Hungarian Language Course
Magyar KaleidoVox -
Hungarian as a foreign language. A wide variety of (free) on-line and
downloadable materials. a large number of innovative solutions, exercise
types. Grammar, vocabulary, functional exercises, language games, tests.
Supplementary material to the textbook.
member of the Ugric branch of
the Finno-Ugric languages.
languages most closely related to Hungarian are Vogul and Ostyak, spoken
near the Ob’ River in westernmost Siberia.
- Hungarian has many different cases (esetek). Most common are the
Nominative case, Accusative case, Dative case; some express location
(inside: Inessive case, on the surface: Superessive case, nearby:
Adessive case); some express placement (from inside: Elative case,
from the surface: Delative case, from nearby: Ablative case, to
inside: Illative case, to the surface: Sublative case, to nearby:
Allative case); some express other relations (Terminative case, Essive-formal
case, Instrumental-comitative case, Translative case, Causal-final
case). There are further cases of restricted use (Locative case,
Essive-modal case, Distributive case, Distributive-temporal case,
- Hungarian vocabulary contains many words borrowed from various
Turkic languages, as well as a few words borrowed from the Turkish
language, and several hundred loans from German and Slavic languages
but has retained its Ugric originality.
- Hungarian is written using a variant of the Latin alphabet.
Hungarian has a phonemic orthography. In addition to the standard
letters of the Latin alphabet, Hungarian uses several additional
letters. These include letters with acute accents (á,é,í,ó,ú) which
represent long vowels, the diaereses ö and ü and their long
counterparts ő (unicode Ő and ő) and ű (unicode Ű and ű). Sometimes ô
or ő is used for ő and ű for ű due to the limitations of the Latin-1 /
ISO-8859-1 codepage. Hungarian can be properly represented with the
Latin-2 / ISO-8859-2 codepage, but this codepage is not always
available. (Hungarian is the only language using the ő and ű codes.)
Of course Unicode includes the glyphs, and they therefore can be used
on the internet.
- Hungarian distinguishes between long and short vowels, where the
long vowels are written with accents, and between long consonants and
short consonants, where the long consonants are written double. The
digraphs, when doubled, become trigraphs: <sz>+<sz>=<ssz>. Usually a
trigraph is a double digraph, but there are a few exceptions:
tizennyolc "eighteen" is tizen + nyolc. There are doubling minimal
pairs: tizenegyedik (eleventh) vs. tizennegyedik (fourteenth).