The fine arts and some fields in the humanities (not literature) employ
traditional footnotes, which should conform to standards set by the The
Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., 1993. With this system, you must employ
superscript numerals within the text and place a footnote at the bottom
of the page (although some instructors allow endnotes; that is, all your
notes are gathered on one page at the end of your paper).
Numerals in Your Text
In your text use arabic numerals typed slightly above the line (like
this15) to signal a citation that will be found in a footnote
or endnote. Place this superscript numeral at the end of quotations or
paraphrases, with the numeral following immediately without a space after
the final word or mark of punctuation, as in these examples:
Robert B. Dove makes the distinction between a Congressional calendar
day and a legislative day, noting, "A legislative day is the period
of time following an adjournment of the Senate until another adjournment."1
Commenting on Neolithic sites of the Southern Levant in the online magazine
Biblical Archaeologist, E. B. Banning argues the "Natufians set the
stage for the development of large villages with an increasing reliance
on cereal grains and legumes that could be cultivated."2 Banning's
work shows that small villages often existed for a time only to disappear
mysteriously, perhaps because of plagues, invaders, or--most likely--a
nomadic way of life.3
In an essay in Electronic Antiquity, Richard Diamond explores the issue
of blindness in Oedipus Rex:
Thus Sophokles has us ask the question, who is blind? We must answer that
Teiresias is physically blind, yet he sees himself and Oidipous' nature.
Oidipous is physically sighted, but he is blind to himself, to his own
Abigail Ochberg has commented on the use of algae in paper that "initially
has a green tint to it, but unlike bleached paper which turns yellow with
age, this algae paper becomes whiter with age."5
Place your footnotes at the bottom of pages to correspond with superscript
numerals. Some papers require footnotes on almost every page. Follow these
- Use single spacing within each footnote, but use a double space between
- Indent the first line 5 spaces.
- Number the footnotes consecutively throughout the entire paper.
- Collect at the bottom of each page all the footnotes to citations made
on this page (or gather all notes at the end of your paper).
- Distinguish footnotes from the text by (1) using a smaller type size,
(2) triple spacing, or (3) placing a 12-space bar line beginning at the
- Cite electronic sources in this general order:
the address, preceded by available from
- title of article
- the text in which the article appears, preceded by in
- paragraph number(s) that you are citing (par. 6)
- the type of online source, within brackets [database online]
- publication data within parentheses; that is, the place, publisher,
volume, and date, as appropriate, with the date that you cited the source
within brackets inside the parentheses, followed by a semicolon
1. E. B. Banning, "Herders of Homesteaders? A
Neolithic Farm in Wadi Ziqlab, Jordan," in
Biblical Archaeologist, par. 6 [online journal] (vol.
58.1, March 1995 [cited 9 April 1997]); available from
World Wide Web @ http://scholar.cc.emory.edu/scripts/
2. Jon Guttman, "Constitution: The
Legendary Survivor," in Military History,
par. 46 [online magazine] (1997 [cited 28 April 1997]);
available from World Wide Web @ http://www.thehistorynet.com/
Online Magazine, No Author listed
3. "Health-Care Inflation: It's Baaack!"
in Business Week, par. 3 [magazine online] (17 Mar. 1997
[cited 18 March 1997]); available from World Wide Web @
4. United States Congress, Senate, Superfund
Cleanup Acceleration Act of 1997 [database online] (105th
Cong., Senate Bill 8, 21 January 1997 [cited 4 March 1997]);
available from World Wide Web @http.thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/
5. Richard Diamond, "Seeing One's Way: The Image
and Action of "Oidipous Tyrannos," in
Electronic Antiquity, par.4 [magazine online] (vol. 1,
1993 [cited 6 March 1997]); available from gopher @
6. Armand D'Agour, review of Classical Women Poets,
by Josephine Balmer, ed. and trans. [electronic bulletin board]
(Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Bloodaxe Books, 1996 [cited 10 March 1997]);
available from gopher @ gopher.lib.virginia.edu:70/alpha/bmer/
Listserv (Email Discussion Group)
7. Rosemary Camilleri, "Narrative Bibliography"
[electronic bulletin board](10 March 1997 [cited 11 March 1997]);
available from listserv @ H-RHETOR @msu.edu
8. Richard Link, "Territorial Fish," [electronic
newsgroup] (11 Jan. 1997 [cited 14 March 1997]); available from
9. United States Navel Observatory, "The Mercury
Ion Frequency Standard," par. 3 [electronic bulletin board]
(cited 6 March 1997); available from Telnet @ duke.ldgo.
