AIDS and the Man: Electromagnetism and the Immune System

"It ain't just me, it ain't just you; this is all around the world".

Paul Simon, Graceland, 1986.


The idea that AIDS is caused by a virus is a well-protected fiction. The possibility that immune deficits, both mild and serious, can be acquired through over-exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields is, however, real, and proven in the laboratory.

If these two statements themselves were not paradigm-shifting enough, there is a distinct possibility also that all viral structures are simply a physical manifestation of coherent electromagnetic fields, and are not really organic creatures at all, lying on the borderland between the organic and the inorganic, the material and the field, the ghost and the machine. This possibility has been known in the highest echelons of the U.S. Government since 1943, as a result of wartime experimental work on high EM fields.

How the AIDS story was presented to the public.

In 1981 epidemiologists began showing concern about the arrival in the North American medical arena of some cases of a new and curious human acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Its suggested aetiology was linked by the National Institutes of Health ("NHI") to some new viral infection, as yet undefined. The concern was that the progress of the disorder through the body could not be arrested, and the fear was that no vaccine was yet available to contain its spread among the population.

Officials at the NHI, which safeguards American citizens' health, might have known better had they remembered that the Dutch botanist who first used the word virus, Beijerinck, only coined the word at about the same time that electricity began to creep into public usage. Peter Radetski in his brilliant book "The Invisible Invaders" describes the discovery thus:

"It wasn't until the turn of the century that he called the world's attention to a virus - something that was not like anything that had ever been conceived before. As Beijerinck tried to track down a mysterious disease-causing substance that would not show itself in the finest microscope - microscopes that could display even the tiniest of bacteria - a strange thought came to him: there was something loose in the world, something that was so small it might be no larger than a molecule, something that was alive, able to reproduce, and very very dangerous. He called the invisible substance a virus, from the Latin for "poison" or "slime".


"...this thing inhabits a shadowy borderland between life and death, becoming animate only when making its way into the living cells of a host" Radetski went on, impressed by the beautiful symmetry of the virus's myriad geometric structures and shapes. Beijerinck too had the first impulse that the virus was "positively unnatural", too perfect to be an organic structure, yet somehow newly embedded in, and interfering with organic life.


The NHI might also have known better if they had taken the trouble to read a report to Congress in 1971 from the President's Office of Telecommunications Policy. A nine member group called the Electromagnetic Radiation Management Advisory council ("ERMAC") had been established in 1968 to investigate the possible biological effects of microwaves and other radio-frequency energy.


In its statement of the problem the committee reported:


"The electromagnetic radiations emanating from radar, television, communications systems, microwave ovens, industrial heat treatment systems, medical diathermy units, and many other sources permeate the modern environment, both civilian and military.


"This type of man-made radiation has no counterpart in man's evolutionary background; it was relatively negligible prior to World War Two". Having described the rapid growth of radio frequency energy the report continued prophetically:


"Power levels in and around American cities, airports, military installations and tracking centres, ships and pleasure craft, industry and homes may already be biologically significant"...


"Unless adequate monitoring and control based on a fundamental understanding of biological effects are instituted in the near future, in the decades ahead man may enter an era of pollution of the environment comparable to the chemical pollution of today".


After stating that "research in the field of long-term low-level effects of electromagnetic radiation on living systems has been at a near standstill in this country", and after estimating that "the population at risk is not nearly known; it may be special groups; it may well be the entire population," the report gave a chilling warning:

"the consequences of undervaluing or misjudging the biological effects of long-term low level exposure could become a critical problem for public health, especially if genetic effects are involved".


It went on to recommend a massive research programme to cost $63 million over a five year period.


The research programme never happened. As Allen Frey, an early bio-electromagnetics pioneer, put it with commendable diplomacy:

"much of the research that was done during the seventies was irrelevant to the questions about the biological effects of low-intensity RF radiation. The DoD (Dept. of Defense) sponsors who determined what would be done appear to have been primarily interested in research that used high power levels or used techniques relevant to thermoregulation questions". When he later reviewed research papers concerning the effects on the immune system of RF energy Frey was able to conclude:


"In sum, the immune system data suggests a responsiveness to RF radiation. But the investigators have used radiation of marginal frequency and modulation for inducing such effects. The optimal RF parameters for exploring such effects have not been used".


Some ten years after Frey's 1970 milestone paper and the OTP-ERMAC committee's unheeded overview, the first AIDS cases finally became noticeable among the American people.


There had been mysterious cases for years before then, even as early as the late sixties in the case of one sixteen year old boy. By January 1976 the first cases of unusual Kaposi's Sarcoma were being reported, a rare cancer of the skin previously only caused by the effects of sunlight on old people.


Perhaps somewhere in the corridors of power the White House had taken notice. For no declared reason, Ric Tell and Ed Mantiply - specialists in non-ionising EM radiation monitoring - were summoned to their boss's office in Las Vegas at the U.S. Environmental Agency in about mid 1976 and told: "Measure the radiofrequency field intensity in fifteen major cities (covering about 20 percent of the American population) and report on the extent of population exposure. Forget the current U.S. exposure limits. Use the Russian limits, one thousand times less, as your guide".


When in 1979 they completed their survey they were able to confirm that over two million American citizens were being irradiated above the USSR maximum permitted exposure limit of 1uW/cm2, with localised exposures over a hundred times that level in cities with high EM traffic.


The worst areas were California and New York: Los Angeles for example is served by 43 FM, VHF and UHF stations, of which 27 radio and TV antennae on Mount Wilson, produce EM field densities of 720 to 1200 uw/cm2 in the backyard of the post office there. The Sentinel Heights area south of Syracuse, New York, alone contains about a dozen transmitters and they result in ambient levels of 1uW/cm2 throughout an area of several miles. Furthermore microwave relay antennas across the nation at upto 30 miles apart can each generate upto 7.5 uw/cm2 within 100 metres of the tower, which may support several antennae.


Meanwhile laboratory studies by a number of different researchers such as M.C. Gelford, Bob Liburdy, Przemyslaw Czerski, Charles Schlagel, and Don Justesen were showing profound long term effects on the immune system and the blood brain barrier ("BBB") as a result of microwave and RF radiation. Someone, somewhere even then may have realised that the cause of deficits of the immune system were not only confined to ionising radiation, but were beginning to occur among people living near major sources of non-ionising radiofrequency energy in U.S. cities.


The question was, how to break the news? Such surveillance reports would normally be the responsibility of the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta Georgia. With commendable nonchalance their first report in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly report ("MMWR") of 5th June 1981 did not mention the word AIDS. It simply noted five cases of a cluster of unusual pneumonias - pneumocystis carinii - among a group of previously healthy young homosexual men in Los Angeles, accompanied by immunosuppression. The next report, a month later, was from New York and included the first 26 Kaposi's Sarcoma cases as well as a further crop of PCP. A month after that the figures were swollen to a total of 108: the third report also admitted that dates of onset had been as early as January 1976. A degree of alarm was evident in this report, which referred to a "Task Force on Kaposi's and opportunistic infections" as well as admitting that a national case-control study was getting underway. Taken together the set of reports seemed somewhat speedily anxious, considering that a mere ninety days had elapsed since the first five cases were reported. Could the reports have been carefully stage-managed?

As reported cases continued to grow it became clear that over 80 percent of the prevalence was concentrated in dense urban areas, even though those particular cities accounted for only 41 percent of the population. Five main areas emerged: San Francisco and Los Angeles in California, New York, Washington, and Miami. All these cities were at the top of Tell and Mantiply's list, and their incidence was later confirmed by Ruth Berkelman and her colleagues from CDC in 1989:

Region          Pop. (m)          AIDS Rate          % Exposed to RF                  Exposed

or City          (millions)         (per 100,000)          (over USSR limit)              Pop.Nos.

