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Maulana M. Ali Jauhar [1878-1931]
Maulana Shukat Ali [1873-1938] 
Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar In the brilliant galaxy of men and women whom India has produced, few can compare with the two brothers, Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali, popularly known as Ali Brothers, who fought the greatest British colonial power then in the first half of the twentieth century so that India may gain its freedom. They graduated from M.A.O. College, Aligarh.

Muhammad Ali later proceeded to Lincoln College, Oxford, for further studies where he got honours degree in Modern History and devoted himself more to the study of history of Islam. The Ali Brothers became firm opponents of British rule under the combined shock of the Balkan wars and Kanpur Mosque incident in 1913. Muhammad Ali started his famous weekly called, Comrade and a year later, an Urdu journal namely Hamdard. Muhammad Ali served as President of the Indian National Congress in 1923. He died in London during the first Round Table Conference and as he wished not to return to an India that was unfree, he was buried in Jerusalaem.

Born in a family belonging to Rampur, which in every sense of the word was conservative, the Ali Brothers, contrary to all expectations received western education. They were men of a verstile genius and played a great part in the Indian attempt to throw off the foreign yoke. They were great orators and still greater Journalists. Their disregard of world comfort, their sacrifices in the cause of India�s freedom, and their persistence in pursuing the goal most dear to them won them the tribute and affection of their countless countrymen.

Shaukat Ali, the elder brother, and Muhammad Ali, the younger, were given English education by their farsighted mother, Abadi Bano Begum, who had foreseen the likely impact of western education on the development of a liberal outlook in India. Though their uncle had refused to give them any money for English education, their mother mortgaged almost all her landed property and sent them to the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, Aligarh, founded by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in the second half of the Nineteenth Century with a view to impart English education to Muslims who were educationally backward. Both of them graduated from this College. Muhammad Ali showed exceptional brilliance throughout his College career and stood first in the B.A. examination of the Allahabad University. Muhammad Ali stood for Hindu-Muslim unity and fought for independence of the country. He had to undergo untold sufferings, including several long prison terms, but he took everything in his stride and never deviated from the path he had chosen for himself. He fought for Swaraj and continued his battle even on his death-bed in a foreign land. In his own words:

�To live for a great cause, and live up to it, is perhaps harder than to die for it.�

An ardent supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity, he was a great believer in peace between the two communities. Religion was to him a matter of internal faith and every one was free to follow his own inclination. He was of the opinion that religion and politics were two different things but were interdependent. Probably, he was convinced of the truth of a verse of Iqbal who said: "If politics is separated from religion, it degenerates into gangsterism".

Muhammad Ali Jauhar joined service in his own state of Rampur, and later in the Baroda State where his brother was already employed as an officer in the Opium Department.

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