columbia. edu/port=23 login ads, set terminal to 8/N/1
10. Argiris A. Kranidiotis, "Human Audio
Perception Frequently Asked Questions," par. 2
[electronic bulletin board] (7 June 1994 [cited 11 March
1997]); available from ftp://svr-ftp.eng.cam.ac.uk/pub/
11. Abigail Ochberg, "Algae-based Paper."
[Recycling Discussion Group] (9 Oct. 1996 [cited 18 June 1997]);
available from HyperNews posting http://www.betterworld.com/
Linkage Data (a file accessed from another
12. "What Happens to Recycled Plastics?"
[Lkd. Better World Discussion Topics at Recycling Discussion
Group] (1996 [cited 18 June 1997]); available from World Wide
Web @ http://www.betterworld.com/BWZ/9602/learn.htm
13. "Abolitionist Movement," in
Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia [CD-ROM]
(Softkey Multimedia, 1996 [cited 11 March 1996]).
14. David Wessel, "Fed Lifts Rates Half Point,
Setting Four-Year High," in Wall Street Journal
[CD-ROM] (Wall Street Journal Ondisc 2 February 1995:
A2+ [cited 6 February 1996]); available from UMI-ProQuest.
15. Aureliio J. Figueredo and Laura Ann McCloskey,
"Sex, Money, and Paternity: The Evolutionary Psychology
of Domestic Violence," in Ethnology and Sociobiology,
abstract (vol. 14, 1993: 353-79 [cited 12 March 1997]);
available from PsychLIT SilverPlatter.
Subsequent References to a Source
After a first full reference, shorten future footnotes to the source
by giving only the name of the author (or title), followed by a paragraph
number (e.g., 3. Smith, par. 9). If an author has two works mentioned,
employ a shortened version of the title with the author's name (e.g., 3.
Smith, "Cloning," par. 22).
14. Diamond, par. 6.
15. Fahey, "Beach House," par. 20.
16. Fahey, "End Run," par. 3.
The Latin abbreviations op. cit and loc. cit. are no longer used, but
The Chicago Manual of Style does permit the use of ibid. to refer
to the source cited in the previous note. For the same paragraph, use "ibid."
alone, and for a different paragraph use ibid. followed by the paragraph
8. Ibid., para. 6.
In addition to footnotes or endnotes, you may need to supply a separate
bibliography that lists all sources in alphabetical order. Use hanging
indention for the entries; that is, keyboard the first line of each entry
flush left but indent the second line and other succeeding lines 5 spaces.
Alphabetize the list by last names of authors. List alphabetically by title
two or more works by one author.
The bibliography will give the same basic information as the footnote
except for three differences. First, use periods, not commas, to separate
elements. Second, do not number the entries. Third, do not provide a reference
to a specific paragraph. If available, do list the total number of paragraphs
or online pages (with the understanding, of course, that these pages may
reproduce differently on various computer printers). The basic examples
are shown here.
Banning, E. B. "Herders of Homesteaders?
A Neolithic Farm in Wadi Ziqlab, Jordan." In
Biblical Archaeologist [online journal]. Vol. 58.1,
March 1995 [cited 9 April 1997]. Available from World
Wide Web @http://scholar.cc.emory.edu/scripts/
ASOR/BA/Banning.html [9 pages.]
Fahey, Todd Brendan. "Beach House." In
Kudzu [online magazine]. Autumn 1995
[cited 10 March 1997]. Available from World Wide
Web @ http://www.etext. org/Zines/K954/
Fahey- Beach.html [42 paragraphs.]
"Health-Care Inflation: It's Baaack!" In
Business Week [magazine online]. 17 Mar. 1997
[cited 18 March 1997]. Available from World Wide Web
United States Congress. Senate. Superfund Cleanup
Acceleration Act of 1997 [database online]. 105th
Cong., Senate Bill 8, 21 January 1997 [cited 4 March 1997].
Available from World Wide Web @ http.thomas. loc.gov/