Washington      3.06                  81.2                          2.8                                 85,680

San Francisc   3.25                 127.7                          2.3                                 74,750

New York        9.12                  80.9                          0.4                                  36,480

Miami              1.63                  58.4                          1.8                                  29,340

Los Angeles     7.48                  n.a                            0.1                                    7,480

Chicago           7.10                  8.7                            0.4                                  28,400

Denver              1.62                 3.8                            0.1                                  16,200

In November 1990 134,729 AIDS cases had been reported in metropolitan areas which have populations of 500,000 or more. Ominously, the AIDS cases seemed to correspond closely to the numbers of RF, VHF, and UHF station densities as reported by Tell and Mantiply, particularly the UHF (the bandwidth of mobile phones):

CITY   AIDS cases RF stations VHF stations UHF stations Total Stations  
New York                                      15,646 23 7 3 33  
Los Angeles    5,323 29 7 7 43  
San Francisco   5,925 26 5 3 34  
Chicago            1,827 20 5 3 28  
Washington          2,094 17 4 3 24  
Miami                1,745 13 5 2 20  
San Diego             957 17 3 2 22  
Atlanta                 1131 11 4 3 18  
Seattle                    707 16 4 0 20  
Denver                 610 10 5 0 15  
Portland           (to January 1989)   382 12 6 0 18  
Las Vegas        (to January 1989)   209 6 5 0 11  

Moreover, if the cause of this new immune deficit was RF or microwave over-exposure acquired neonatally, the age of the cases supported it: over two thirds of AIDS cases in the States were born at the same time as the new microwave relays and TV transmission stations had been brought into commission in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Of course, one might argue that the above fit is only good because there will be more radio stations with increasing population. But that this is not so is shown by comparing the city sizes: if AIDS is infective, then AIDS cases might be expected to correlate with population size, but they don't. Instead the ratio of AIDS cases per 100,000 population correlates with EM traffic density (see table above).

Thus Miami with a population of 1.63 million but some 29340 people exposed to RF radiation above the USSR limit, has more AIDS cases per 100,000 population (rate 58.4) than Chicago with its population of over 7 million (rate 8.7) where only 28,400 of them are exposed above the Russian limit.

Similarly Denver, which has a population about the same size as Miami (1.62 million), but an RF exposure rate so low that only an estimated only 16,200 are over-exposed, had only 3.8 AIDS cases per 100,000 population.

On the West coast, Seattle (population 1.61 million) is another example of fewer AIDS cases where the RF exposure above USSR limits is also low: it had only 702 AIDS cases (rate 4.4 per 100,000) and Tell and Mantiply estimate that only 16,580 of its inhabitants are exposed above the USSR limits.

Ralph Waldo Emerson once wrote a brilliant essay on Compensation, saying in effect that there's no such thing as a free lunch. Were scientists uncovering a horrendous compensatory penalty for the pleasures of radio, TV, and telecommunications?

If cellular evidence was ever required the study by Charles Schlagel of the Naval Medical Research Unit (also at Bethesda) provided it, while Don Justesen had also already shown that the BBB could be weakened by microwaves. Schlagel's 1982 paper in the Journal of Immunology reported that a single exposure to microwaves of 2.45 GHz. (at 0.6 Watts) could affect a gene on chromosome 5 in mouse lymphocytes. The effect was to increase CRL (complement receptor-bearing lymphocytes) and this implies that their genetic control could be altered in this way. Altering the genetic control of lymphocytes by means of microwave exposure, and thus rendering them permanently incompetent could be one way in which an immune deficiency is created. This is because we only get one set of T-cells in our life and if they are mutant when they proliferate, then the new cells are also mutant.

This sort of discovery was backed up by Dan Lyle's work at Loma Linda V.A. Hospital in California, where he was finding in 1983 that the competence of T-lymphocytes was markedly impaired through microwave exposure.

In 1979 Ralph Smialowicz of the Experimental Biology Division, Health Effects Research Laboratory, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had prepared a detailed overview of RF bio-effects and in it reported Russian work by Sokolov (1974) who found that in 131 persons suffering from "radiowave sickness" there was "a significant decrease in circulating thrombocytes and leukocytes". These effects seemed temporary and reversible, however, and other reports were conflicting. The overwhelming mass of evidence from both sides did not however prevent Smialowicz from concluding:

"The particular susceptibilities of lymphocytes to NEMR (nonionizing electromeagnetic radiation) decribed above have led to examination of the effects of non-ionizising radiation on the immune system...what appears to be evident is that the haematological and immunologic systems are sensitive to NEMR fields. Because of lack of understanding of the effects of long-term low-level exposure to NEMR on the haematologic and immunologic systems of man and animals, future studies are needed".

Not many years after that the EPA was prevented from continuing its work in that area for reasons which seem to smell of a White House cover-up.

"Genetic predisposition to the effects of absorbed microwave energy in susceptible individuals is of great potential significance", warned Schlagel. "This approach has tremendous potential for increasing our understanding of the biologic effects of microwaves". The AIDS patients weren't equally happy about that, however.

As it was, in 1981 the NIH was expecting to find a viral explanation: most success in twentieth century medicine had been brought about by finding that many diseases were caused by bacteria and viruses, and cured by chemicals, vaccines, antibiotics, or other pharmaceutical anti-viral agents. Its research was not unnaturally oriented towards finding a viral culprit and soon identified a possible causal agent in the shape of a retrovirus which seemed to be present in about 47 percent of cases. It was dubbed Human T-lymphotropic Virus 3 (HTLV-3), because the new syndrome was characterized by an inevitable slow disappearance of the thymus-originated lymphocytes (T-cells) which form an indispensable part of our white blood cells.

Some kinds of lymphocyte do not actually kill any foreign cells themselves, but simply mark them for subsequent destruction in a number of ways. Other cells such as macrophages then literally eat them up or other squadrons of the immune army like neutrophils or monocytes attack them. Unless the hostile cells are marked as foreign they are left alone to grow or 'proliferate' as it is called, and in that way infection builds up. If the lymphocytes are inhibited from doing their scouting job, therefore, the whole immune system grinds to a halt. Sooner or later the entire organism succumbs to the infections which have seized the opportunity of growing without hindrance in the body. These infections are therefore called opportunistic.

No sooner had the Centers of Disease Control at Atlanta Georgia detected this unusual incidence of pneumocystis carinii and Kaposi's sarcoma among young homosexuals and its accompanying immune deficits, (with somewhat surprising perspicuity, and following only five cases), when other mammalian immune deficits slowly began to appear: in monkeys, in cats, and in a number of marine mammals such as dolphins, sealions, and grey seals. Moreover curious encephalopathies began to emerge in cattle - bovine spongiform encephalopathy, - dubbed mad cow disease - , while even battery-reared chickens seemed unusually prone to invasion by monocellular organisms like Salmonella enteriditis. By chance some years before the incidence of Salmonella grew to worrying proportions, in 1973, Jakovleva had pointed out in another Russian study that several months exposure to microwaves caused a reduction in the circulating antibodies to Salmonella in mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Pity he didn't include chickens.

Indeed outbreaks of infection from similar monocellular creatures like listeria in cheeses and legionella from air and water cleansing became common, causing health authorities to question the care being given to the commercial administration of processed food, and the supervision of fresh air and water in large buildings.

The 1980s became the decade when the public at large started to learn about the immune system, and about concepts like the food chain.

Trying to prove the untrue

Meanwhile, the viral hypothesis of AIDS had a difficult genesis. Most of the involved laboratories foresaw lucrative pickings if they could uncover the virus and develop its vaccine, or at least identify the virus so that testing for it became their patented prerogative. Despite intensive research however, the mystery germ remained stubbornly aloof, and no one could find or identify it for sure.

In January 1981 Luc Montagnier at the Pasteur Institute in Paris eventually and with many reservations identified a possible candidate: - from one single AIDS patient, his team isolated a retrovirus which seemed to be associated with this syndrome.

One of the world's foremost experts in retrovirology was Robert Gallo, who worked across the Atlantic in the U.S. Government-owned National Cancer Institute at Bethesda, Maryland. Under promise that no commercial use would be made of it, in September 1983 the Pasteur Institute researchers sent him a second sample, a sample which had been very difficult to proliferate in culture, so fragile and tiny it was, that their first attempt to send it some months before, failed.

