Founded by Napoleon Ponapart in august
1798 as one of the chief aims of the French Expedition, L'Institute d'Egypte
was meant to serve as a scientific research academy, in much the same way
that Institute de France was. The main purpose behind its establishment
was to promulgate modern knowledge all over Egypt, and to conduct research
on its natural facilities and resources as well as the great events in
its history. L ' Institute d' Egypte's first session was convened at Hassan
El Kashefs quarters, at present the premises of Sania Secondary School
in Sayeda Zeinab, Cairo. L ' Institute d' Egypte'smembers, the most distinguished
scholars of France at that time, were highly immersed in studying the financial
and administrative systems in Egypt. They also displayed great scientific
interest in whatever arts or monuments they could lay their hands on. Their
observations and comments were recorded in The Description of Egypt, still
one of the much-read reference books, as far as the history of Egypt at
that period is concerned.
As soon as the French were
evacuated in 1801, L' Institute d' Egypte's academic activities ceased,
only to be resumed in 1836 by French, German and English scholars under
the name of The Egyptian Society. In 1859, it was transferred to Alexandria
assuming a new name, Institut Egyptian, under the auspices of the ruler
of Egypt at that time, Muhammad Said Pasha. It was also supported by a
number of scholars such as Jornard, Mariette, and Koeing, and some of its
members were widely known, such as George Schweinfurth - a famous explorer
who specialized in physical sciences, Mahmoud El Falaki Pasha - a well
known astronomer, Auguste Mariette and Gaston Maspero - who specialized
in the Pharaonic history of Egypt and helped establish The Egyptian Museum,
to mention only some. In acknowledgement of their effort in turning out
invaluable studies about Egypt, Mariette's and Maspero's names were given
to some streets in Cairo.
Karle Lepsius and J. Morgan,
two famous archaeologists who laid down the principles of the prellistoric
studies of Egypt, were among the members of The Institute. It also included
some very famous names such as Prince Omar Toson, Ali Mostafa Musharafa
Pasha, Ali lbrahim Pasha, Ahmed zaki Pasha, Ahmed Kamal Pasha, and many
other scholars of genius.
The Institute was restored to Cairo
in 1880 and, in 1918, it restored its previous name by a royal decree.
Henceforward, it was under the direct auspices of the royal Palace. Some
relatively recent scholars, such as Soliman Huzayen and Taha Hussein, are
among the famous members of The Institute.
The following are the spheres of activities of The Institute'. -
1. Fine Arts and Archaeology.
2. Human and Social Studies.
3. Mathematical and Physical
Sciences (and their applications).
4. Biological Studies (and its
The aims of The Institute can be summed up as follows:-
1. Conducting researches and
scientific studies in important
2. Giving lectures and arranging
seminars as well as publishing them in The Institute annual
3. Supervising theoretical and
4. Making regular contacts with
similar local and international scientific societies.
5. Exchanging publications with
similar international societies.
The Institute comprises one hundred
and twenty members presided by Professor Mahmoud Hafez lbrahim, one of
the celebrated scholars of Egypt and aprofessor ar Cairo University's Faculty
of Science. Members are nominated by the board of directors, provided that
the nominee is approved by the general assembly in the session following