naval, bombing, troops Kuwait royal family returned to throne.

LOS ANGELES 1992 Troops Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.

SOMALIA 1992-94 Troops, naval, bombing U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.

YUGOSLAVIA 1992-94 Naval Nato blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.

BOSNIA 1993-95 Jets, bombing No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.

HAITI 1994-96 Troops, naval Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.

CROATIA 1995 Bombing Krajina Serb airfields attacked before Croatian offensive.

ZAIRE (CONGO) 1996-97 Troops Marines at Rwandan Hutu refuge camps, in area where Congo revolution begins.

LIBERIA 1997 Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

ALBANIA 1997 Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

SUDAN 1998 Missiles Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be "terrorist" nerve gas plant. Over 30, 000 civilian casualties. US blocks UN war-crimes inquiry at the security council.

AFGHANISTAN 1998 Missiles Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.

IRAQ 1998-2003 Bombing, Missiles Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors alleged Iraqi obstructions.

YUGOSLAVIA 1999. Bombing, Missiles Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo.

YEMEN 2000 Naval Suicide bomb attack on USS Cole.

MACEDONIA 2001 Troops NATO troops shift and partially disarm Albanian rebels.

UNITED STATES 2001 Jets, naval Response to hijacking attacks.

AFGHANISTAN 2001 Massive U.S. mobilization to attack Taliban, Bin Laden.

IRAQ 2003. Occupation with the pretext of existence of "mass destruction weapons". No mass destruction weapons found.

[For more information or with comments and additions please contact: Zoltan Grossman, 1705 Rutledge, Madison, WI 53704 Phone/Fax 608)246-2256. mtn@igc.apc.org Permission to reproduce this list in its entirety is granted by the author, please send any published copy to the above address.]




Via NY Transfer News * All the News That Doesn't Fit


The Joy of Killing:

Bush Ignores the International Court of Justice

by John Clancy


Why all this killing? The US needs to have the support and armies of White Allies and Israel to be part of US intent to 'genocide' all blacks and then, one at a time, all Muslim nations. Bush will

continue his father's policy in a world, where every country with a US Ambassador also has a CIA group for torture/assassination, and an IMF Bank selling US ideas, high interest loans and 'security'. US-controlled politician-leader -- as in Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Saudi Arabia, Israel, each of the WTO G7 allies and 100 others.

This nation of brutality and greed is presently attempting to hide all its past murders, extortions, corruptions, tortures and lies, by leading the capitalist world into wars against Afghanistan and Iraq -- both used as allies previously when required. Bush and cronies have been hidden by a mass of nil-justice Court procedures and Justices, media moguls and non-tax-paying corporations and a religious wealthy upper crust of non-christians and christians -- both serving as opiates for the Nation.

But this is because every politician with power since before 1823 has approved, and indeed insisted on, the rising of corporate profit making. School history books blacklisted the Red Indian tribes as killers of white farmers and particularly of their children. The lies began and the envy began. The land was rich with silver and gold.

Later, the US buccaneers were encouraged to raid Spanish galleons with the same motive. The newsprinters prospered and the owners became involved as and with politicians -- and that's where we are now.

Later again, non-civilized politicians and their ancestries have accumulated wealth under an umbrella of rifles and guns, as allowed under their first Constitution (a probable reason for their massive annual murder numbers, changing to genocidal nuclear, B52s or invasion, or starvation, or US 'justice' threats "Money, Oil, gold or your lives!"

The USA, Britain, Spain and minor imperialists are certainly open to vengeance for the slaughter of Arabic, Indian, even Venezuelan and Cuban peoples, sometimes non-christian peoples, and also annexation of their lands and theft of their resources. The greed of US billionaires, helped by media moguls' secrecy, have established a docile population.

The brilliant Gore Vidal and Noam Chomsky have tried--in many books--to teach, to break the power of US media lies. The people realise that they live in a police state, its history entirely false as taught presently.

Their fear and suspicion of a fall, from their mountains of nuclear, chemial and bio weapons of mass destruction, occupy their guilty thoughts, while their leadership of the United Nations Security Council, NATO and G8 provide them with more security.

Keeping five billion people suffering, poor and starving is necessary also. This ensures that they have no health or wealth enough to buy education and massive amounts of military defence. We note that the US promise to provide funds to repair damage done to Afghanistan has vanished as it did in Vietnam and the Balkans.

Osama and his Al-Qaida men are feared because they represent a rare fightback against past US crimes and the crimes of Britain particularly against Arab OIL resources. The prisoners accused of being Al-Quaida are presently jailed in Cuba's Guantanamo. With braggard, frightened people like Rumsfeld and the completely worthless Bush deciding their fate, those prisoners will be tortured to death -- one by one -- until one of them gives out the secret hideout of Osama bin Laden. A supply of US doctors gives no comfort to the watching world after seeing what US justices did for Bush in order for him to be the president.

Bush and Cheney, with the assistance of "The Religious Right" have stolen the election. Considering that the US has been (since passing the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 'til now) the world's ugliest terrorist; it is masquerading as an abstract 'democracy thing', superior to all other nations -- yet unable to become civilized.