Whatever the official cover-up story subsequently maintained, there must have been some funny business going on. With undue haste, not even waiting for the usual procedure of peer-reviewed publication in an accepted medical journal, Gallo was asked to present a press conference on 23rd. April 1984 to announce that his laboratory had found the virus which seemed to cause AIDS. He was curiously reluctant to give much detail, but the subsequently published papers showed on 4th May 1984 that it had been found in less than half the cases in earlier studies, and that although antibodies had been found in nearly 90 percent of cases, these seemed to lessen as the disease progressed. The most telling fact of all was that the photograph supposed to show the new HTLV-3 virus was actually a photograph of the Pasteur Institute's LAV, - a howler of monumental proportion.

Not unnaturally, the Pasteur Institute became suspicious. When the Gallo retrovirus HTLV-3 was compared with their own LAV, the genetic similarities were far too great for the former not to have been derived from the latter. Not content with the answers they received, the Pasteur Institute uncharacteristically began legal action against the U.S. Government, the owners of the National Cancer Institute, well aware of the gravity of their claims.

The case was never to reach the courts however. Seeing that the evidence against them was likely to be convincing, the Government reached an out-of-court agreement with the Pasteur Institute whereby the vast revenues expected to accrue from sales of antibody tests for the newly-found retrovirus would be shared equally between the two organisations. The virus itself, to avoid confusion, would henceforth be known as HIV - human immunodeficiency virus.

It is unusual in medical circles for any virus to be described by what it does rather than what it looks like. The same goes for diseases: doctors call acute stomach pain gastroenteritis, chest congestion pneumonia, and heart attacks myocardial infarction even though they may know what caused the conditions: poison of the gut, standing out in the rain, or receiving a psychological shock, perhaps.

The stubborn pre-judgement of this small, frail retrovirus - discovered and cultivated from a single patient and by not even found in as many as half the AIDS patients examined - was either a horrendous mistake, or grossly bad and premature scientific judgement, or a cover-up of global proportion. Or perhaps simply greed for the potential profits the test kits would provide.

It was also wrong.

By 1985 eminent molecular biologists were being to ask whether some other co-factor might be an accompanying cause of AIDS. Richard Ablin of New York's State University had already the previous year put forward another explanation, and later in the Lancet he suggested that transglutaminase might be a possible co-factor. To have a letter or paper published in the Lancet is not easy, for the editor has to turn away 80 percent of what is sent him. Furthermore, most of the more important statements are reviewed by independent medical men before acceptance.


Next, in what is now a famous paper, in 1987 Peter Duesberg, one of the world's most well-respected molecular biologists finally said aloud what many others had been thinking: that the postulates which must be satisfied in order to prove that a virus has caused a certain infection simply do not work in respect of HIV.

There are four tests, laid down by Robert Koch a century before, which the virus must undergo:

1) it must be present in every case of the disease. Yet by 1989 letters were streaming into the Lancet from doctors reporting cases of AIDS in patients in whom there was no sign of HIV.

2) It must be isolated from the host and grown in a pure culture.

3) when administered to an animal or human being the virus must then produce the disease in that animal. Duesberg had been unable to achieve this condition, and even went so far as to offer to be injected with pure HIV in order to prove that it was not, by itself at any rate, the prime cause.

4) It must be found present in the host so infected.

Numerous cases were also being reported of patients with HIV but no sign of AIDS, and sero-reversion was also noticed, - patients with HIV no longer had it - , particularly when the patient went somewhere else to spend what he thought were to be his or her last days. None of these conditions were what should have been expected if HIV was the causal factor behind AIDS. The authorities started to alter their media advertising, no longer saying directly that HIV causes AIDS, but using phrases like "associated with" or "the virus that leads to AIDS".

Curiously also their campaigns were being directed towards heterosexual union as the main infective act, whereas in reality there were very few examples of such infection. Even so the authorities explained this by saying that there was a long gestation period, upto eight years in fact. Again there was little evidence for this: the first cases had only been identified in 1979, so how could they know?

By 1990 groups of researchers from the CDC and other hospitals were pointing out that transmission of the HIV virus by non-sexual non-parenteral contact in 206 households which they had monitored where an AIDS patient lived, simply didn't happen. You cannot catch AIDS in the same way as you might catch any other viral infection.

Smear campaigns seemed to follow Duesberg and others who questioned HIV, some even suggesting that the virus had been an accidental creation of the CIA. Others associated its origin with faulty poliomyelitis vaccines.

A further puzzle was that no one could trace the origin of the virus. Some suggested it originated in green monkeys in Africa. Others pointed to Haiti: the five "aitches" disease, they called it: homosexuality, heroin-addiction, hookers, haemophilia, and Haiti. But when the origin was investigated more closely it became apparent that AIDS had appeared simultaneously in several parts of the world, some of which could only with difficulty have been connected by case-to-case transmission. There is a similar difficulty with influenza outbreaks, which become epidemic only at the height of the sunspot cycle, when the sun emits much higher than normal levels of radiation.

Meanwhile stereochemistry - that last resort of pharmaceutical science - was beginning to be offered to patients via a steroid called AZT. The effects of AZT were not curative, they simply "froze" the patient's cells, both good and bad, and ultimately the patient would still die, but more slowly, with some appalling side effects the meanwhile.

From the beginning AIDS had been clearly associated with homosexuality. "What does Gay stand for?" "Got Aids Yet?" was a typical cocktail party one-liner during the early eighties, which had also witnessed a rise in herpes genitalis, a sexually transmitted disease for which a viral origin had been already established. But the association with homosexuality did not contain: soon the disorder's incidence included haemophiliacs who had received injections of Factor Eight (a blood-clotting factor in the preparation of which contributions from several donors are pooled).

Mothers with AIDS were also found to have infected children. This was nowhere more shockingly revealed than in Rumania where after the overthrow of its dictator many cases of such were found by the new regime.

Furthermore it was discovered that there was more than one variety of HIV, since a new virus dubbed HIV2 had been found in West Africa, (an embarrassment for those offering the Elisa and Western Blot antibody tests for only the first variety).

With such uncertainty beginning to appear, accompanied by cases of sero-reversion - HIV-positives reverting to negatives, AIDS cases without HIV, and HIV positives without AIDS, the only thing doctors could agree on was that the disorder began in the brain, long before any overt symptoms appeared. Furthermore, if the patient did not die of any of the opportunistic infections made possible by the lack of T-cell protection, he or she would die of dementia.

The demented patient would stare listlessly ahead, and attempts to feed him were often impossible. Such patients, often young men, present a piteous sight, and provoke the feeling that it is such a waste that they should be cut off in their prime. This aspect of the disorder has not however been emphasised by the authorities.

AIDS, microwaves, and the BBB

It was therefore clear that some kind of pathogenic incursion through the blood-brain barrier ("BBB") must have taken or be taking place, and that the incursive agent was only transmittable by blood or other body fluids.

This posed a serious problem for those trying to produce a vaccine: passage through the tight junctions of the BBB is almost impossible for a number of reasons. Even if the barrier could be successfully breached, what other pathogenic impact might any vaccine have? So what could have been breaching the BBB, and how was the barrier being weakened in the first place?

The BBB is a selective barrier though which capillaries in the brain regulate the transport of substances between the blood and the surrounding neuropil. Ominously, in 1975 Allen Frey reported an increase in the permeability of the BBB in rats exposed to 2400 microwatts per cm2 of continuous electromagnetic energy, or only 200uW/cm2 if the signal was pulsed at 1.2 Gigahertz. This frequency is about half the frequency of the average microwave oven. Microwave ovens don't pulse, but radar installations do.

He did this by injecting a fluorescent dye into the blood stream before exposing the animals, which subsequently turned up in the exposed animals' brains but not in those of the controls. His results were later confirmed by Oscar and Hawkins in 1977: they reported that effects could even be observed after irradiation at power densities as low as 30uW/cm2. - levels one might encounter from any large microwave source such as a TV transmitting antenna.

So finally in 1980 Don Justesen, who was working for the Kansas City Medical Centre, published a paper in the IEEE Proceedings for that year which confirmed that microwaves could effectively and significantly weaken the BBB, allowing contaminating agents through. He made no bones about his conclusions:

"It is necessary to emphasise anew that controlled studies of truly long term irradiation of animals in microwave fields have never been performed", he pointed out, "and that data on single , 20- or 30-min exposures that result in a trivial alteration of say, cerebral circulation, cannot be generalised to the proposition that weeks or months of long daily bouts of radiation in the same field will be of no consequence. That question is moot".

