Welcome to the

Indian Philosophy Page!

Indian Philosophy is ancient. It has a wide variety of schools and teachers, from atheistic materialists to mystical devotees, from stern logicians to speculative metaphysicians. The Sanskrit word darshana (you can see it in the Devanagari script above) means view or viewpoint. It is the normal Sanskrit word for what in English we call philosophy.

Indian philosophy has an aim: liberation, freedom from deluded views, mental illusions and delusions, confused ideal, fuddled thinking. It is a deep spiritual therapy.

Throughout history Indian philosophers of different schools and traditions have fought vigorously for their own viewpoint and against opposing views. From the earliest times debate and verbal combat have been an integral part of Indian philosophical life.

This page offers an introduction to one part of the Indian philosophical tradition. Traditionally a distinction is made between Astika and Nastika traditions, Astika schools accept the authority of the Vedas, Nastika schools do not accept their authority. This page is concerned mainly with some Viewpoints in the Astika tradition, but also offers links through which readers can explore Buddhist and Jain traditions..


  1. Mapping Indian Philosophy
  2. Indian Philosophy Before the Greeks
  3. The Upanishads
  4. The Sage as Teacher
  5. The Search for the Self
  6. Yajnavalkya and Maitreyi
  7. Prajapati teaches the King of Gods and the Lord of Demons
  8. Gargya Balaki and Ajatashatru
  9. maaNDukya upanishad - the Phenomenography of Consciousness.
  10. Kena Upanishad - the nature of Brahman.
  11. Doctrine of the Logic School
  12. Max Müller's summary of Vaisheshika Doctrine
  13. Vedanta
  14. The Images in Vidyaranya's Panchadashi: by Kirsty Livingston.
  15. The City of Justice
  16. Verbal Combat in the Brahmana
  17. Formal Debate in the Early Upanisads: by Philip Groom.
  18. A History of the Carvaka Tradition: by Phil Singh.
  19. The saamkhya viewpoint.
  20. from the Kramadiipikaa - adapted excerpts from Max Müller's version of an important commentary on the Tattvasamasa, a basic Samkhya text.
  21. The Shy Maiden's dance - this is a PDF file, much improved from the earlier version of the diagram. Please use the Browser's "Back" button to return.
  22. How to drink a cup of coffee - Samkhya style: a PDF file illustrating one way of interpreting the Samkhya account of our cognitive equipment. Use Browser's "Back" button to return.
  23. Three analyses of Causality.
  24. The analysis of perceptual error.
  25. Some useful links:

    Indian History and Culture:

    1. Jambudvipa

    2. History of India

    3. Itihaas

    4. Paul Halsall's Indian History Sourcebook

    Indian Philosophy:

    1. Philosophy Research Base: Indian Philosophy.

    2. Xrefer on Indian Philosophy

    3. Advaita Vedanta Page

    4. Sri Vaishnavism and Vishishtadvaita Vedanta.

    5. International Forum for Neo-Vedantins.

    6. Dvaita Home Page and Dvaita Text Resources.

    7. Madhva Philosophy.

    8. The Vedanta Academy founded by Swami Parthasarathi.


    1. Sanatana Dharma Page

    2. Dharma Central.

    3. Links to Shaivam Home Page and its many links.

    4. Some Major Monasteries of Sri Shankaracarya Lineage

    5. The monasteries of the Ramakrishna Order.

    6. The Divine Life Society.

    7. The Self-Realisation Fellowship.


    1. Sparshabhumi: Buddhist and Indological Resources.

    2. Buddhist Text resources.

    3. Access to Insight: Theravadin and scriptural texts.

    4. Buddhist sacred texts from the Internet Sacred texts Archive.

    5. Basic Teachings of the Consciousness-only School (Yogacara).

    6. Madhyamaka

    7. Arya Buddhist: Buddha Dharma in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan.

    8. Tibetan Buddhism

    9. H.H.Penor Rimpoche, and the Palyul lineage of the Nyingma tradition.

    10. Lama Jampa Thaye, (a former colleague of your Webservant), and the Dechen Community.

    11. Dhammakaya Buddhist Meditation Institute, Thailand..

    12. International Meditation Centre, Kanduboda, Sri Lanka.

    13. The Samatha Trust offers training in samatha meditation.

    14. Meditation centres offering teaching in Burmese tradition. This site offers many useful texts.

    15. Vipassana online course.

    16. Lectures on Insight Meditation by Venerable Chanmyay Sayadaw are available online.

    17. Some Buddhist Monastic Links


    1. Jainworld

    2. Jainism - an astonishingly rich collection of resources and links.

    3. Jain sacred texts from the Internet Sacred Text Archive

    4. Jain Heritage pages.

    5. Jainsamaj

    6. Jain Net

BOOKS - a selection of books on Indian Philosophy, many at specially low prices, available in association with Amazon.com and Amazon.co.uk

Indian Philosophy Students at MMU, please view your Course Details HERE.

Visitors to this page since February 10th 1997 CE


The photograph on this page was taken and
kindly loaned by Krishnan and Jette Iyer.

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