Using a strange abstract, Bush has declared war on "terrorism" and insisted that every other nation -- friend or foe, rich or poor, black, yellow or white -- must sign a fistful of documents or suffer war.

In this case how is it possible, excepting two females from Congress-Senate, that hundreds of male representatives vote that "The USA willnever be brought before the International Court of Justice?" No lobbied (meaning corrupted) politician -- except two -- has had the courage to vote against this attack on the rest of the world, to control its trade, religions, political thought and particularly its resources.

The US, troubled by the failure of its WTO approach to gain control of the minds of ordinary honest US and foreign peoples -- resulting in police/military brutality in the streets -- has had to fall back on this thing called a "War on Terrorism." THE UNITED STATES IS TERRORISM PERSONIFIED!!

The Bush clan and all the other windbag presidents, CIAs, FBIs and Generals, etc are simply murderers -- not necessarily by their own dirty hands (or guns), but also by the countless numbers of their paid assassins, torturers and corrupt foreign counterpart criminals, willing to buy US favor. Justice claims the said presidents and the corporate CEOs that pay the presidents to start the murders. For example, think of Mobutu (cost to US: about $6 billion), or the Philippines' Marcos, or the Indonesian Suharto. The jackpot from the resultant murders is that the dollars generally are invested in US-controlled banks, and those bank funds (or properties) find their way back to Uncle Sam -- not to the poor and starving nation's citizens, and not to deprived persons in the US.

I remember, as an AIF (Aust) Sergeant in the South Pacific in 1945 when the atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. We were told that the Japs and the US were about to sign a peace document. We were volunteers and hated the Americans then (reasons not necessary now). It hurts that we were told and believed we fought for a just cause, not that the US wanted to try out the bombs on people. PM Howard now was too corrupted with visits to Washington's VIP and power of the wealthy to resist.

The USA thrives on crime. The corporations pay no tax. The police are corrupt and get away with murders. This is necessary, because police are more willing to take part in street bashing (and sometimes shooting) of dissidents and black people. Their democratic 'electric chair' is used to bury mainly innocents, and covers up the lies of the cops and the ineptitude of its judges who are appointed by corrupt politicians.

Of course, the G8 imperialist allies have voted to play their part in the resulting crimes, which have been foisted on the lesser nations since 1823. One such a nation is my Australia and its little, giggling imperialist PM, presently presented in newsprint cartoonists as the keeper of the "Ring" -- you know that one from Tolkien's fantastic story. Howard has sent sections of our military, air force and navy all over the place on suggestions by Bush and Rumsfeld. The Navy is busy taking over US responsibilities in the Gulf, making sure that Iraq does not export oil for food, or import new water purification and other repair equipment and drugs, ensuring 5,000 deaths monthly of Iraqi children. Of course people like Howard and George (both "devout christians") laugh at this collateral nuisance.

Iraqi health and education have degraded; the country has gone from being a developed nation to being one of the poorest of the poor. Israel/US want its land/oil.

The way to stop the US from this and every other terrorist action is not to crawl on hands and knees pleading Bush to buy all our Corporations and National Trusts -- just resign as Allies. The US/UK must be made to pay dollars for their crimes -- say $100 billion to each Latin American country for each estimated million murdered peasants, indigenous Indians and dissidents during the last 300 years. A good deposit would be to return Argentina's Bank Funds of $150 billion. Then there is the annexations of lands, gold, oil and diamonds to consider.

Actually, Tolkien's story applies perfectly to Bush (and all past presidents since 1823). The story includes black, flying 'Nazguls' -- winged creatures that terrorise the peoples and KILL THEIR LEADERS. (the Bush clan and the USA's permanent policy?)

This is replicated by the US with their "Black Stealth Bombers" and "Black Fighters" and with Howard's promise to aid Bush with development costs of the "Black Fighters" and even complete an Atomic Reactor -- to make Isotopes. (This in a suburb of Sydney). The ORCS in Tolkien's story are still here, but now mainly rested and replaced by foreign or Black conscripts. Arab/Muslim Nations had better join together for protection. The alternative is to go down with the Palestinians -- unless classfied as Freedom fighters.

As far as intelligent, gentle people are concerned, the Islamic leaders -- including Osama -- are being attacked worldwide at the urging of those Indian-killer, truth-killer, dollar-worshipping, loud, ugly American politicians who appear to want to destroy the planet's birds, animals, peace and harmony.

The USA has now divided "dissidents" as either "Good Freedom Fighters," if they help the US, or "Bad Terrorists," if the US banks and Wall Street profits decline -- thus making its same century-old mistakes in the matters of democracy.

In Bush madness, as applied to a foreign country, a nation must agree with US rules, laws, trade and in the matter of free annexations of areas of Latin America, Africa and Asia.

The USA must accept that the murders done through orders to the CIA death squads, African mercenary armies and each US Ambassador or President, were and still are murders.


[John Clancy lives and works somewhere in Australia.]



NY Transfer News Collective * A Service of Blythe Systems

Since 1985 - Information for the Rest of Us

339 Lafayette St., New York, NY 10012

http://www.blythe.org e-mail: nyt@blythe.org



Texts collected by KOMINFORM