HIV and the impact of EM energy

Some years after this, interesting new characteristics of HIV came to light. In 1988 Valerie and co -workers found that HIV proliferated fifty fold when exposed to light, and as much as 150 fold if exposed to ultraviolet light. This is a curious finding, because the action of UV light is usually bacteriocidal and does no good to viruses either. What might happen if the HIV virus were exposed to microwave energy has not to date been examined, but it would certainly be reasonable to expect its proliferation in those conditions, even though the virus itself may be harmless. And if it proliferates in vitro it may well also proliferate in vivo: in fact the presence of HIV may signal nothing more than that there has been microwave irradiation. This would also explain why HIV is so prevalent in Africa, where the sun is higher and more irradiative, without concomitant levels of AIDS.

Thus the possibility exists that microwave energy might be responsible both for weakened permeability of the BBB and also for HIV proliferation. If so there would certainly be an association between the two, but not necessarily a causal relationship. The cause would be connected with microwave energy and its effect on the brain, and would partially explain why the two were not always found together.

If this were so then one might find higher incidence of AIDS cases near to microwave transmission towers or in places where the levels of electromagnetic energy generally is above average. This is because Frey's studies implicate not only microwave energy but that of the lower EM frequencies too.

The first cases of AIDS appeared in Los Angeles, "the sunshine state", with San Francisco, which has the largest number of radio stations in the States, close behind. The next cases were reported in New York, which is said to consume more electricity in one day than the whole of Africa.

The epidemiological clues

As the incidence of AIDS cases grew they were carefully monitored by the Centers for Disease Control, and published weekly. The age of the patients was given in five year bands, and the location where they were living at the time of diagnosis.

Gradually it became possible to correlate location of AIDS patients with the magnetic traffic levels of various American cities. Of course, Americans are a mobile people, and not everyone stays for their lifetime at the town where they were born. But the first fact to emerge when I looked at this possibility was that over two thirds of the cases were all born around the time when microwave telephony and television was being introduced into the States, a period between 1947 and 1952. (In Europe the introduction was a few years later).

The study which enabled me to correlate the AIDS patients and U.S. city EM traffic had been the one carried out at the end of the seventies by Ric Tell and Ed Mantiply. Ric still runs his own EM monitoring service from Las Vegas, a slightly built quietly spoken attentive man, not prone to wild claims. Together he and Mantiply examined fifteen major cities, and took some 47,000 readings over three years. It emerged that the radiation levels were, in about one percent of cases, higher than the maxima imposed by the official Soviet exposure limits. In other words, over 2.0 million U.S. citizens are being irradiated at levels too high for tolerance, according to the Russian standards.

Some excitement had arisen when a curious case of AIDS symptoms had been found in an 16 year old boy from New Orleans, who died of it in 1968. The puzzled doctors had frozen his blood in case new clues as to his cause of death should eventually emerge. When the blood was re-examined they found it contained HIV. But the main point of interest for me was that he too, like most of the AIDS cases, had been born in 1952.

So it could be that HIV is simply an indicator that the patient has been exposed to high levels of microwave radiation. This helps to explain at least one case of sero-conversion. In that case, reported on British TV in 1990, a man who had been living at Cape Cod was told one day that he was sero-positive. As a result he left the area and went back to Florida expecting to die. Fortunately for him, however, he reverted back thereafter to sero-negative, and has had no further symptoms in his new location. At Cape Cod one of the world's most powerful strategic surveillance systems, a PAVE-PAWS early warning system, is situated.

It also helps to explain why although there is a possibly high incidence of HIV in Africa, yet actual AIDS cases are still no higher than European levels. By all counts if HIV causes AIDS, the population of Africa should be decimated by now, but it simply hasn't happened.

Of course, national pride being what it is, there may have been a good deal of under-reporting. Also "the slim disease", as AIDS was beginning to be called there, quite closely resembles other disorders including simple undernourishment.

The most devastating blow to the viral hypothesis of AIDS was ultimately delivered by none other than the very man who discovered the HIV virus, Luc Montagnier himself. In mid 1990 on a British TV documentary "Dispatches", Montagnier suggested that without some other co-factor to trigger the disorder, HIV itself may be harmless to people 'infected' with it.

"HIV is not sufficient by itself to induce AIDS", said the eminent scientist who had uncovered it, "Perhaps in order to have the disease we need more than one agent".

Peter Duesberg said the same:

"It is concluded that AIDS virus is not sufficient to cause AIDS and that there is no evidence, besides its presence in a latent form, that it is necessary for AIDS. However the virus may be directly responsible for the early mononucleosis-like disease observed in several infections prior to antiviral immunity. In a person who belongs to the high risk group for AIDS, antibody against the AIDS virus serves as an indicator of an annual risk for AIDS that averages 0.3% and may reach 5 %, but in a person that does not belong to this group antibody to the virus signals no apparent risk for AIDS. Since nearly all virus carriers have antiviral immunity including neutralizing antibody, vaccination is not likely to benefit virus carriers with or without AIDS".

What neither of the two scientists were able to do was to offer any other detailed argument as to what, if it wasn't the HIV virus, was causing this growing global immune deficit.

Curing AIDS by hyperthermia

One of the effects of exposing blood to electromagnetic energy is that its haem becomes slightly magnetised. Could the magnetised blood be fogging the signals being transmitted to the lymphocytes to enable them to distinguish between pathogenic and friendly cells?

If this were so, then no sieve would be small enough to resolve the pathogen in the blood. And by demagnetising or degaussing the blood the symptoms should disappear. As it happens there was an AIDS patient recently who as a last resort had his blood drawn out and heated upto 108 degrees Fahrenheit before being replaced. The AIDS symptoms disappeared in just a few days afterwards.

The patient, 33 year old Carl Crawford, was treated in Atlanta Georgia by Drs. William Logan and Kenneth Alonso, formerly of the Atlanta Hospital.They had developed this heating treatment of the blood since 1981, but Logan's paper describing his results submitted to the Journal of the American Medical Association ("JAMA") was rejected on the grounds of insufficient research. Hyperthermia would have the effect of demagnetising the blood, since heating is one way of accomplishing this, the others being percussion and degaussing.

The opposition which met Logan's research has virtually driven him underground, as well as the attendant publicity incited by his fromer colleague Alonso. Logan has nevertheless set up a secret facility in Belize where he continues to treat cases, and his first paper has now been published in a Swedish medical journal.The results are encouraging, to say the least, though Logan was amazed to learn from me the possible mechanism whereby his treeatment became effective, since noone had thought of the demagnetising implications of heating the blood before.

We are beginning to get clues now that AIDS may in fact be another electromagnetically induced disorder, not a viral infection, and curable only by techniques which recognise this. The work of Dan Lyle at Loma Linda has already pointed out that exposure to EM energy, both at power and microwave frequencies, has an inhibiting effect on T-cell cytotoxicity. But it is still a long step from there to argue that the mechanism of how that happens lies at a cerebral level.

In order to progress the notion, let us now look again at Penfield's map of the brain, and note that sensory and motor control of the genitalia has been displaced to its more important position at the top of the central longitudinal fissure which divides the two hemispheres. Why should that be? If the CMR hypothesis is correct, then the polarised charges in the great pyramidal cells in that area, being closer together, will be more powerful, and the consequent EM emissions will also be stronger.

Since the procreative drive is a vital part of survival of any species, that would be a natural place to find its control centre, and would explain the displacement. But what of the even more important preservative drive, - the signal which defines for lymphocytes which cells are friendly and which are pathogens? That signal is arguably even more important than the procreative drive. It would seem logical then to find its centre even further down the central longitudinal fissure, in pole position so to speak. 

Cortical control of the immune system

No one has ever compared the cellular integrity of this region with lymphocyte function in vivo, but my hypothesis leads to a clear prediction that such a correlation will be found. In this way the connection between the immune system and cerebral action is complete, explaining most of the unsolved problems of psychoneuroimmunolgy.

The idea that immune defence is ultimately under cortical control has been growing during the last decade: it aims to explain how psychological factors by themselves can actually impair the immune system's performance in responding to infection. The study of psychoneuroimmunology has grown from such ideas, and offers valuable insights into the management of depressive-related disorders.

