Amphibious Warfare: Second World War


Liddell Hart declares that air power renders sea-borne invasions unfeasible

Andrew J. Higgins demonstrates prototype of the Landing Craft, Personnel (Large) (LCP[L]); basis of the improved Landing Craft, Vehicle and Personnel (LCVP, or "Higgins Boat")

1939 - 1945 World War II: approximately 600 amphibious landings take place
1940 Admiral of the Fleet Roger Keyes becomes Britain's Director of Combined Operations

Andrew Higgins develops LCVP

Germany invades Norway

Germany's plans for amphibious invasion of Britain (Operation SEALION) shelved after defeat in Battle of Britain

1941 CNO ADM King rates amphibious readiness as poor

Japan issues Reference Manual on Landing Operations

Americans produce first operational amtracs (LVT-1 and 2)

British produce first Landing Craft, Tank (LCT)

Japanese begin six-month amphibious drive to occupy Southeast Asia, East Indies, and South Pacific

Japanese assault Wake Island

Japanese land in Philippines

First Landing Ship, Tank (LST-1) launched

1942 Japanese assault Singapore

Japanese assault Corregidor in the Philippines

Japanese land in Aleutian Islands

U.S. amphibious exercises

RADM Kent Hewitt

British land on Madagascar

U.S. forces land on Guadalcanal

Allied amphibious raid on Dieppe ends disastrously

U.S. Marine raid Makin Island by submarine

Amphibious Center established at Camp Edwards, MA

Maj. Gen. Holland M. "Howling Mad" Smith assumes command of Amphibious Force, Pacific Fleet (later the 5th Amphibious Force)

Allies land in North Africa (Operation TORCH)

U.S. launches first U.S. dock landing ship (Ashland, LSD-1)

1942 - 1944 MacArthur employs amphibious tactics in New Guinea Campaign
1943 Allied landings on New Georgia Island

Allied landings in Sicily (Operation HUSKY)

DUKW amphibious vehicle ("Duck") deployed

Allies land at Salerno in Italy (Operation AVALANCHE)

Allied landings on Bougainville

Allies assault Tarawa in Operation GALVANIC

Allied landings on Cape Gloucester

1943 - 1944 U.S. Navy and Marine Corps conduct "Island-Hopping Campaign" to seize or bypass Japanese-held islands in the Pacific
1944 Allied landing at Anzio fails to break stalemate in Italy

Allies invade Marshall Islands in Operations FLINTLOCK and CATCHPOLE

Allied landings at Normandy in Operation OVERLORD

Allied landings in Mariana Islands

Allied landings in southern France in Operation ANVIL/DRAGOON

1st Marine Division invades Pelelieu in Operation STALEMATE

1944 - 1945 Allies conduct amphibious operations in the Philippines

Allies assault Iwo Jima

Allied forces make assault crossing of Rhine in Germany

Allies land on Okinawa

1945 - 1946 Planned landings in Japanese home islands rendered unnecessary by the atomic bomb
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