However that the immune system should have its own specific location in the cerebral hemispheres, just like an arm or a leg does, is a new one, and that its location should be in that specific place, in the lower part cortex down the central longitudinal fissure immediately above the corpus callosum, is a testable prediction.

Lessons from sudden infant death syndrome

But how does the damage to this most protected of all regions of the cortex occur, or in other words how is the immune deficit acquired rather than inherited?

In the course of investigating whether there might be any connection between over-exposure to EM fields and cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) I found that without exception in the sleeping areas in homes of such infant victims were electric fields of more than four times the normal strengths or more - sometimes over ten times. These often emanated from storage heaters, immersion heaters, electric fires, electric blankets and the like, even from domestic electric wiring.

Unlike other mammals, the human infant takes about a year to complete myelination - the process of protecting its intracranial neural filaments with fatty tissue. This is because the human cranium will otherwise quickly become too large to pass down the birth canal, and so all of us human beings are born prematurely (as far as our brains are concerned), in order to avoid that difficulty. I theorized that in the presence of such unusually powerful fields the signals from infant brains to instruct for protein synthesis would be subject to electrical interference (at a time when above all others the infant's body was growing and adding cells at a prodigious rate), thus imposing an intolerable stress.

What might be the brain's response to such radio interference with its transmissions? First obviously some attempt would be made to evade the field. The hapless victims of cot death show all the signs of this: an altered cry to summon the mother, a wriggling and writhing to move their body, and so on.

If that does not prove effective - for sometimes the mother will chance upon the infant clearly in distress and pick it up and rush for the doctor. In these near miss cases the infant, thus removed from the EM field, quickly recovers. But what if that strategem fails? An automatic alternative is to increase the CMR signals and to slow down as much as possible the synthesis of protein by decreasing oxygen delivery. Apnoea is one consequence, but the other is to increase the transmission of ions along the corpus callosum, where the filaments are already only thinly myelinated and by no means yet hardened as in adult life.

The result is that the callosic filaments become heated. Sure enough, in a substantial number of autopsies of SIDS cases the infant corpus callosum is found denuded of its myelin which has fallen into the lateral ventricles below and re-coagulated round the blood vessels. An important purpose of blood vessels is to keep the body temperature cool. I suspect that this is the mechanism of cot death.

The British Foundation for the Study of Infant Death disagrees, and pooh-poohed my ideas publically. If they are so confident I challenge them to place an infant in an electric field of more than 100 Volts per metre, such as might be found in any household near an electric immersion heater, and watch what happens to the hapless infant: it will, I predict, show all the incipient signs of near miss SIDS. The National Grid persistently hide behind the IRPA guidelines for power frequency exposure, which are as high as 12,128 Volts per metre for the 50 Hz. electric currents we use in Britain (60 Hz. in the U.S.).

I make the same challenge to them: if fields as low as 100 volts per metre are as harmless as they claim, they should have no qualms about accepting this challenge.

However, when Hans Arne Hanssen did this test with small animals, those which were exposed were shown to have similar brain lesions, while others which had been kept shielded by a Faraday Cage showed no damage.

But what if the heat generated by their thinly insulated corpus callosum of those infants as they react to EM field interference, is not enough to be fatal? It may still be enough to cause long term damage or weakness in the cortical areas above in the central longitudinal fissure. In that case one would see, first an immune deficit in later life, (e.g childhood variable immune deficiency, or AIDS) and if the damage continued up the fissure towards the falx cerebri there might also be damage to the sensory and motor areas concerned with the genitalia. That might well in turn lead to psychosexual tendencies.

This is why, in my opinion, not only are there are so many AIDS cases in cities with high electromagnetic traffic, but they are very often related to homosexual unions.

Proving the electromagnetic aetiology of AIDS

Good science is predictive and its hypotheses testable. With such a cocktail of EM frequencies and wavelengths now permeating the planet - satellite uplinks, microwave TV transmission, relocatable over the horizon radar, airport radar, microwave ovens, and local radio stations are just a few - , whether there is any correlation between any or all of these and the rise in immune deficits of the seriousness of AIDS would be an almost impossible epidemiological task.

Two studies which have attempted it, one from Poland and the other from China, have both shown positive and significant connections between damage to the immune system and EM field exposure at microwave and radar frequencies.

But one might begin to test such a hypothesis first in the laboratory by seeing the impact of low level long term microwave radiation on cells, then traditionally one might follow this up with live animal studies - again this somewhat repugnant exercise would have to be a) long term and b) in a carefully controlled environment.

Finally a larger scale retrospective case-control epidemiological study would add to (or subtract from) the evidence. Even at the end of this stage it would be difficult to point to more than a correlation, rather than a causal relationship. And who would fund such an enormous research programme?

Not the pharmaceutical giants, whose vested research is designed to unearth profitable products. Not the power transmission or distribution authorities, in whose hands lies most of today's scanty and sometimes flawed research programmes in the field of bioelectromagnetics: they would be damning their own product. Not the universities: they can scarcely restrain their laboratory technicians from the more lucrative pastures of industry, let alone venture into new untried fields.

Not even the medical research councils: their traditional funding sources, the major charities and government, are drying up: the former as a result of the current recession, so that they are even finding it difficult to maintain funding of existing programmes, and the latter as part of the general cut-backs in the health services.

Fortunately enough of the necessary research has already been done, - albeit piecemeal, and often self funded or in countries scattered across the globe - to sketch out the scientific bones of the evidence.

The first stage, at a cellular level, examines the impact of microwave energy on T-lymphocytes.

From cellular studies it is obvious that the immune response to mitogenic stimulation - and more particularly to pathogenic incursion - is impaired by electromagnetic fields of many different frequencies and intensities. This evidence is not as useful as one might think, for it leaves us wondering how to explain the mechanism: is it frequency- or wavelength-dependent; how important is the intensity of dosage or its duration; or are there other bio-chemical co-factors confounding the issue?

At the University of Modena Ruggero Cadossi and his colleagues have been studying the effect of low-frequency, low intensity pulsed EM fields (PEMFS) on human lymphocytes in vitro, both normal and leukemic. There is no doubt from the results of these studies that PEMF exposure alone does not induce lymphocytes to enter the cell cycle, except in the presence of lectins. However, PEMF can induce bio-effects of that kind when in the presence of soft x-rays or cyclophosphamide, or when the cells are already mutated as in acute myeloid leukemia. In other words, the EM energy seems to be acting as a promoter rather than an initiator of neoplastic events.

When immune system cells are exposed to microwave energy by contrast, a somewhat different picture emerges. James Lin and his co-worker Ottenbreit at Detroit's Wayne State University Dept. of Electrical Engineering in 1979 began exposing granulocyte precursor cells from mice to microwave irradiation. Granulocytes normally form colonies by mitosis (cell division). With increasing microwave exposure they found that this mitosis in the granulocytes was curtailed. However, just like Szmigielsky they too found that doing the same thing with fibroblast and lymphoblast cultures had no effect.

If these scientists are right, then microwave radiation will affect the granulocytes and lead to myeloid leukemias, whereas ELF radiation is more likely to affect lymphocytes and lead to lymphatic leukemias. There is a good deal of supporting evidence for this notion.

One of the earliest researchers examining the effect of microwaves on organic cells was S.J. Webb. In 1969 he and his colleague A.D. Booth wrote to Nature to report their discovery that organic cells were significantly affected by very specific microwave frequencies. Mays Swicord much later confirmed this in a number of studies: the DNA helix will resonate when irradiated by microwaves, and this in turn sets in train important mitotic changes, as well as the risk of mutation.

Even so, the most important contribution from cellular studies to the question of whether microwave irradiation is a causal co-factor in AIDS may still ultimately be that of Don Justesen, whose 1980 IEEE paper related, as we have seen, how microwaves can weaken the blood brain barrier.

Even at lower RF frequencies there are EM bio-effects on the immune system. Bob Liburdy, a genial Marcello Mastroianni look-alike from Lawrence Berkeley laboratory, as early as 1979 pointed out in the journal Radiation Research that hypothermic (that is, at levels not strong enough to cause heating) radio frequency radiation was capable of modulating T- and B- lymphocytes and cell mediated immune competence.

Finally the 1988 research programme of Dan Lyle at Loma Linda continued his 1983 investigations (when he had first reported how microwaves compromised the immune system ) by examining the effects of ELF radiation. The same pattern revealed itself: there was a significant inhibition of cytotoxicity among lymphocytes exposed to ELF frequencies and then challenged by mitogens. Control cells not exposed to this were upto 40 percent more competent in responding to mitogenic stimulation.

Test tube (in vitro) studies with live cells are inevitably inferior to live animal studies because in the live animal one can see the integrated response of the organism, including any effect of cerebral control and its adaptive reactions. Because of the very fact that these are adaptive effects they often differ substantially from cell research results: one often sees attempts by the organism to re-normalise cellular function - most probably via control from a higher, cerebral level - which is of course absent in simple cell studies.

In 1975 Stanislaw Szmigielsky of Poland's Centre for Radiobiology and Radioprotection at Warsaw began to investigate what might happen to the immune system's response in whole animals following exposure to microwaves. The animals he chose to test were young rabbits, and his MW exposures were at 3 GigaHertz, with a density of 3000uW/cm2 for six hours a day over a period of six and twelve weeks.

After exposing the poor creatures he injected them and a like number of controls with S. aureus Wacherts, an acute staphyloccocal infection. For a few days after this infection the exposed group showed stronger granulocytosis (formation of granulocytes, part of the white blood cells' immune system). By the end of a fortnight however, both the radiated groups (6 and 12 weeks) had very many less granulocytes per cubic millimetre in their peripheral blood than did the controls.

This effect was even more pronounced in the case of marrow reserve granulocytes (see Diag.), while lysozyme activity was also lower.

Other Russian researchers in the 1960s and 1970s described similar effects, among whom were Sokolova who combined MW with soft x-rays. Volkova, and A.M. Serduk. The comparatively low limits subsequently introduced by the Soviet authorities for microwave exposure (a thousand times less than the U.S. permitted exposure limits), were based partly on such cellular studies.

Szmigielski's power densities were quite high at 3000uW/cm2, but nevertheless much lower than the 10,000uW/cm2 PEL set for exposure maxima in the States. But in their 1979 study Shandala and Vinograd used much lower levels of radiation (1-500uW/cm2 at 2.4 GHz, the frequency of most microwave ovens). They were interested in seeing the effect on the phagocytic (cell eating) action of neutrophils in peripheral Blood. That is, they wanted to know if MW radiation even at very low intensities would damage the cell's ability to eat up foreign invaders.

Using guinea pigs they found that the percent of killed microbes increased following exposure to the lower levels of density (1-10 uw/cm2) for thirty days, but decreased at 50 and 500uW/cm2. Surprisingly the most pronounced effects occurred at 1uW/cm2. Moreover there were other immunological changes: the complement titer in blood serum was also affected. Both effects returned to normal within two months of stopping the radiation.

Sokolova's colleagues preferred rats. In 1973 the research team found that with intermittent exposure to a pulsed high frequency EM field the rats' neutrophils decreased their phagocytic activity and their blood plasma bacteriocidal activity also fell. In the West C.F. Mayers in the same year reported depressed cytophagosis following microwave irradiation.

Even at radio frequencies (14.88MHz.) similar effects were revealed by the 1973 research programme of Volkova and Fulakova: in all cases there was an initial increase in phagocytic activity of the neutrophils during the first month, followed by a prolonged period of inhibition which lasted until the end of their ten month exposure period.

Shandala later (in 1979) reported a significant disturbance in the immunological system of rats exposed to 500uW/cm2 for thirty days: both the blast (young) cells and the rosette forming cells in the spleen and thymus were altered. In the same year B. Ivanoff and his team reported effects from microwave radiation immune competence of lymphocytes in Swiss mice.

Actually P. Czerski had already reported in 1975 (in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) that mice exposed intermittently to 500uW/cm2 at 2.96 GHz. for 6 or 12 weeks responded quite differently from unexposed controls after as little as about one week, but that the effect seemed to disappear after three weeks.

Even at much higher Giga-Hertz frequencies there was evidence of microwave effects on whole live animals: in 1980 F. Liddle and his colleagues detected an unmistakable change in antibody response among mice exposed to 9GHz. microwave irradiation.

Immune deficits and electropollution

Against a background of clear evidence both from cellular and live animal studies that microwave energy can have important suppressive effects on mammalian immune systems, and can also weaken the blood brain barrier which protects the brain against bloodstream infections, one must wonder whether there is also any evidence from human epidemiological studies for the same hazardous effects.

After all, we have all now come to live in an electromagnetic ocean, and some of us inevitably live near microwave radiation sources such as military radar installations, airport traffic control radar, strategic over-the-horizon radar, even the new MMDS multipoint microwave distribution systems of TV transmission. Surely if there are immune deficits arising from such sources they would show up from a close investigation of vicinal cases?

During the World War II there had been one inconclusive U.S. Navy report concerning microwave bio-effects following complaints that it induced sterility. A more detailed study was undertaken as a result of high cancer incidence at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow which had been tentatively associated with irradiation by the Soviets at levels much lower than the official permitted exposure limits, but the results were not fully reported.

Among the earliest post war investigations in the U.S. recognising that microwave radiation even at low levels are hazardous was provided by Lester and Moore in 1982 in a hotly contested but incontrovertible study. This examined cancer incidence in 92 U.S. Air Force bases with radar, and compared the results with similar bases without radar. There were statistically significant elevated incidences of cancer near the radar stations which failed to show up near the non-radar camps.

Stanislaw Szmigielski published an even larger study concerning personnel in the the Polish armed forces. The English version of his study "Immunological and cancer-related aspects of exposure to low-level microwave and radio frequency fields" appeared in Andy Marino's epic collection of papers "Modern Bioelectricity" in 1988. In it the incidence of cancers in Polish servicemen with long term exposure to microwaves was upto seven times as high as that of controls.

A later study by Marjorie Speers in 1988 found a thirteen fold increase in cancer among personnel occupationally exposed to EM radiation. She and her colleagues looked at 202 cases of glioma in East Texas, and found that the odds ratio for cancer among workers in the transport, communication, and utilities industries was as high as 2.26, Furthermore that if only electricity or electromagnetic industry workers were considered, the risk of brain cancer was 3.94 times the norm.

Persistent rumours about the high incidence of deaths from brain tumours among scientific staff working at Malvern's Royal Signals and Research Establishment were continually discounted by the British Ministry of Defence. A Sunday Times investigative article claimed that as many as 24 had died in mysterious circumstances, often from what looked like depression and suicide. Another, Computing for Peace Newsletter, counted over thirty. It is difficult to see the factual basis of their denials: an MoD junior Minister , Alan Clark, was shouted down at a public meeting over a proposed new radar station in Pembroke Wales when he confirmed that not only had the MoD done no research whatsoever into EM bio-effects during the last decade, but moreover had no intention of doing so in the future.

Not surprisingly he could advance no reasoned argument and was left simply condemning "alarmist statements". One of his colleagues at the meeting was heard to say "These days I wonder who is the enemy anyway". That the British military have such a cavalier attitude to the folk they are supposed to be defending (not to mention their own dead scientists) is of course a totally untenable position.

What should urgently be investigated is, how low is a safe level of irradiation? A recent Chinese joint study from three Universities again covering large numbers of subjects - some 1270 in fact - gives even graver cause for concern. It was an epidemiological study with a difference: it included tests of each subject's phagocytosis index, - the index of how strong their immune system was as objectively measured through their cells. The subjects were grouped into students and adult personnel living near radar stations. Their phagocytosis index showed a distinct correlation between length or intensity of exposure to microwaves and the competence of their immune system to ingest foreign pathogens.

The concern was that when the exposure levels were actually measured, they were found to have bio-effects as a result of exposure levels as low as 14uW/cm2. Only the abridged version of their report is available in English as I write, but one exercise the MoD could and should immediately carry out is a large scale replication of that study. After all, they are supposed to be defending our realm.

Which brings us back to the cause and healing of AIDS. That chronic exposure to microwave energy of low intensity might be responsible for AIDS is a difficult position to hold, simply because of the dearth of scientific enquiry in that direction, and the consequent lack of hard evidence. Is there any bedrock of fact, apart from those recited above, with which we might begin. As often seems to happen in bio-electromagnetics, lack of a proven biological mechanism is an inhibiting restraint.

However one can begin with some physical measurements to set the scale of things. The HIV capsomere diameter is measured at about 25 nanometres, exceptionally small as viruses go. By contrast the length of an uncoiled DNA macromolecule with its 1.5 x 10 8 nucleotides is about 5 cm. (about 3.4 nm for each completed turn of its helix covering ten bases: 3.4 x 10 9 divided by 23 chromosomes equals 1.48 x 10 8 nucleotides).

If there is any resonance effect to be found say between microwaves and DNA or the HIV virus, then these are the sort of numbers which will reveal them mathematically: the HIV viral diameter for example would only resonate at a frequency of 2.5 x 10 8, which is an ionising frequency , and cannot be generated by the brain. DNA would also presumably resonate or be vibrated catastrophically at a frequency of about 60 GHz., a figure which accords with the results obtained by Webb and Booth so many decades ago.

It is possible that HIV is an accidental, a by-product of these resonances, and may be a perfectly harmless one at that. Excluding HIV as a causative or even as a co-factor of AIDS and in the presumption - and it is only a presumption - that we are dealing with a) neonatal damage to the cortical areas controlling the immune function, and that b) these are located adjacent to the central longitudinal fissure, that c) there is slow but chronic impairment of the immune signals from the brain, and that d) the signals are also being fogged by fields from the magnetised haem, what steps might we possibly take to restore health to AIDS patients?

First steps towards healing AIDS patients

One first step might be to demagnetise the haem in an attempt to improve the signal to noise ratio of the immune signal. Dr Logan's work is clearly bearing fruit iin that regard, and he will probably win against all establishment opposition, because patients are prepared to pay the $50,000 dollars he asks for the operation, which takes four hours and has to be done in intensive care conditions in case there are cardiac or other temperature-related complications.

Haemoirradiation might also accomplish such a task, since it seemed to do the trick in the nineteen thirties when the "Knott Technik" cured many atypical pneumonias and herpes-related disorders. Herpes simplex is currently regarded as incurable, though most sufferers do not get attacks very often, most frequently because their immune systems have been depressed by psychological factors.

A third promising avenue was being pursued by Dr. Elizabeth Marsh who tried to conduct clinical placebo-controlled double-blind trials on sero-positive patients of a substance developed over the last thirty years called Cancell CH6. Her efforts were rewarded by a six month jail sentence (see the story of Mrs Marsh elsewhere in this site).

Though in itself Cancell is a formulation, the mode of its action is electronic, in that it aims to change the charge structure within a cell, on the basis that the ADP-ATP cycle is charge dependent, and cancer cells are cells where the energy transfer process has gone awry. The concept is based on the work of Professor William Koch of Wayne State University in the 1920s and Otto Warburg (a Nobel Prizewinner) in the 1950s: just as putting electrical voltage energy into a water molecule has the effect of splitting the H and the O atoms (electrolysis) so putting electron energy into a cell affects the nature of the voltage gradient (about 0.18 Volt) across the mitochondrial membrane essential for the ADP-ATP cycle to function properly.

In such conditions the over-energised cell moves to a new steady state in which the glycolysis valve is closed, and ultimately the rate of glucose metabolism stabilizes at too high a level. Adding the Cancell CH6 chemical mimics the respiratory enzymes which then block energy flow through the system and shunt it directly to oxygen (the terminal acceptor) and out of the system.

Since EM fields represent positively-charged ions in free space, any biological system within such fields is likely in time to suffer the same fate as cancers induced by other free radical particles, e.g. cigarette smoke particles, ionised radiative particles etc. Such free radicals are the cause of cancer, it is obvious, and only the way they are introduced to the organism varies.

The promoters of Cancell believe that the AIDS virus is simply protein formed as the result of excessive collage. Applying Cancell may therefore reduce the excess and eliminate the virus.

This is quite an interesting notion, but in my view explains how HIV is formed (and indeed how sero-reversions might take place) rather than proves any causal relationship between it and AIDS.

Another way of discharging the excess electrical charge within the haem is to degauss the body entirely: this has the benefit of not being temperature-dependent, and is the direction of research in my own small laboratory. All such research directions accept that we are dealing not with a virus but an artificial interference with the basic electromagnetics of the organism.

The neonatal damage to the great pyramidal cells however is a task of infinitely greater difficulty. There is a secondary route between these cells via the thalamus, but this may not be able to emit signals of sufficient strength, lacking not only the optimal polar diagram afforded by the shape of the corpus callosum itself but also the excellent waveguide afforded by the third ventricles below it. Moreover the thalamic pathways would not be able to cope as a signal generator for long since they are not as hardened by myelin as is the corpus callosum.

The brain and body is incredibly adaptive. Karl Lashley was able to show in the 1930s that one part of the cortex is capable of taking over the functions lost in another part through injury or surgery. But the immune signals must permeate throughout the lymphatic system, and certainly other parts of the brain may not be able to generate a signal of the required intensity. Whilst local cells will all have within their genome the relevant signal, again the power density necessary will not be stronger than an ultraweak level. So it may be necessary to introduce an amplifying system of some sort to broadcast the immune signal more powerfully and thus instruct the lymphocytes in the unique call sign with which they can compare foreign cells.

This is not too difficult actually: we can record GHz. signals quite accurately and re-amplify them using today's technology, so why not a system which does this for organic signals?. Obviously it will help if the patient is kept in an environment with no other EM interference to complicate matters. (It is curious how few AIDS cases there are in places where man-made high frequency signals are few).

Finally one must permit the brain to do the healing: simply applying horrendous and purely palliative stereochemical methods which suppress the immune system entirely, or staying with dietary regimes which avoid challenging the immune defences will only lead to false and short lived hopes, and are a snare and a delusion.

So to strengthen the brain's emissions means providing good oxygen transport, - the brain takes no less than 40 percent of the oxygen in the blood to power its transmissions - , a good supply of raw food and unchemicalised nutrients should form part of the treatment. And reassuring affection from dear ones for good psychological measure should all form part of the treatment.

Other assistance can be culled from some of the alternative medical practices. Conventional techniques will be completely ineffective since they do not recognise the essential electromagnetic nature of man as an organism., but complementary therapists do , and what is more they are accustomed to being the physician of last resort.

Alternative approaches to AIDS

Reflexology is an interesting technique because it stimulates in reverse the cortical areas at the top of the central longitudinal fissure, where the sensory and motor control areas for the feet are to be found. Because of the nature of the associating dendrites of the pyramidal cells, these effects are likely to stimulate pyramidal cells even further down the fissure, and 'massage' the damaged pyramidal cells of the genitalia and the immune system.

In case this seems totally zany, please remember that the Kaposi's sarcoma seen in AIDS patients differs from classical Kaposi's in that its purpuric blemishes appear on the lower legs and feet rather than on the head and upper limbs. This is a clue that the two areas of the cortex, - the immune and the feet and lower limbs - are both being affected by adjacent cortical damage. Between the two lie the sensory and motor areas of the genitalia, and it would not be surprising to me if the frantic efforts of mutual self-stimulation in those early San Francisco 'bathhouses' were also part of an unconscious attempt to re-stimulate subsiding immune competence.

At this point then a detailed knowledge of reflexology might help to re-stimulate those areas of the cerebral cortex previously in control of the immune system.

A second complementary practice which may benefit healing these cortical areas is homeopathy.

How might a homeopathic practitioner tackle the problem of curing AIDS? The scenario which follows is completely hypothetical, and is intended simply to offer a new way of looking at the problem rather than a hypothesis of its solution.

There is evidence , albeit flimsy, that AIDS has arisen through damage to an cortical immune centre deep in the middle of the brain - too deep for surgery, which in any case is not of any use since reconstruction, not excision is required.To reactivate and restore it to health means regrowing the great pyramidal cells in that part of the cortex.

Yet the received opinion in biology is that central nervous system cells do not regenerate. On the other hand, one might, with Becker, argue that "true regeneration is the appearance at the site of injury of a mass of primitive presumably totipotent cells called the blastema. After reaching a critical size this cellular mass begins to grow in length and to re-differentiate to produce the multicellular multitissue complex missing structure".

We also know that injury currents are required and that these have to have negative polarity. Perhaps the difficulty of inducing negative polarity in CNS tissues is all that holds us back from regenerating cells in the central nervous system too?

As Becker puts it: "Intrinsic electromagnetic energy inherent in the nervous system of the body is therefore the factor that exerts the major controlling influence over growth processes in general. The nerves, acting in concert with some electrical factor of the epidermis, produce the specific sequence of electrical potential changes that cause limb regenerative growth. In animals not normally capable of regeneration this specific sequence of electrical changes is absent. However, it can be simulated by artificial means, resulting in blastema formation and major regenerative growth, even in mammals".

Of course Becker was referring not to CNS but to peripheral nerves. So how do we go about such an impossible task? Combining reflexology with non-pathogenic mitogenic stimulation might well excite the pyramidal cells nearest the damaged immune centres of the inner cortex, but this by itself would not be enough. The homeopathist would also need a method of creating new cells there, however primitive, which might then re-differentiate sufficiently to act as charge carriers with a mechanism capable of altering their polarity under the influence of the thalamus.

He might start by seeking out a suitable toxin.

The Homeopathic approach to AIDS

Far away in Micronesia, nearly four thousand miles from Honolulu, lies Guam, which once served as the new headquarters of the Pacific command from 1944. Had not the war taken place medical scientists might never have stumbled upon an obscure malady there which attacks the native Chamorro people of Guam, and which came to be known as "The Rosetta stone of neurology".

This obscure malady (as the New Yorker recently called it), which in the States has a very low incidence - about two cases in 100,000 people - , was discovered in epidemic proportions in Guam, particularly in a village called Umatac on its southwest shore. Umatac in 1952 boasted a population of just 601 souls, but a third to one quarter of all deaths there were due to the obscure malady, which was called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS for short.

ALS is characterized by "rigid muscles, a stiff gait, a marked stoop, slowed speech, poor memory, an expressionless masklike face, and trembling "pill-rolling" hands. A bit like Alzheimer's really. Its more immediately striking characteristics are a wasting of the leg muscles - in beasts the hind limbs. At a neurological level the long nerve fibres emanating from the spinal cord have atrophied and the brain has manifested a neurological disorder entirely new to medical science: it is progressive, incurable, and leaves the brain not only shrivelled to three quarters of its mass, but as hollow as a seeded canteloupe melon. This shrinkage and loss originates from the disappearance of countless nerve cells, leaving behind only neurofibrillary tangles in the cortex and the hippocampus, and in the substantia nigra.

The enigma for investigating researchers was, what had caused this epidemic in such a small population? In the years following its discovery Guam own special disorder - representing an unique geographic isolate that neuroscientists delight to find -became the object of "such a legendary allure that one eminent scientist after another has made the journey there to try to pull the sword out of the stone", to quote Terence Monmaney's detailed and thorough research article.

During two decades more than 250 papers addressing the problem appeared in the scientific literature. Many of them centred on one possibility, since microbial incursion, genetic defect, nervous system pathogens, and transmitted viral infection all failed to explain it. But the starch of the cycad seed, which the natives used to grind into a coarse flour known as Fadang and eat with their tortillas when times were hard offered a possible explanation:

"Everyone knows of the toxic properties of the plant", Marjorie Grant Whiting told a scientific conference on the cycad hypothesis of ALS in 1962. "Dogs and chickens reputedly die if they drink the wash water. Preparation is laborious. Directions vary but soaking the freshly picked seeds is required for several days with frequent changes of water. During the process of opening the seeds and cutting them up some persons become dizzy and have to leave their work for a time to recover. Children are not allowed to participate in this stage of the processing. Only small amounts are given to children because many become ill when they first eat a dish made with cycad starch".

The cycad is one of the most ancient seed plants on earth, from the Mesozoic Era 70 million years ago, when dinosaurs not man walked the earth. Its lemon-sized seeds are naked of fruit, and they cluster round the base of its extremely slow-growing palm fronds. It can grow as little as a quarter of an inch a year. for centuries. A friend of mine who is a landscape gardener on Madeira showed me his own garden's pride and joy: it was a cycad, so strong that it is capable of resisting fire, drought, and pests.

In fact bugs won't go near it. The Guam natives however apply its juice to wounds, and it is used by them for treating skin ulcers, warts, boils, diseased hair, colic, diarrhoea, constipation, snake bite, headache, neuralgia, and even sexual apathy. Cattle grazing on the plant's shoots get a hind limb paralysis and gastrointestinal illness, and often become addicted to the cycad's deadly leaves, showing other cattle where to find it.

"A bird, goat, sheep, hog, or cat that drinks from the first water in which Federico (the old name for cycad seeds) has been soaked is apt to die", said Luis de Ybanez y Garcia the Governor of Guam in 1871."This does not happen with the second; much less the third, which can be consumed without danger". In Western Australia in 1894 a local newspaper reported that a few days after eating Zamia seeds (Zamia is a local genus of Cycad known also as coontie) a child became paralysed from the waist down. This was the only reported case of acute cycad-induced human paralysis.

In New Guinea, where kuru was prevalent perhaps as a result of eating the recently dead brains of ancestors, an outbreak of ALS was also reported. However the cycad hypothesis fell from favour when attempts to reproduce its effects by ingestion of cycad-derived chemicals failed. Alternative ideas like the effects of high aluminium oxide levels in the local blood red soils and ensuing water supply gained preference. Alzheimers' has been associated with aluminium levels in the brain.

Guam today is a tourist town, with its heavily booked Hilton and all the paraphernalia of civilisation. The incidence of ALS has also declined. But recently the cycad hypothesis has re-emerged: Peter Spencer from Oregon Health Science University at Portland has uncovered a cycad-derived amino acid (BMAA) which re-excites central nervous tissue, swelling the neurones particularly of the motor cortex. Recently the National Institute on Aging approved a $5 million dollar grant to re-establish a research station on Guam and to reprobe the ALS enigma and its associated dementia, because of their similarity to Alzheimers' and Parkinson's disease.

What the homeopathic practitioner will find interesting in the cycad story is that it offers an example of "similia similibus curentur" - similar substances will cure similar disorders. That it affects the neurones of the cortex probably nearest to the central longitudinal fissure, creates or excites neurones to greater activity are for him hopeful signs that if massively diluted the same solute may cure a disorder with similar symptoms. AIDS dementia and ALS appear similar to each other in the final stages.

The homeopath might start by diluting the cycad seed wash with pure water to the point of the Avogadro number ( some 10 to the twentythird power), a process of 23 repeated ten percent dilutions and intervening succussions (shaking the test tube) so that technically not a single molecule of the original liquor remained in the test tube. He would also perhaps try to keep the tube shielded from EM energy of any kind by wrapping it in tinfoil.

But the water prepared in this way would still "remember" the particular pattern of H-bonds connecting each molecule, just like an electromagnetic tape remembers a music recording. This water would then be drunk by the patient, in the hope that the relevant neurones in the cortex would be stimulated sufficiently to regenerate through repeated applications of the treated water. If no result obtained, the dilute might be strengthened by only diluting it say 22 times, and by experiment gradually the correct dosage might be established.

Whether such a technique, or such a toxin, will prove effective I have no idea, for my purpose was simply to offer an example of how complementary and conventional medicine might work hand in hand for the health of our species.

That most adaptive of organs, our brain, is capable, I suspect, of regenerating even the pyramidal cells of the central nervous system given time, or re-creating a glial alternative, despite orthodox views to the contrary.

We are indeed approaching a cross-roads in the history of our species, at the very moment when it appeared we had achieved an almost complete control of our environment, - even to the extent of voyaging far out into empty interplanetary space. But Hubris is now, it seems, following Nemesis just as much as it ever did, and the new technologies in which we have put so much faith are bringing us a devastating destruction. Whether there is time to right it I do not know. I would like to think that we can once again make our planet whole and healthy again, and with it, ourselves.